Miss World

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For other uses, see Miss World (disambiguation).
Miss World
Miss World logo.svg
Logo of the Miss World event
Formation 1951
Type Beauty pageant
Headquarters London
Location
Official language English
President Julia Morley
Key people Eric Morley
Website Official website

The Miss World pageant is the oldest surviving major international beauty pageant. It was created in the United Kingdom by Eric Morley in 1951.[1][2] Since his death in 2000, Morley's wife, Julia Morley, co-chairs the pageant.[3][4] Alongside its rivals Miss Universe and Miss Earth, this pageant is one of the most publicised beauty contests in the world.[5][6][7]

The winner spends a year travelling to represent the Miss World Organisation and its various causes.

The current Miss World is Megan Young of the Philippines who was crowned on September 28, 2013 in Bali, Indonesia.[8][9] Traditionally, Miss World lives in London during her reign.

Miss World is part of the Big Four international beauty pageants.[10]

History[edit]

Miss World started as the Festival Bikini Contest, in honour of the recently introduced swimwear of the time, but was called "Miss World" by the media. It was originally planned as a one-off event. Upon learning about the upcoming Miss Universe pageant, Morley decided to make the pageant an annual event.[11][12]

Opposition to the wearing of bikinis led to their replacement with more modest swimwear after the first contest. The first Miss World Pageant event in 1951 was the first and the last event which crowned the winner in a bikini. In Miss World 2013 all participants will use one piece of swimsuit plus traditional sarong from the belly and below as a compromise with local culture.[13]

In 1959, the BBC started broadcasting the competition. The pageant's popularity grew with the advent of television. During the 1960s and 1970s, Miss World would be among the most watched programmes of the year on British television.[14] However, in 1970, the Miss World contest in London was disrupted by women's liberation protesters armed with flour bombs, stink bombs, and water pistols.[15]

In the 1980s, the pageant repositioned itself with the slogan Beauty With a Purpose, with added tests of intelligence and personality.[16] However, in the 1980s, the competition became seen as old-fashioned and politically incorrect in its native Britain, and despite its global appeal, stopped showing on British television until Channel 5 aired it from 1998-2000,[17][18] then it shifted between lesser-known satellite channels, and is now webcast only and little-known in Britain.

21st century[edit]

Eric Morley died as the pageant entered the new century. His wife, Julia, succeeded as chairwoman of the Miss World Organization.[19]

The century saw its first black African winner, Agbani Darego of Nigeria, in 2001. As part of its marketing strategy, Miss World came up with a "Vote For Me" television special during that edition, featuring the delegates behind the scenes and on the beach, and allowing viewers to either phone in or vote online for their favourites. It also sells its Talent, Beach Beauty and Sports events as television specials to broadcasters.[20]

In 2002 the pageant was slated for choosing Abuja, the capital city of Nigeria to host its final. This choice was controversial, as a northern Nigerian woman, Amina Lawal, was awaiting death by stoning for adultery under Sharia law there, but Miss World chose to use the publicity surrounding its presence to bring greater global awareness and action to Amina's plight (see Controversies section).[21][22]

Miss World Organisation[edit]

Ivian Sarcos in a school in Mumbai, India

The Miss World Organisation owns and manages the annual Miss World Finals, a competition that has grown into one of the world’s biggest.[23] Since its launch in 1951, the Miss World Organization has raised more than £250 million for children’s charities.[24] Miss World is franchised in more than 100 countries.[25][26] Miss World, Limited is a privately held firm, and thus figures for its earnings, expenses and charitable contributions are not publicly available.

Miss World becomes popular among the viewing public, which warrants the continuity of the pageant not only as a pageant itself but more importantly, an institution for humanitarian causes.[27] Aside from raising millions of pounds for charities around the globe under the banner of its "Beauty with a Purpose" program, Miss World is also credited with directly influencing a dramatic increase in tourism in Sanya, China, host city of the Miss World finals in 2003, 2004, 2005, 2007, and 2010.[28]

The pageant[edit]

In the year preceding the global finals, each delegate must win her national title or a specially designated Miss World national preliminary. Miss World's national preliminaries are conducted by their licence-holders, who hold the franchise to use the "Miss World" name in their country. The annual final is typically a month long event, with several preliminary galas, dinners, balls and activities, culminating in a globally telecast final show in which the field is narrowed to between 15–20 delegates.

