Mississauga

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This article is about the City of Mississauga. For the First Nation tribe, see Mississaugas.
Mississauga
City (lower-tier)
City of Mississauga
Clockwise from top: Skyline of Mississauga, University of Toronto Mississauga, Absolute World Condos, Downtown Skyline, Mississauga Civic Centre, Condominium Skyline.
Clockwise from top: Skyline of Mississauga, University of Toronto Mississauga, Absolute World Condos, Downtown Skyline, Mississauga Civic Centre, Condominium Skyline.
Flag of Mississauga
Flag
Coat of arms of Mississauga
Coat of arms
Official logo of Mississauga
Logo
Motto: Pride in past, Faith in our future. Be strong. Be Proud.
Location of Mississauga in the Regional Municipality of Peel in the province of Ontario
Location of Mississauga in the Regional Municipality of Peel in the province of Ontario
Coordinates: 43°36′N 79°39′W / 43.600°N 79.650°W / 43.600; -79.650Coordinates: 43°36′N 79°39′W / 43.600°N 79.650°W / 43.600; -79.650
Country  Canada
Province  Ontario
Region Peel
Established 1968, as a town
Incorporated 1974, as a city
Government
 • Mayor Bonnie Crombie
 • Council Mississauga City Council
 • MPs
 • MPPs
Area
 • Total 292.40 km2 (112.90 sq mi)
Elevation 156 m (512 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 713,443 (6th)
 • Density 2,439.9/km2 (6,319/sq mi)
Time zone EST (UTC−5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC−4)
Postal code span L4T to L5W
Area code(s) 905, 289, and 365; 416, 647, and 437
Twin cities
 • Sister city Flag of Kariya, Aichi.pngKariya, Japan
Demonym
  • Mississaugan
  • Saugan
[1]
Website www.mississauga.ca

Mississauga Listeni/ˌmɪsɪˈsɒɡə/[note 1] is a city in Southern Ontario, Canada. It lies on the shores of Lake Ontario, located in the Regional Municipality of Peel, in the western part of the Greater Toronto Area which is in the west of Toronto. The city has a population of 713,443 as of the Canada 2011 Census, and is Canada's sixth-most populous municipality.[2]

Initially developed as a suburb of Toronto, Mississauga's growth is attributed to its proximity to that city. It is the largest suburb in Anglo-America by population.[3] In recent decades, having attracted a multicultural population, the city has initiated the development of a full-fledged downtown core and shaping its new identity as a distinct city from Toronto, and distance itself from its running joke as being just suburbia.[4][5] Residents of the city are called Mississaugans or Saugans.

The city is placed first overall in 'mid-sized cities of the future' by financial publication fDi Magazine for North and South American cities, placing first in business friendliness, second in economic potential, and fourth in infrastructure and foreign direct investment strategy.[6] Mississauga was also rated as Canada's 11th best city to live in terms of prosperity according to MoneySense magazine.[7] It is the fourth most walkable large city in Canada according to Walk Score.[8] Toronto Pearson International Airport, Canada's busiest airport is located in the city, and it is the location of many major corporate headquarters for Canada.

History[edit]

At the time of the arrival of the Europeans in the 1600s, both Iroquoian and Algonquian-speaking peoples already lived in the Credit River Valley area. One of the First Nations groups the French traders found around the Credit River area were the Algonquian Mississaugas, a tribe originally from the Georgian Bay area. The name "Mississauga" comes from the Anishinaabe word Misi-zaagiing, meaning "[Those at the] Great River-mouth." By 1700 the Mississaugas had driven away the Iroquois, yet during the Beaver Wars they played a neutral or post-emptive role.[9][10]

Toronto Township, consisting of most of present-day Mississauga, was formed on August 2, 1805 when officials from York (what is now the City of Toronto) purchased 84,000 acres (340 km²) of land from the Mississaugas. In January 2010, the Mississaugas and the federal government settled a land claim, in which the band of aboriginal people received $145,000,000, as just compensation for their land and lost income.[11]

