Mission San Francisco de Asís
The original adobe Mission structure is the smaller building at left, while the larger structure is a basilica completed in 1918 (the architectural style was influenced by designs exhibited at San Diego's Panama-California Exposition in 1915).
|Location||320 Dolores Street
San Francisco, California 94114
|Name as founded||La Misión de Nuestro Padre San Francisco de Asís |
|English translation||The Mission of Our Father Saint Francis of Assisi|
|Patron||Saint Francis of Assisi |
|Nickname(s)||"Mission Dolores" |
|Founding date||June 29; 1776 |
|Founding priest(s)||Father Francisco Palóu ; Father Junípero Serra |
|Founding Order||Sixth |
|Military district||Fourth |
|Bay Miwok, Coast Miwok, Patwin
|Native place name(s)||Chutchui |
|Burials||11,000= 5,000 (Europeans/Americans), 6,000 (Indians) |
|Returned to the Church||1857 |
|Governing body||Roman Catholic Archdiocese of San Francisco|
|Current use||Parish Church|
|U.S. National Register of Historic Places|
|NRHP designation date||1972|
|California Historical Landmark|
|CHISL official name||Site of original Mission Dolores chapel and Dolores Lagoon|
|San Francisco Designated Landmark|
|SFDL designation date||April 11, 1968|
Mission San Francisco de Asís, or Mission Dolores, is the oldest surviving structure in San Francisco and the sixth religious settlement established as part of the California chain of missions. The Mission was founded on June 29, 1776, by Lieutenant José Joaquin Moraga and Father Francisco Palóu (a companion of Father Junipero Serra), both members of the de Anza Expedition, which had been charged with bringing Spanish settlers to Alta (upper) California, and evangelizing the local Natives, the Ohlone.
The settlement was named for St. Francis of Assisi, the founder of the Franciscan Order, but was also commonly known as "Mission Dolores" owing to the presence of a nearby creek named Arroyo de Nuestra Señora de los Dolores, meaning "Our Lady of Sorrows Creek." A member of the Anza Expedition, Friar Font, wrote about the spot chosen for the Mission:
We rode about one league to the east [from the Presidio], one to the east-southeast, and one to the southeast, going over hills covered with bushes, and over valleys of good land. We thus came upon two lagoons and several springs of good water, meanwhile encountering much grass, fennel and other good herbs. When we arrived at a lovely creek, which because it was the Friday of Sorrows [that Friday before Palm Sunday], the 3rd of April 1776, we called the [creek] Arroyo de los Dolores ... On the banks of the Arroyo ... we discovered many fragrant chamomiles and other herbs, and many wild violets. Near the streamlet the lieutenant planted a little corn and some garbanzos in order to try out the soil, which to us appeared good.
In the 1906 earthquake the mission was not damaged, but the Gothic Revival church next to the mission was (see below for further details).
The original Mission consisted of a log and thatch structure dedicated on October 9, 1776 after the required church documents arrived. It was located near what is today the intersection of Camp and Albion Streets (according to most sources), about a block-and-a-half east of the surviving adobe Mission building, and on the shores of a lake (supposedly long since filled) called Laguna de los Dolores. A historical marker at that location depicts this lake, but whether it ever actually existed is a matter of some dispute. (Creek geologists Janet Sowers and Christopher Richard propose that the legendary lake is the result of misunderstandings of Juan Bautista de Anza's 1776 writings. According to their 2011 hydrological map, there were no lakes in the area, only creeks.)
The present Mission church, near what is now the intersection of Dolores and 16th Streets, was dedicated in 1791. At the time of dedication a mural painted by native labor adorned the focal wall of the chapel. The Mission was constructed of adobe and part of a complex of buildings used for housing, agricultural and manufacturing enterprises (see architecture of the California missions). Though most of the Mission complex, including the quadrangle and convento, has either been altered or demolished outright during the intervening years, the façade of the Mission chapel has remained relatively unchanged since its construction in 1782–1791.