Awards[edit]

  • Venezuela has won the Miss Photogenic award four times (1984, 1990, 1995, 1996).
  • Four Miss World winners were awarded Miss Photogenic: Astrid Carolina Herrera (Venezuela, 1984), Aishwarya Rai (India, 1994), Jacqueline Aguilera (Venezuela, 1995) and Diana Hayden (India, 1997).
  • One Miss World winner was awarded Best World Dress Designer (Spectacular Evening Wear) : Azra Akin (Turkey, 2002).
  • Two Miss World winner were awarded Miss World Continental Groups Northern Europe by SMS voting : Unnur Birna Vilhjálmsdóttir (Iceland, 2005), Taťána Kuchařová (Czech Republic,2006).

Challenge Events (Formerly known as Fast track awards)[edit]

Since 2003 Miss World pageant also features Fast Track events during the preliminary round. The winners of Fast Track events are automatically qualified to enter the final round.

Since 2011 winners of the challenge events are no longer automatically qualified to the final round. Instead, winners and finalists of these events will be awarded bonus points to their preliminary scores. Delegates with the highest points (bonus of challenge events included) are qualified to the final round.

Challenge (Fast Track) events which have been used since 2003 are:

Winners[edit]

Reign Records[edit]

  • Longest Completed Reign
    • Sweden Kerstin Håkansson reigns for 1 year, 3 months, 16 days or (1 year, 108 days). She was crowned on July 29, 1951 and crowned her successor on November 14, 1952.
    • Philippines Megan Young reigns for 1 year, 2 months, 16 days or (1 year, 77 days). She was crowned September 28, 2013 and WILL crown her successor on Dec. 14, 2014.
    • Czech Republic Taťána Kuchařová reigns for 1 year, 2 months, 2 days or (1 year, 62 days). She was crowned on September 30, 2006 and crowned her successor on Dec. 1, 2007.
  • Shortest Completed Reign
    • Venezuela Ivian Sarcos reigns for 9 months, 12 days or (285 days). She was crowned on November 6, 2011 and crowned her successor on August 18, 2012.
    • Iceland Unnur Vilhjálmsdóttir reigns for 9 months, 20 days or (294 days). She was crowned on December 10, 2005 and crowned her successor on September 30, 2006.
  • Shortest Reign: their first runner-ups were crowned later on
    • United Kingdom Helen Morgan reigns for (4 days). She was crowned on November 22, 1974. due to dethronement.
    • Germany Gabriella Brum reigns for (18hours) on November 27, 1980. due to resignation

Gap Records[edit]

Age Records[edit]

  • Oldest Winners
    • Poland Aneta Kręglicka, oldest winner at the age of 24 years 244 days when she was crowned on November 22, 1989.
    • India Diana Hayden, second oldest winner at the age of 24 years 205 days when she was crowned on November 22, 1997.
  • Youngest Winners
    • Puerto Rico Wilnelia Merced, youngest winner at the age of 18 years 39 days when she was crowned on November 20, 1975. (age is verified)
    • Jamaica Lisa Hanna, second youngest winner at the age of 18 years 99 days when she was crowned on November 27, 1993.
    • Egypt Antigone Costanda, born-circa 1935, crowned - Oct. 18, 1954 (she is 18 but exact birth date is unverified)
    • Austria Eva Rueber-Staier, born-circa 1952, crowned - November 27, 1969 (she is 18 but exact birth date is unverified)

Delegate Records[edit]

  • 1952: year with the least number of delegates with 11 to which the eventual winner was Sweden May Louise Flodin on November 14.
  • 2013: year with the most number of delegates with 127 to which the eventual winner was Philippines Megan Young on September 28.

Other[edit]

  • Miss World remains the only one of the major international pageants with two winners resigned or dethroned: Miss World replaced Helen Morgan in 1974 and Gabriela Brum in 1980.

Locations[edit]

For the full list of venues, see List of Miss World titleholders.

