Missing-digit sum

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Missing-digit sums are integer numbers that are equal to the sum of numbers created by deleting one or more digits at a time from the original number. For example, the OEIS lists these two integers as missing-digit sums in base ten:

1,729,404 = 729404 (missing 1) + 129404 (missing 7) + 179404 (missing 2) + 172404 + 172904 + 172944 + 172940
1,800,000 = 800000 (missing 1) + 100000 (missing 8) + 180000 (missing first 0) + 180000 + 180000 + 180000 + 180000[1]

Missing-digit sums are therefore a subset of narcissistic numbers, when these are defined as numbers that are equal to some manipulation of their own digits (for example, 153 and 132 are narcissistic numbers in base ten because 153 = 13 + 53 + 33 and 132 = 13 + 32 + 12 + 31 + 23 + 21).

Dropping two and more digits[edit]

When one digit is dropped from a d-digit integer, there are d integers in the sum and each is d-1 digits long. In general, when n digits are dropped from a d-digit integer, the number of integers in the sum is equal to d! / (n!(d - n)!), or the combination of n digits taken 2, 3, 4... at a time. For example, when d = 20 and n = 3, there are 20! / (3!(20 - 3)!) = 1,140 integers in the sum. In base ten, the integers 183477122641, 1523163197662495253514 and 47989422298181591480943 are equal to their missing-digit sums when dropping two, three and four digits, respectively. Here is the delete-2 sum, containing 12! / (2!(12 - 2)!) = 66 integers:

183477122641 = 3477122641 (missing 1 and 8) + 8477122641 (missing 1 and 3) + 8377122641 (missing 1 and 4) + 8347122641 (missing 1 and first 7) + 8347122641 (missing 1 and second 7) + 8347722641 (missing 1 and second 1) + 8347712641 + 8347712641 + 8347712241 + 8347712261 + 8347712264 + 1477122641 + 1377122641 + 1347122641 + 1347122641 + 1347722641 + 1347712641 + 1347712641 + 1347712241 + 1347712261 + 1347712264 + 1877122641 + 1847122641 + 1847122641 + 1847722641 + 1847712641 + 1847712641 + 1847712241 + 1847712261 + 1847712264 + 1837122641 + 1837122641 + 1837722641 + 1837712641 + 1837712641 + 1837712241 + 1837712261 + 1837712264 + 1834122641 + 1834722641 + 1834712641 + 1834712641 + 1834712241 + 1834712261 + 1834712264 + 1834722641 + 1834712641 + 1834712641 + 1834712241 + 1834712261 + 1834712264 + 1834772641 + 1834772641 + 1834772241 + 1834772261 + 1834772264 + 1834771641 + 1834771241 + 1834771261 + 1834771264 + 1834771241 + 1834771261 + 1834771264 + 1834771221 + 1834771224 + 1834771226

Trivial missing-digit sums[edit]

In any base b, there will be a set of delete-1 missing-digit sums with b+1 digits and first digits in the range 1...b-1, followed by b zeroes. Consider base-2 and base-3:

100b=2 = 4b=10 = 00b=2 (deleting 1) + 10b=2 (deleting first 0) + 10b=2 (deleting second 0)
= 0 + 10b=2 + 10b=2
= 0 + 10b=2 x 10b=2 = 100b=2
= 0 + 2 x 2 = 4b=10
1000b=3 = 27b=10 = 000b=3 (deleting 1) + 100b=3 (deleting first 0) + 100b=3 (deleting second 0) + 100b=3 (deleting third 0)
= 0 + 100b=3 + 100b=3 + 100b=3
= 0 + 10b=3 x 100b=3 = 1000b=3
= 0 + 3 x 9 = 27b=10
2000b=3 = 54b=10 = 000b=3 (deleting 2) + 200b=3 (deleting first 0) + 200b=3 (deleting second 0) + 200b=3 (deleting third 0)
= 0 + 200b=3 + 200b=3 + 200b=3
= 0 + 10b=3 x 200b=3 = 2000b=3
= 0 + 3 x 18 = 54b=10

Accordingly, the eleven-digit numbers 10,000,000,000 through 90,000,000,000 are trivial missing-digit sums in base ten, because their sums take this form:

10,000,000,000 = 0,000,000,000 (deleting 1) + 1,000,000,000 (deleting first 0) + 1,000,000,000 (deleting second 0) + 1,000,000,000 (deleting third 0) + 1,000,000,000 + 1,000,000,000 + 1,000,000,000 + 1,000,000,000 + 1,000,000,000 + 1,000,000,000 + 1,000,000,000
= 0 + (10 x 1,000,000,000) = 10,000,000,000

And in hexadecimal or base sixteen, the seventeen-digit numbers 10,000,000,000,000,000 through F0,000,000,000,000,000 are missing-digit sums of the same form.

Searching for missing-digit sums[edit]

Searching for delete-1 missing-digit sums is simplified when one notes that the final two digits of n determine the final digit of its missing-digit sum. One can therefore test simply the final two digits of a given n to determine whether or not it is a potential missing-digit sum. In this way, the search-space is considerably reduced. For example, consider the set of seven-digit base-ten numbers ending in ...01. For these numbers, the final digit of the sum is equal to (digit-0 x 1 + digit-1 x 6) modulo 10 = (0 + 6) mod 10 = 6 mod 10 = 6. Therefore no seven-digit number ending in ...01 is equal to its own missing-digit-sum in base ten.

Now consider the set of seven-digit numbers ending in ...04. For these numbers, the final digit of the sum is equal to (0 x 1 + 4 x 6) modulo 10 = (0 + 24) mod 10 = 24 mod 10 = 4. This set may therefore contain one or more missing-digit sums. Next consider seven-digit numbers ending ...404. The penultimate (last-but-one) digit of the sum is equal to (2 + 4 x 2 + 0 x 4) modulo 10 = (2 + 8 + 0) mod 10 = 10 mod 10 = 0 (where the 2 is the tens digit of 24 from the sum for the final digit). This set of numbers ending ...404 may therefore contain one or more missing-digit sums. Similar reasoning can be applied to sums in which two, three and more digits are deleted from the original number.

Incomplete list of missing-digit sums in base ten[edit]

Delete-1 sums[edit]

1729404, 1800000, 13758846, 13800000, 14358846, 14400000, 15000000, 28758846, 28800000, 29358846, 29400000, 1107488889, 1107489042, 1111088889, 1111089042, 3277800000, 3281400000, 4388888889, 4388889042, 4392488889, 4392489042, 4500000000,[2] 5607488889, 5607489042, 5611088889, 5611089042, 7777800000, 7781400000, 8888888889, 8888889042, 8892488889, 8892489042, 10000000000, 20000000000, 30000000000, 40000000000, 50000000000, 60000000000, 70000000000, 80000000000, 90000000000

Delete-2 sums[edit]

167564622641, 174977122641, 175543159858, 175543162247, 183477122641, 183518142444, 191500000000, 2779888721787, 2784986175699, 212148288981849, 212148288982006, 315131893491390, 321400000000000, 417586822240846, 417586822241003, 418112649991390, 424299754499265, 424341665637682, 526796569137682, 527322398999265, 533548288981849, 533548288982006, 636493411120423, 636531893491390, 642800000000000, 650000000000000, 738986822240846, 738986822241003, 739474144481849, 739474144482006, 739474144500000, 739512649991390, 745699754499265, 745741665637682, 746186822240846, 746186822241003, 751967555620423, 848722398999265, 849167555620423, 854948288981849, 854948288982006, 855396569137682, 862148288981849, 862148288982006, 957893411120423, 957931893491390, 965131893491390, 971400000000000

Delete-3 sums[edit]

124611932292235425, 257559932292235425, 273161719965897657, 2159824675153518576, 5751345323192555691

Delete-4 sums[edit]

1523163197662495253514, 47989422298181591480943, 423579919359414921365511, 737978887988727574986738

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jon Ayres. "Sequence A131639". Neil Sloane. Retrieved 10 March 2014. 
  2. ^ Jon Ayres. "Sequence A131639". Neil Sloane. Retrieved 10 March 2014. 

External links[edit]

  • Miss This — missing-digit sums in base ten and other bases