According to Mission historian Brother Guire Cleary, the early 19th century saw the greatest period of activity at San Francisco de Asís:
At its peak in 1810–1820, the average Indian population at Pueblo Dolores was about 1,100 persons. The California missions were not only houses of worship. They were farming communities, manufacturers of all sorts of products, hotels, ranches, hospitals, schools, and the centers of the largest communities in the state...in 1810 the Mission owned 11,000 sheep, 11,000 cows, and thousands of horses, goats, pigs, and mules. Its ranching and farming operations extended as far south as San Mateo and east to Alameda. Horses were corralled on Potrero Hill, and the milking sheds for the cows were located along Dolores Creek at what is today Mission High School. Twenty looms were kept in operation to process wool into cloth. The circumference of the mission's holdings were said to have been about 125 miles.
The Mission chapel, along with "Father Serra's Church" at Mission San Juan Capistrano, is one of only two surviving buildings where Father Junípero Serra is known to have officiated (although "Dolores" was still under construction at the time of Serra's visit). In 1817, Mission San Rafael Arcángel was established as an asistencia to act as a hospital for the Mission, though it would later be granted full mission status in 1822. The Mexican War of Independence (1810–1821) strained relations between the Mexican government and the California missions. Supplies were scant, and the Indians who worked at the missions continued to suffer terrible losses from disease and cultural disruption (more than 5,000 Indians are thought to have been buried in the cemetery adjacent to the Mission). In 1834, the Mexican government enacted secularization laws whereby most church property was sold or granted to private owners. In practical terms, this meant that the missions would hold title only to the churches, the residences of the priests and a small amount of land surrounding the church for use as gardens. In the period that followed, Mission Dolores fell on very hard times. By 1842, only eight Christian Indians were living at the Mission.
The California Gold Rush brought renewed activity to the Mission Dolores area. In the 1850s, two plank roads were constructed from what is today downtown San Francisco to the Mission, and the entire area became a popular resort and entertainment district. Some of the Mission properties were sold or leased for use as saloons and gambling halls. Racetracks were constructed, and fights between bulls and bears were staged for crowds. The Mission complex also underwent alterations. Part of the convento was converted to a two-story wooden wing for use as a seminary and priests' quarters, while another section became the "Mansion House," a popular tavern and way station for travelers. By 1876, the Mansion House portion of the convento had been razed and replaced with a large Gothic Revival brick church, designed to serve the growing population of immigrants who were now making the Mission area their home.
During this period, wood clapboard siding was applied to the original adobe chapel walls as both a cosmetic and a protective measure; the veneer was later removed when the Mission was restored. During the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, the adjacent brick church was destroyed. By contrast, the original adobe Mission, though damaged, remained in relatively good condition. However, the ensuing fire touched off by the earthquake reached almost to the Mission's doorstep. To prevent the spread of flames, the Convent and School of Notre Dame across the street was dynamited by firefighters; nevertheless, nearly all the blocks east of Dolores Street and north of 20th street were consumed by flames. In 1913, construction began on a new church (now known as the Mission Dolores Basilica) adjacent to the Mission, which was completed in 1918. This structure was further remodeled in 1926 with churrigueresque ornamentation inspired by the Panama-California Exposition held in San Diego's Balboa Park. A sensitive restoration of the original adobe Mission was undertaken in 1917 by noted architect Willis Polk. In 1952, San Francisco Archbishop John J. Mitty, announced that Pope Pius XII had elevated Mission Dolores to the status of a Minor Basilica. This was the first designation of a basilica west of the Mississippi and the fifth basilica named in the United States. Today, the larger, newer church is called "Mission Dolores Basilica" while the original adobe structure retains the name of Mission Dolores.
The San Francisco de Asís cemetery, which adjoins the property on the south side, was originally much larger than its present boundaries, running west almost to Church Street and north into what is today 16th Street. It was reduced in various stages, starting with the extension of 16th Street through the former Mission grounds in 1889, and later by the construction of the Mission Dolores Basilica Center and the Chancery Building of the Archdiocese of San Francisco in the 1950s. Some remains were reburied on-site in a mass grave, while others were relocated to various Bay Area cemeteries. Today, most of the former cemetery grounds are covered by a paved playground behind the Mission Dolores School. The cemetery that currently remains underwent a careful restoration in the mid-1990s. The Mission is still an active church in San Francisco. Many people attend services in the Mission church and even more attend mass in the adjacent basilica. The Mission is open to visitors, and is located on Dolores Street near its intersection with 16th Street. The San Francisco neighborhood closely surrounding the historic Mission is known as Mission Dolores, and the much larger Mission District is named for it as well. The current Pastor of Mission Dolores is Reverend Arturo Albano. The current Curator of Mission Dolores is Andrew A. Galvan.