  • Outside United Kingdom, South Africa has hosted the most Miss World pageants, with seven. The various locations were:
  • Apart from the United Kingdom and South Africa, the other states to host the pageant more than once are:

Titleholders[edit]

For the full list of titleholders, see List of Miss World titleholders.
Year Country/Territory Miss World National Title Location Number of Entrants
2014 TBA TBA TBA London, United Kingdom 129
2013  Philippines Megan Young Miss World Philippines Nusa Dua, Indonesia 127
2012  China PR Yu Wenxia Miss China World Ordos, China PR 116
2011  Venezuela Ivian Sarcos Miss Venezuela World London, United Kingdom 113
2010  United States Alexandria Mills Miss World United States Sanya, China PR 115
2009  Gibraltar Kaiane Aldorino Miss Gibraltar Johannesburg, South Africa 112
2008  Russia Ksenia Sukhinova Miss Russia Johannesburg, South Africa 109
2007  China PR Zhang Zilin Miss China World Sanya, China PR 106
2006  Czech Republic Taťána Kuchařová Miss Czech Republic Warsaw, Poland 104
2005  Iceland Unnur Vilhjálmsdóttir Miss Iceland Sanya, China PR 102
2004  Peru María Julia Mantilla Miss Peru Sanya, China PR 107
2003  Ireland Rosanna Davison Miss Ireland Sanya, China PR 106
2002  Turkey Azra Akın Miss Turkey London, United Kingdom 88
2001  Nigeria Agbani Darego Most Beautiful Girl in Nigeria Sun City, South Africa 93
2000  India Priyanka Chopra Femina Miss India London, United Kingdom 93

Winners gallery[edit]

By number of wins[edit]

Winners of Miss World by country
Country/Territory Titles Winning Years
 Venezuela 6 1955, 1981, 1984, 1991, 1995, 2011
 India 5 1966, 1994, 1997, 1999, 2000
 United Kingdom 4 1961, 1964, 1965, 1974 (Resigned), 1983
 United States 3 1973, 1990, 2010
 Iceland 1985, 1988, 2005
 Jamaica 1963, 1976, 1993
 Sweden 1951, 1952, 1977
 China PR 2 2007, 2012
 Russia 1992, 2008
 Peru 1967, 2004
 Argentina 1960, 1978
 South Africa 1958, 1974 (Successor)
 Australia 1968, 1972
 Netherlands 1959, 1962
 Austria 1969, 1987
 Philippines 1 2013
 Gibraltar 2009
 Czech Republic 2006
 Ireland 2003
 Turkey 2002
 Nigeria 2001
 Israel 1998
 Greece 1996
 Poland 1989
 Trinidad & Tobago 1986
 Dominican Republic 1982
 Guam 1980 (Successor)
 Bermuda 1979
 Puerto Rico 1975
 Brazil 1971
 Grenada 1970
 Finland 1957
 Germany 1956, 1980 (Resigned)
 Egypt 1954
 France 1953

Top 20 countries by tally[edit]

For the full details, see Full Country Rankings for Miss World.
Rank Country/Territory Miss World 1st Runner-Up 2nd Runner-Up 3rd Runner-Up 4th Runner-Up 5th Runner-Up 6th Runner-Up Semifinalists Total
1  Venezuela 6 2 4 2 2 0 1 14 30
2  United Kingdom 5 6 4 3 3 1 1 14 37
3  India 5 1 0 2 1 0 2 15 24
4  United States 3 5 2 0 6 2 1 25 44
5  Sweden 3 1 0 2 2 2 0 10 20
6  Jamaica 3 0 3 1 2 0 0 14 23
7  Iceland 3 0 1 0 1 0 0 2 7
8  South Africa 2 4 6 1 2 0 0 17 32
9  Australia 2 2 4 2 0 0 0 14 24
10  Argentina 2 2 0 0 0 1 0 7 12
11  Germany 2 1 3 1 1 0 0 10 18
12  Peru 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 3 7
13  Netherlands 2 1 0 1 1 0 0 9 14
14  Austria 2 0 1 2 0 0 1 9 15
15  China PR 2 0 1 0 3 0 0 1 7
16  Russia 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 7
17  France 1 3 2 3 0 2 1 14 24
18  Finland 1 2 1 1 1 0 0 11 17
19  Philippines 1 2 1 0 3 0 0 8 15
20  Israel 1 1 6 3 0 1 1 11 24

Number of titles by continental region[edit]

Continent Titles Countries/Territories
Europe 25 United Kingdom* (5), Iceland and Sweden (3), Austria, Germany*, Netherlands and Russia (2), Czech Republic, Finland, France, Gibraltar, Greece, Ireland, and Poland (1)
Americas 15 Venezuela (6), United States (3), Argentina and Peru (2), Bermuda and Brazil (1)
Asia 10 India (5), China (2) Israel, the Philippines, and Turkey (1)
Oceania 3 Australia (2), Guam* (1)
Caribbean 7 Jamaica (3), Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Grenada, and Trinidad & Tobago (1)
Africa 4 South Africa* (2), Egypt and Nigeria (1)

Continental queens of beauty[edit]

The following is a list of Continental Queens of Beauty winners since 2004.