The original villages (and some later incorporated towns) settled included: Lakeview, Clarkson, Cooksville, Dixie, Erindale (called Springfield until 1890), Lorne Park, Port Credit, Sheridan and Summerville. This region would become known as Toronto Township. Part of northeast Mississauga, including the Airport lands and Malton were part of Toronto Gore Township.[12]

After the land was surveyed, the Crown gave much of it in the form of land grants to United Empire Loyalists who emigrated from the Thirteen Colonies during and after the American Revolution, as well as loyalists from New Brunswick. A group of settlers from New York City arrived in the 1830s. The government wanted to compensate the Loyalists for property lost in the colonies and encourage development of what was considered frontier. In 1820, the government purchased additional land from the Mississaugas. Additional settlements were established, including: Barbertown, Britannia, Burnhamthorpe, Derry West, Elmbank, Malton, Meadowvale Village, Mount Charles, and Streetsville. European-Canadian growth led to the eventual displacement of the Mississaugas. In 1847, the government relocated them to a reserve in the Grand River Valley, near present-day Hagersville.[13] [14]

In 1873, in light of the continued growth seen in this area much as a result of the many railway lines passing through the township which spurred on industry. The Toronto Township Council was formed to oversee the affairs of the various villages that were unincorporated at that time. The Council's responsibilities included road maintenance, and the constitution of a police force. Except for small villages, some gristmills and brickworks served by railway lines, most of present-day Mississauga was agricultural land, including fruit orchards, through much of the 19th and first half of the 20th century.[10][15]

In the 1920s, cottages were constructed along the shores of Lake Ontario as weekend getaway houses for city dwellers.

17 years later in 1937, 1,410.8 acres of land was sold to build the Malton Airport (later known as the Pearson Airport). It became Canada's busiest airport which also put the end to the community of Elmank.[16]

The Queen Elizabeth Way (QEW) highway, one of the first controlled access highways in the world, opened from Highway 27 to Highway 10 in Port Credit, in 1935 and later to Hamilton and Niagara in 1939. The first prototypical suburban developments occurred around the same time, in the area south of the Dixie Road/QEW interchange. Development in general moved north and west from there over time and around established communities. Large-scale developments, such as Erin Mills and Meadowvale sprang up in the 1968 and 1819 respectively.

The township settlements of Lakeview, Cooksville, Lorne Park, Clarkson, Erindale, Sheridan, Dixie, Meadowvale Village, and Malton were amalgamated by a somewhat unpopular provincial decree in 1968 to form the Town of Mississauga. At the time, both Port Credit and Streetsville were left out and remained as separate entities. The town name was chosen by plebiscite over "Sheridan". Political will, as well as a belief that a larger city would be a hegemony in Peel County, kept Port Credit and Streetsville as independent island towns encircled by the Town of Mississauga. In 1974, both were annexed by Mississauga when it reincorporated as a city. That year, the sprawling Square One Shopping Centre opened, which has since expanded many times.[17]

On November 10, 1979, a 106-car freight train derailed on the CP rail line while carrying explosive and poisonous chemicals just north of the intersection of Mavis Road and Dundas Street. One of the tank cars carrying propane exploded, and since other tank cars were carrying chlorine, the decision was made to evacuate nearby residents. With the possibility of a deadly cloud of chlorine gas spreading through Mississauga, 218,000 people were evacuated.[18]

Mississauga Civic Centre seen from the south-east. This design was supposed to reflect the influence of farmsteads which once occupied much of Mississauga,[19] the architecture is based on a "futuristic farm" (the clock tower is the windmill, the main building on the top-right corner is the farmhouse, the cylindrical council chamber is the silo, and the building on the bottom left represents a barn)[20]

Residents were allowed to return home, once the site was deemed safe. At the time, it was the largest peacetime evacuation in North American history. Due to the speed and efficiency in which it was conducted, many cities later studied and modeled their own emergency plans after Mississauga's. For many years afterwards, the name "Mississauga" was, to Canadians, associated with a major rail disaster.[21]

North American telephone customers placing calls to Mississauga (and other post 1970 Ontario cities) may not recognise the charge details on their billings, as Bell Canada continues to use the historic community exchanges: Clarkson, Cooksville, Malton, Port Credit, and Streetsville, rather than "Mississauga"; they are combined as a single Mississauga listing in the phone book. Touch-Tone telephones were first introduced at Malton, the first in Canada, on June 15, 1964.[22]

On January 1, 2010, Mississauga bought land from the Town of Milton and expanded its border by 400 acres (1.6 km2) to Hwy. 407 affecting 25 residents.[23]

Geography[edit]

Overview map of Mississauga, including neighbourhoods, land use patterns, and transport corridors.