Other historic designations
- San Francisco Historical Landmark #1 – City & County of San Francisco
- California Historical Landmark #327-1 – site of original Mission Dolores chapel and Dolores Lagoon
- California Historical Landmark #393 – "The Hospice," an outpost of Mission Dolores founded in 1800 in San Mateo, California
- California Historical Landmark #784 – El Camino Real (the northernmost point visited by Father Serra)
Father Junipero Serra
A full-length portrait sculpture of Father Junipero Serra is on the property of the mission. The cast stone sculpture, by Arthur Putnam, was completed in 1909, cast between 1916–1917 and installed in 1918 when the mission was remodeled. Funding for the piece came from D.J. McQuarry and it cost $500 to cast. It is approximately H. 6 ft. 6 in. The sculpture depicts Serra wearing a monk's robe belted at the waist with a knotted rope and a rosary around his neck. He looks down, with his head bowed and eyes downward. The sculpture is on a concrete base. It is one of a series of allegorical figures commissioned by the estate of E. W. Scripps to depict California history. In 1993 it was examined by the Smithsonian Institution's Save Outdoor Sculpture! program. The program determined that the sculpture was well maintained.
In popular culture
- In Vertigo, Inspector Scottie Ferguson (James Stewart) follows Madeleine Elster (Kim Novak) into Mission Dolores and out to the cemetery, where she lays flowers at the grave of "Carlotta Valdes". Although the grave marker was fictional and set up specifically for the film, it was reportedly left to stand in the cemetery for a number of years after filming.
- In Class Action, the Old Mission was featured in the funeral scene of the movie.
- The mission is the subject of the Jerry Garcia song "Mission in the Rain."
Succession of rectors, pastors and administrators
- Founders: Father Francisco Palóu, O.F.M., Father Pedro Benito Cambón, O.F.M. – June 27, 1776
- Father Francisco Palóu, O.F.M. – June 27, 1776–1784
- Father Eugene O'Connell – 1854
- Father Richard Carroll – 1854–1860
- Father John J. Prendergast – 1860–1867
- Father Thomas Cushing – 1867–1875
- Father Richard P. Brennan – 1875–1904
- Father Patrick Cummins – 1905–1916
- Father John W. Sullivan – 1916–1939
- The Most Rev. Thomas A. Connolly 1939–1948 (First Auxiliary Bishop, First Rector)
- The Most Rev. James T. O'Dowd – 1948–1950 (Rector)
- The Most Rev. Merlin Guilfoyle, VG – 1950–1969 (Rector)
- The Most Rev. Norman F. McFarland – 1970–1974 (Last Rector)
- The Rev. Msgr. Richard S. Knapp – 1974, 1974–1983 (Served first as Administrator, then Pastor)
- The Rev. Msgr. John J. O'Connor – 1983–1997
- The Rev. Msgr. Maurice McCormick – 1997–2003
- The Most Rev. William J. Justice – 2003–2007 (Became a bishop after he left Mission Dolores)
- The Rev. Arturo Albano – 2007–present
- Mission San Rafael Arcángel
- San Pedro y San Pablo Asistencia
- List of San Francisco Designated Landmarks
- USNS Mission Dolores (AO-115) – a Mission Buenaventura Class fleet oiler built during World War II.
- USNS Mission San Francisco (AO-123) – a Mission Buenaventura Class fleet oiler built during World War II.
- Krell, p. 148
- Leffingwell, p. 149
- Krell, p. 139
- Young, p. 117
- Yenne, p. 64
- Ruscin, p. 196
- Forbes, p. 202
- Ruscin, p. 195
- Krell, p. 315: as of December 31, 1832; information adapted from Engelhardt's Missions and Missionaries of California.