Year Africa Americas Asia & Oceania Caribbean Europe
2013  Ghana
Naa Okailey Shooter
 Brazil
Sancler Frantz
 Jamaica
Gina Hargitay
 France
Marine Lorphelin
2012  South Sudan
Atong Demach
 Brazil
Mariana Notarangelo
 China PR
Yu Wenxia
 Jamaica
Deanna Robins
 Wales
Sophie Elizabeth Moulds
2011  South Africa
Bokang Montjane
 Venezuela
Ivian Sarcos
 Philippines
Gwendoline Ruais
 Puerto Rico
Amanda Vilanova
 England
Alize Lily Mounter
2010  Botswana
Emma Wareus
 United States
Alexandria Mills
 China PR
Xiao Tang
 St. Lucia
Aiasha Gustave
 Ireland
Emma Britt Waldron
2009  South Africa
Tatum Keshwar
 Mexico
Perla Beltrán
 Korea
Kim Joo-ri
 Barbados
Leah Marville
 Gibraltar
Kaiane Aldorino
2008  Angola
Brigith dos Santos
 Venezuela
Hannelly Quintero
 India
Parvathy Omanakuttan
 Trinidad & Tobago
Gabrielle Walcott
 Russia
Ksenia Sukhinova
2007  Angola
Micaela Reis
 Mexico
Carolina Morán
 China PR
Zhang Zilin
 Trinidad & Tobago
Valene Maharaj
 Sweden
Annie Oliv
2006  Angola
Stiviandra Oliveira
 Brazil
Jane Borges
 Australia
Sabrina Houssami (as Asia-Pacific)
 Jamaica
Sara Lawrence
2005  Tanzania
Nancy Sumari
 Mexico
Dafne Molina
 Korea
Oh Eun-young (as Asia-Pacific)
 Puerto Rico
Ingrid Marie Rivera
2004  Nigeria
Anita Uwagbale
 Peru
María Julia Mantilla
 Philippines
Maria Karla Bautista
 Dominican Republic
Claudia Cruz
 Poland
Katarzyna Borowicz

Queens of beauty titles[edit]

These are the countries with the most Continental Queen of Beauty titles per continental group (region in bold) throughout the years:

Country Titles Awarded As Winning Years
 Venezuela 12 Americas 1981, 1984, 1987, 1988, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1999, 2008, 2011
 South Africa 11 Africa 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2009, 2011
 Jamaica 10 Caribbean 1990, 1991, 1993, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2003, 2006, 2012, 2013
 Australia 7 Oceania 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1988, 1989, 2013
1 Asia & Oceania 1991
1 Asia-Pacific 2006
 India 6 Asia & Oceania 1994, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2008
 China PR 6 Asia & Oceania 2001, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2010, 2012
 Philippines 3 Asia & Oceania 1993, 2004, 2011
3 Asia 1982, 1986, 2013
 Israel 3 Asia 1983, 1984, 1985
2 Europe 1998, 1999
 Korea 4 Asia & Oceania 1988, 1995, 2005, 2009
 Thailand 2 Asia & Oceania 1989, 1992

Pageant controversies[edit]

The Miss World pageant has been the target of many controversies since its inception.