Mississauga covers 288.42 square kilometres (111.36 sq mi) of land,[24] fronting 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) of shoreline on Lake Ontario.

Mississauga is bounded by Oakville and Milton to the west/southwest, Brampton to the north, Toronto to the east, and Lake Ontario to the south/south-east. Halton Hills borders Mississauga's north-west corner. With the exception of the southeast border with Toronto (Etobicoke Creek), Mississauga shares a land border with all previously mentioned municipalities.

Two major river valleys feed into the lake. The Credit River is by far the longest with the heaviest flow, it divides the western side of Mississauga from the central/eastern portions and enters the lake at the Port Credit harbour. The indented, mostly forested valley was inhabited by first nation peoples long before European exploration of the area. The valley is protected and maintained by the Credit Valley Conservation Authority (CVCA).[25]

Etobicoke Creek forms part of the eastern border of Mississauga with the city of Toronto. North of there it passes through the western limits of Pearson Airport. There have been two aviation accidents, in 1978 and 2005 where aircraft overshot the runaway and slid into the Etobicoke creek banks. In 1954, heavy flooding resulted in some homes along the riverbank being swept into the lake after heavy rains from Hurricane Hazel. Since that storm, houses are no longer constructed along the floodplain. The creek and its tributaries are administered by the Toronto and Region Conservation Authority (TRCA).[26]

Most land in Mississauga drains to either of the two main river systems, with the exception of the smaller Mary Fix and Cooksville Creeks which run roughly through the center of Mississauga entering the lake near Port Credit. Some small streams and reservoirs are part of the Sixteen Mile Creek system in the far north-west corner of the city, but these drain toward the lake in neighbouring Milton and Oakville.

The shoreline of former Glacial Lake Iroquois roughly follows the Dundas Street alignment, although it is not noticeable in some places but is more prominent in others, such as the site of the former brickyard (Shoreline Dr. near Mavis Rd.), the ancient shoreline promenteau affords a clear view of downtown Toronto and Lake Ontario on clear days. The land in Mississauga in ranges from a maximum elevation of 214 m (699 ft) ASL in the far western corner, near the Hwy. 407/401 junction, to a minimun elevation at the Lake Ontario shore of 76 m (249 ft) ASL.

Apart from the embankments of Credit River valley, it tributaries and the Iroquois shoreline, the only noticeable hills in Mississauga are actually part of the former Britannia Landfill, now a golf course on Terry Fox Drive.

Climate[edit]

The climate of Mississauga is officially represented by Pearson International Airport but because of its topography and large surface area conditions can differ depending on location: fog tends to be more common along the lakeshore and in the Credit River Valley at certain times of year, particularly during the spring and autumn.

During snowfalls when temperatures hover close to freezing, northern parts of the city, such as around Derry Road away from warmer Lake Ontario usually get more snow that sticks to the ground because of the lower temperatures. The reverse occurs when a strong storm approaches from the south kicking up lake effect snow, bringing higher snowfall totals to south Mississauga. The Port Credit and Lakeview areas have a micro-climate more affected by the proximity of the open lake, warming winter temperatures as a result but it can be sharply cooler on spring and summer afternoons, this can also be the case in Clarkson, but with much less consistency.