- California Historical Marker is located on Camp and Albion Streets
- "City of San Francisco Designated Landmarks". City of San Francisco. Retrieved 2012-11-23.
- Englehardt, p. 38
- Amy Standen (2011-10-29). "New Water Map Washes Away An Urban Legend". NPR. Retrieved 2012-01-02.
- Johnson, p. 129
- Johnson, p. 130
- "Father Junipero Serra, (sculpture)". Save Outdoor Sculpture!. Smithsonian American Art Museum. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
- "San Francisco". www.newadvent.org. April 20, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-20.
- "Archbishop Thomas Arthur Connolly †". www.catholic-hierarchy.org. April 20, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-20.
- Wikipedia contributors (April 20, 2010). "Archbishop Thomas Arthur Connolly †". Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2010-04-20.
- "Thomas Arthur Connolly". Diocese of Orange. Retrieved 2010-04-20.
- Cleary, Brother Guire. "Mission Dolores Links San Francisco with its 18th Century Roots – Founded as La Mission San Francisco De Asis by Franciscans, it survived earthquake and fire", Catholic San Francisco, January 31, 2003. Accessed March 23, 2007.
- Engelhardt, O. F. M. (1924). San Francisco or Mission Dolores. Franciscan Herald Press, Chicago, IL.
- Forbes, Alexander (1839). California: A History of Upper and Lower California. Smith, Elder and Co., Cornhill, London.
- Johnson, Paul C. (Supervising Editor) (1964). The California Missions. Lane Book Company, Menlo Park, CA. Library of Congress 64-22823.
- Jones, Terry L. and Kathryn A. Klar (eds.) (2007). California Prehistory: Colonization, Culture, and Complexity. Altimira Press, Landham, MD. ISBN 0-7591-0872-2.
- Krell, Dorothy (ed.) (1979). The California Missions: A Pictorial History. Sunset Publishing Corporation, Menlo Park, CA. ISBN 0-376-05172-8.
- Milliken, Randall (1995). A Time of Little Choice: The Disintegration of Tribal Culture in the San Francisco Bay Area 1769–1910. Ballena Press Publication, Menlo Park, CA. ISBN 0-87919-132-5.
- Paddison, Joshua (ed.) (1999). A World Transformed: Firsthand Accounts of California Before the Gold Rush. Heyday Books, Berkeley, CA. ISBN 1-890771-13-9.
- Ruscin, Terry (1999). Mission Memoirs. Sunbelt Publications, San Diego, CA. ISBN 0-932653-30-8.
- San Francisco Morning Call (June 8, 1889). MISSION DOLORES – The Cemeteries Now Ready to Be Transferred to the City.
- Schafer, Mike; Joe Welsh (1997). Classic American Streamliners. Osceola, WI: MotorBooks International. ISBN 0760303770. OCLC 37281634.
- Yenne, Bill (2004). The Missions of California. Thunder Bay Press, San Diego, CA. ISBN 1-59223-319-8.
- Young, Stanley and Melba Levick (1988). The Missions of California. Chronicle Books LLC, San Francisco, CA. ISBN 0-8118-3694-0.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mission Dolores.|
- Mission Dolores Basilica
- The Archdiocese of San Francisco
- Mission Dolores via The Archdiocese of San Francisco
- Elevation & Site Layout sketches of the Mission proper
- Catholic San Francisco – History of Mission Dolores
- San Francisco Public Library – Photographs of Mission Dolores
- Map of Mission Dolores and nearby water sources (from ShapingSF.org)
- California Historic Plaque marking original site of Mission Dolores at Camp and Albion Streets in SF
- Mission Dolores Neighborhood Association
- American Southwest, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary
- Early History of the California Coast, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary
- Listing, drawings, and photographs at the Historic American Buildings Survey
- Ground plan of Mission Dolores, San Francisco, Ca at The Bancroft Library
- Howser, Huell (December 8, 2000). "California Missions (107)". California Missions. Chapman University Huell Howser Archive.