  • In 1970, feminist protesters threw flour bombs during the live event at London's Royal Albert Hall, momentarily alarming the host, Bob Hope.[29][30]
  • In 1973, the judges made their final rankings of the seven finalists by assessing each one's personality, stage presence and the ability to speak before an audience. The Majority Vote System determined the final rankings of the seven finalists. Odd numbers of judges were always used, to prevent ties from occurring. Chairman of the judges in 1973 was Peter Dimmock, Head of BBC Outside Broadcasts. The winner, Marjorie Wallace, was fired on 8 March 1974, because she had failed to live up to the "first-class public image" of the position. However, she is still the official titleholder, as the Miss World title was not offered to the runners-up.
  • In 1976, several countries went on a boycott, because the pageant included both a Caucasian and African representative for South Africa.[31] South Africa competed for the last time in 1977, before it was welcomed back in 1991 as Apartheid disintegrated.[32]
  • The 1980 winner Gabriella Brum of Germany resigned one day after winning, initially claiming her boyfriend disapproved. A few days later it emerged that she had been forced to resign after it was discovered that she posed naked for a magazine.[33]
  • In 1996, wide-scale protests took place in Bangalore, India, over the hosting of the beauty contest. The swimsuit shootings were moved to the Seychelles, and heavy security was placed. Despite the chaos, the pageant's live telecast went on smoothly.[34][35][36]

The 2002 Nigeria contest[edit]

Main article: Miss World 2002

In the year leading up the finals in Nigeria, several European title holders lobbied their governments and the EU parliament to support Amina Lawal's cause.[37][38] A number of contestants followed the lead of Kathrine Sørland of Norway in boycotting the contest (despite the controversy Sørland would go on to become a semifinalist in both the Miss World and Miss Universe contest), while others such as Costa Rica were instructed by their national governments and parliaments not to attend the contest. Among the other boycotting nations were Denmark, Spain, Switzerland, Panama, Belgium and Kenya. There was further controversy over the possibly suspended participation of France and South Africa, which may or may not have been due to the boycott.[39] For her part, Lawal asked that contestants not suspend their participation in the contest, saying that it was for the good of her country and that they could, as the representative of Sweden had earlier remarked, make a much stronger case for her on the ground in Nigeria.[40]

Despite the increasing international profile the boycott was garnering in the world press, the contest went ahead in Nigeria after being rescheduled to avoid taking place during Ramadan, with many prominent nations sending delegates. Osmel Sousa of Venezuela, one of the world's most influential national directors, famously said "there is no question about it (the participation of Miss Venezuela in the contest)." The trouble did not end there, however. A ThisDay (Lagos, Nigeria) newspaper editorial suggesting that Muhammad would probably have chosen one of his wives from among the contestants had he been alive to see it (this suggestion would have been considered an insult to most Moslems because contestants bared themselves in bathing suits which is considered immoral by conservative Muslim standards), resulted in inter-religious riots that started on 22 November in which over 200 people were killed in the city of Kaduna, along with many houses of worship being burned by religious zealots.[41] Because of these riots, the 2002 pageant was moved to London, following widely circulated reports that the representatives of Canada and Korea had withdrawn from the contest and returned to their respective countries out of safety concerns. A fatwa urging the beheading of the woman who wrote the offending words, Isioma Daniel, was issued in Nigeria, but was declared null and void by the relevant Saudi Arabian authorities.[42][43][44][45] Upon the pageant's return to England, many of the boycotting contestants chose to attend, including Miss Norway, Kathrine Sørland, who was ironically tipped in the last few days as the number one favourite for the crown she had previously boycotted.[46][47][48][49][50]