Most thunderstorms are not severe but can occasionally bring violent winds. The last known tornado to cause significant damage touched down on July 7, 1985, when an F1 rated tornado struck an industrial park in the Meadowvale area (Argentia Road), heavily damaging some buildings and some parked tractor trailers. A relatively strong tornado tore a path across Mississauga (then part of Toronto Township) on June 24, 1923, cutting a swath from present-day Meadowvale to near Cooksville, killing 4 people and causing massive property damage in a time when most of Mississauga was still rural farmland dotted with fruit orchards.[27][28][29]

Demographics[edit]

Historical populations
Year Pop. ±%
1971 172,352 —    
1976 250,017 +45.1%
1981 315,055 +26.0%
1986 374,005 +18.7%
1991 463,388 +23.9%
1996 544,382 +17.5%
2001 612,925 +12.6%
2006 668,549 +9.1%
2011 713,443 +6.7%
[32]
Canada 2011 Census Population  % of Total Population
Ethnicity group
Source:[33]
White 324,655 45.8
South Asian 154,210 21.8
Chinese 50,120 7.1
Black 44,775 6.3
Filipino 39,800 5.6
Arab 24,870 3.5
Southeast Asian 15,750 2.2
Latin American 15,360 2.2
Multiple visible minority 10,435 1.5
Other visible minority 9,200 1.3
West Asian 7,955 1.1
Korean 6,300 0.9
Aboriginal 3,200 0.5
Japanese 2,095 0.3
Total population 708,725 100

Mississauga is a fast-growing and multicultural city. Statistics Canada estimates that Mississauga now has 734,000 people,[34] an increase of 150,000 from the previous decade and the population has roughly doubled in past twenty-five years. Mississauga is now the third most populous city on the Great Lakes; far smaller than Chicago and Toronto, but recently surpassing the cities proper of Detroit, Milwaukee, and Cleveland.[35]

About 52% of the population speaks a language other than English,[36] and 52.4% of the population are members of a visible minority (non-white or non-aboriginal). 18% of the population is under 14 years of age, compared to those of retirement age; 8.51%. The median (middle) age in Mississauga is 35.0.[37]

Christianity is the majority faith of the city. The 2011 census indicated that 59.9% of the population are adherents, with Catholics constituting 36.9%, while the remaining 23.0% belong to various Protestant, Orthodox Christian, and other Christian groups. Other practiced faiths were Islam (11.9%), Hinduism (7.0%) Sikhism (3.4%), Buddhism (2.2%), and Judaism (0.3%). Those who claimed no religious affiliation made up 14.9% of the population.[33]

Religions in Mississauga
Religion Percent
Christians
  
59.9%
Muslims
  
11.9%
Hindus
  
7%
Sikhs
  
3.4%
Others
  
14.9%
Distribution of religions throughout Mississauga.

Languages[edit]

The 2011 census found that English was spoken as single mother tongue by 47.6% of the population. The next most common languages were Urdu (4.9%), Polish (4.1%), Punjabi (3.2%), Arabic (3.1%), Tagalog (2.8%), and Portuguese (2.5%).[38]

Mother tongue Population Percentage
English 338,280 47.6%
French 7,400 1.0%
English and French 1,585 0.2%
English and a non-official language 27,335 3.8%
French and a non-official language 975 0.1%
English, French and a non-official language 845 0.1%
Urdu 34,925 4.9%
Polish 29,065 4.1%
Panjabi (Punjabi) 22,880 3.2%
Arabic 21,990 3.1%
Tagalog (Pilipino, Filipino) 19,920 2.8%
Portuguese 17,685 2.5%
Spanish 15,885 2.2%
Chinese, not otherwise specified 15,745 2.2%
Italian 14,210 2.0%
Cantonese 11,925 1.7%
Mandarin 11,335 1.6%
Tamil 10,230 1.4%
Vietnamese 9,835 1.4%
Hindi 9,250 1.3%
Gujarati 8,010 1.1%
Ukrainian 5,955 0.8%
Mother tongue Population Percentage
Croatian 5,500 0.8%
Korean 5,300 0.7%
Persian (Farsi) 5,245 0.7%
Russian 4,645 0.7%
Serbian 3,830 0.5%
German 3,705 0.5%
Bengali 3,305 0.5%
Romanian 3,075 0.4%
Greek 2,700 0.4%
Albanian 2,215 0.3%
Malayalam 2,145 0.3%
Hungarian 1,870 0.3%
Telugu 1,515 0.2%
Sinhala (Sinhalese) 1,310 0.2%
Macedonian 1,255 0.2%
Turkish 1,225 0.2%
Bosnian 1,130 0.2%
Bulgarian 1,120 0.2%
Malay 1,090 0.2%
Marathi 1,065 0.1%
Pashto 1,010 0.1%
Sindhi 1,000 0.1%