The eventual winner of the pageant was Azra Akın of Turkey, the first predominantly Muslim country to hold the title since Egypt in 1954.[51]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Tianjin Miss World China Pageant comes to a close". China Daily. 28 August 2009. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  2. ^ "Miss Universe on August 23". Timesofmalta.com. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  3. ^ Paul Lewis (November 11, 2000). "Eric Morley, 82, Miss World Promoter, Dies". nytimes.com (The New York Times). Retrieved October 11, 2013. 
  4. ^ "Pageant News Bureau – Miss World: A long, glittering history". Pageant.com. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  5. ^ "Brazil’s Miss World finalist has her hands and feet amputated". English.pravda.ru. 22 January 2009. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  6. ^ Sylvia Toh Paik Choo (June 24, 2008). "MISS Singapore Universe". Archived from the original on 2008-06-28. Retrieved October 11, 2013. 
  7. ^ "Tracing the regal existence of ‘Miss Universe’". Spicezee.com. 7 October 2008. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  8. ^ "Megan Young crowned Miss World 2013". lifestyle.inquirer.net (Philippine Daily Inquirer). Associated Press. September 28, 2013. Retrieved October 9, 2013. 
  9. ^ "Miss Philippines Megan Young crowned Miss World 2013 in Bali". bbc.co.uk. BBC News Asia. September 28, 2013. Retrieved October 9, 2013. 
  10. ^ Riza Ornos (September 30, 2013). "Philippines, Brazil And Venezuela: Three Countries To Win The Big Four International Beauty Pageants". au.ibtimes.com. International Business Times. Retrieved October 9, 2013. 
  11. ^ "Frontline World: A Pageant is Born". Pbs.org. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  12. ^ "Bet on Miss World Pageant". Covers.com. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  13. ^ "Bikini ban at Miss World pageant". Retrieved June 8, 2013. 
  14. ^ "Miss World gets a makeover". news.bbc.co.uk (BBC News). September 9, 1998. Retrieved October 9, 2013. 
  15. ^ "BBC Radio 4 - Woman's Hour - Women's History Timeline: 1960 - 1969". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-03-08. 
  16. ^ "Tiza.com. Miss World". Tiza.com. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  17. ^ "Should the Miss World pageant have gone ahead?". BBC News. 9 December 2002. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  18. ^ "Mayor's frosty reception for Miss World". BBC News. 26 November 2002. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  19. ^ Miss World contest history[dead link]
  20. ^ "Miss World facts". Worldcountrylink.com. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  21. ^ "Miss World Riots in Nigeria". Democracynow.org. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  22. ^ "Nigerian woman fights stoning". BBC News. 8 July 2002. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  23. ^ "ElEconomista.es. Miss World Organisation and Mauj Telecom Ink Global Deal on Mobile Content and Applications". El Economista. 6 June 2006. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  24. ^ Philanthropy World. Beauty with a Purpose
  25. ^ "Newly crowned Miss Namibia 2009, Happie Ntelamo". The Economist .na. 19 June 2009. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  26. ^ "Warsaw-life.com. Miss World comes to Warsaw". Warsaw-life.com. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  27. ^ Prestigious Beauty Pageant (February 10, 2014). "Miss World 2014". Prestigious Beauty Pageants. Retrieved June 15, 2014. 
  28. ^ EuroBiz Magazine, July 2006. Sanya's place in the sun[dead link]
  29. ^ History of Miss World 1970 – 1979
  30. ^ "Last milestone on a record-breaking comedy Road ... Bob Hope dies at 100". Buzzle.com. 29 July 2003. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  31. ^ "Miss World 1976". Pageantopolis. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  32. ^ "Miss World 1977". Pageantopolis. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  33. ^ "Miss World 1980". Pageantopolis. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  34. ^ CNN – Miss Greece now Miss World, despite pageant protests[dead link]
  35. ^ "Indian police prepare for worst in beauty pageant clash". CNN. 22 November 1996. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  36. ^ "Beauty pageant in India becomes a contest of wills". CNN. 22 November 1996. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  37. ^ "As Miss World Turns". The Nation. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  38. ^ "CNN – Miss World boycott over Nigerian stoning". CNN. 7 September 2002. Archived from the original on 7 Jul 2012. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  39. ^ "Miss World 2002". Pageantopolis. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  40. ^ "Woman sentenced to stoning freed". CNN. 26 September 2003. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  41. ^ "Nigeria riots toll 'passes 200'". BBC News. 24 November 2002. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  42. ^ "Miss World 2002 – The World at their Feet". Isioma.net. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  43. ^ Isioma Daniel (17 February 2003). "Nigerian journalist Isioma Daniel tells her story". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  44. ^ "Nigeria's journalist on the run". BBC News. 27 November 2002. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  45. ^ "Miss World and Islam: "Fatwa" and Isioma Daniel a Nigerian "Fatwa"". Nigeria World. 26 November 2002. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  46. ^ "Contestants boycott Miss World". Modern Gent. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  47. ^ "– Don't boycott Nigeria's Miss World contest, begs mother facing stoning". Telegraph.co.uk. 2013-12-07. Retrieved 2014-03-08. 
  48. ^ "– Contestants threaten Miss World boycott over stoning". Telegraph.co.uk. 2013-12-07. Retrieved 2014-03-08. 
  49. ^ "Nigeria faces Miss World boycott threat". BBC News. 27 August 2002. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  50. ^ "Miss World Nigeria boycott spreads". BBC News. 6 September 2002. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  51. ^ "Miss World". Pageantopolis. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 

External links[edit]