Economy[edit]

Over 60 of the Fortune 500 companies base their Global or Canadian Head Offices in Mississauga. Some of the strongest industries are pharmaceuticals, banking and finance, electronics and computers, transportation parts and equipment industries.[39]

Citibank Canada has 2 corporate IT development centres in Mississauga. TD Bank Financial also has 3 Corporate IT development centres in the city along with Royal Bank of Canada. Microsoft Canada is also located in Mississauga. Laura Secord Chocolates is headquartered in the city, and Hewlett Packard's main Canada offices are also in Mississauga.[40] Air Georgian, a regional airline, is headquartered in Mississauga.[41] Air Canada Jazz operates a regional office in Mississauga and Kam Air has its North American office in Mississauga.[42][43] In addition Walmart Canada, Target Canada and Panasonic Canada have their Canada head offices in the city.[44][45]

Arts and culture[edit]

Mississauga skyline viewed from Pearson Airport

Mississauga's largest festivities such as Canada Day Celebration, Mississauga Rotary Ribfest, Tree Lighting Ceremony, and New Years' Eve Bash generally occur in Celebration Square. The Canada Day celebration was attended by 130,000 people in 2012, the Ribfest has recorded 120,000 visitors in 2012, and the inaugural New Years' Eve in 2011 has attracted 30,000 spectators.[46][47]

One of the most anticipated events in the city is Carassauga. This is a festival of cultures that occurs annually during mid-May, it is the second largest cultural festival in Canada. During 2013 there were over 300,000 visits and 4,014 performances that took place.[48] Carassauga attempts to display the different cultures around the world by setting up pavilions for countries around Mississauga. Visitors get free public transportation with their ticket to tour the city and explore the different pavilions. Various countries showcase their culture through food stalls, dance performances and small vendors. The event largely takes place in the Hershey Centre, where an outdoor stage is set up amidst many tiny pavilions. Other venues include the Tomken Twin Arena, the Canadian Coptic Centre and the Frank McKechnie Community Centre.

There are also culture-specific festivals held in Celebration Square, including Fiesta Ng Kalayaan for the Philippines, Viet Summerfest for Vietnam, Muslimfest for the city's Muslim community, and Mosaic Festival, which is the largest South Asian multi-disciplinary arts festival in North America.[49]

The village of Streetsville holds its annual Bread and Honey Festival every first weekend of June at Streetsville Memorial Park to commemorate the founding of the village of Streetsville. The festival has been incorporated in 1974, in response to amalgamation with the city of Mississauga.[50] Activities include the Bread and Honey Race, which raises money for charities and local hospitals.[51] It also has its own annual Canada Day celebrations, which are also held at Streetsville Memorial Park.

Another former town, Port Credit, Ontario holds multiple festivals throughout the year. During the summer, there are street performances on multiple venues scattered throughout the former town during Buskerfest. The town alsoholds a grand parade named "Paint the Town Red" during Canada Day. Finally, during August, the town holds the Mississauga Waterfront Festival, which includes concerts as well as family activities. During September, the Tim Hortons Southside Shuffle is being held to celebrate the town's Blues and Jazz Festival, which includes musical performances from local blues and jazz artists.[52][53][54]

The community of Malton, which contains a significant number of Sikhs, holds its annual Khalsa Day parade, marching between Sri Guru Singh Sabha (Malton Gurdwara) and Sikh Spiritual Centre (Rexdale Gurdwara Sahib) in Toronto. This parade is attended by 100,000 people. [55]

Attractions[edit]

Port Credit Light house

Mississauga Celebration Square[edit]

In 2006, with the help of Project for Public Spaces,[56] the city started hosting "My Mississauga" summer festivities at its Civic Square.[57] Mississauga planned over 60 free events to bring more people to the city square. The square was transformed and included a movable stage, a snack bar, extra seating, and sports and gaming facilities (basketball nets, hockey arena, chess and checker boards) including a skate park. Some of the events included Senior's day on Tuesday, Family day on Wednesday, Vintage car Thursdays, with the main events being the Canada Day celebration, Rotary Ribfest, Tree Lighting Ceremony, and Beachfest.

Civic Square has completed its restructuring project using federal stimulus money, which features a permanent stage, a larger ice rink (which also serves as a fountain and wading pool during the summer season), media screens, and a permanent restaurant. It officially reopened at June 22, 2011 and has since been renamed as Mississauga Celebration Square. More events have been added such as holding free outdoor live concerts, and live telecast of UEFA European Football Championship. The square also holds weekly programming such as fitness classes, amphitheatre performances and movie nights during the summer, children's activities during spring and fall, and skate parties during the winter. The opening of the square has also allowed the city to hold its first annual New Years' Eve celebration in 2011.

The upper and lower parts of the square used to be separated by a segment of City Centre Drive. However, pedestrian safety issues and commitment to building a vibrant downtown led the city council to permanently close this segment, uniting the upper and lower parts of the square.[58]

In October 2012, the square had attracted its one millionth visitor.[59]

Art Gallery of Mississauga[edit]

The Art Gallery of Mississauga (AGM) is a public, not-for-profit art gallery located in the Mississauga Civic Centre right on Celebration Square across from the Living Arts Centre and Square One Shopping Centre. AGM is sponsored by the City of Mississauga, Canada Council for the Arts, Ontario Trillium Foundation and the Ontario Arts Council. The art gallery offers free admission and tours and is open everyday. AGM has over 500 copies and is working on creating a digital gallery lead by gallery assistant Aaron Guravich.[60][61]

Shopping[edit]

Mississauga also boasts one of the largest shopping malls in Canada called Square One Shopping Centre, located at the City Centre. It has 350 retail stores and services and attracts 24 million annual visits.[62] It is operating on most holidays (the exceptions being Good Friday, Easter Sunday and Christmas Day), making it the only shopping mall in the city and one of the few in the Greater Toronto Area that do so.[63] The mall is surrounded by several bars and restaurants, as well as the City Hall, the Central Library, and Playdium.

Erin Mills Town Centre, the second largest mall in Mississauga. It is located at the western edge of the city, near Eglinton Avenue at Erin Mills Parkway.[64] The mall used to be notable by a clock tower placed in the center of the building. As its successor, the clock is being replaced with an iconic glass sphere (283 feet in circumference), as a part of the mall's $100 million redevelopment project.[65] The mall also used to have a movie theatre, a mini-golf course, and a daycare centre, all of which were converted to retail space.[66]

Located at the southeastern corner of the city is the Dixie Outlet Mall, which is Canada's largest enclosed outlet mall. It opened in 1956, making it Mississauga's first shopping mall, even though the city at that time was still known as Toronto Township, Ontario. Many factory outlets of premium brands are located in this mall.[67] As a supporter of Bullfrog Power, it operates using 100% renewable energy.[68] A flea market, the Fantastic Flea Market, is Mississauga's oldest flea market, which opened in 1976.

Erin Mills Town Centre and Dixie Outlet Mall are both closed for most holidays, except for Civic Holiday.[69]

Sports and recreation[edit]

Mississauga's Hershey Centre has been the home of the Mississauga Steelheads of the Ontario Hockey League since 2012. The Steelheads replaced the Mississauga St. Michael's Majors who had moved from Toronto in 2007. It was previously home to the Mississauga Icedogs from 1999–2007, before they moved to St. Catharines and became the Niagara IceDogs. The Hershey Centre, the city's main sports venue, was opened in 1999 for the arrival of the Icedogs, and is where the Steelheads currently play. Other hockey teams include the Mississauga Chiefs of the Canadian Women's Hockey League (who play at Iceland Mississauga), the Mississauga Chargers of the Ontario Provincial Junior A Hockey League (who play at Port Credit Arena), and the many teams in the Greater Toronto Hockey League, Mississauga Hockey League, and Mississauga Girls Hockey League that play in the city's 13 arenas. In addition, there is a roller hockey team, the Mississauga Rattlers of the Great Lakes Inline Junior "A" Roller Hockey League.

Starting with the 2013–2014 season, Mississauga Power in the National Basketball League of Canada, the only Canadian professional basketball league. Oshawa Power has been relocated to the city, and was renamed Mississauga Power. Home games are played at the Hershey Centre.

Mississauga also has teams for box lacrosse (Mississauga Tomahawks of the OLA Junior A Lacrosse League), cricket (Mississauga Ramblers of the Toronto and District Cricket League, Mississauga Titans of the Etobicoke District Cricket League), and Canadian football. The Mississauga Football League (MFL) is a youth football program that is for players aged 7–17, founded in 1971. The city also has other amateur football teams in Ontario leagues: the Mississauga Warriors of the Ontario Varsity Football League and the Mississauga Demons of the Ontario Australian Football League. Mississauga's rugby players are now served by the Mississauga Blues[70] at the youth level though many still play for the more established clubs in neighbouring cities.

Ringette is one of the affiliated youth groups that are allocated ice time by the City of Mississauga (Recreation and Parks Division, Community Services Department) on an allocated priority basis.[71] The Ringette program is administered by the Mississauga Ringette Association.

Recreational clubs include the Mississauga Figure Skating Club, Mississauga Synchronized Swimming Association,[72] North Mississauga Soccer Club,[73] Mississauga Falcons Soccer Club,[74] Mississauga Canoe Club, Mississauga Scrabble Club,[75] Don Rowing Club at Port Credit, International Soccer Club Mississauga,[76] and the Mississauga Aquatic Club. There are over 481 parks and woodlands areas in Mississauga. Mississauga is home to many indoor playgrounds including Playdium, Kids Time Family Fun Center, KidSports indoor playground, and Laser Quest Center. There are over 26 major indoor playgrounds in the city of Mississauga.[77]

Government[edit]

Mississauga City Council consists of the mayor and eleven city councillors, each representing one of the city's eleven numbered wards. The current mayor, Hazel McCallion, will be replaced by Bonnie Crombie in November 2014.[78]

The City of Mississauga has had only three mayors in its history. Martin Dobkin was the city's first mayor in 1974. He was then followed by Ron A. Searle. Searle was defeated by then-city councillor and former mayor of Streetsville, McCallion. McCallion is regarded as a force in provincial politics and often referred to as Hurricane Hazel, comparing her political force to the devastating 1954 storm that struck the Toronto area. McCallion won or was acclaimed in every mayoral election from 1978 to 2010, in some later elections without even campaigning. In October 2010, McCallion won her twelfth term in office with over 76% of the votes. McCallion is the nation's longest serving mayor and was runner-up in World Mayor 2005.[79] In 2014 McCallion did not run again, but endorsed Crombie, who won and will become mayor in November 2014.[78]

Provincial electoral districts[edit]

Federal electoral districts[edit]

Infrastructure[edit]

Law enforcement and fire[edit]

Peel Regional Police provide policing within the city of Mississauga. In addition, the Ontario Provincial Police have a Port Credit detachment in the city. Mississauga Fire and Emergency Services provide fire fighting services and Peel Regional Paramedic Services provides emergency medical services.

Library[edit]

The Mississauga Library System is a municipally owned network of 18 libraries.

Healthcare[edit]

The city's two main hospitals—Credit Valley Hospital and Trillium Health Partners—were amalgamated in November 2011 and are now known as Trillium Health Partners. The health system and the administration for students in Mississauga was the property of the Peel District School Board Health Centre[80] and the health support for citizens in Mississauga was the property of Peel Health Centre.[81] The eastern part of Mississauga was the property of Pearson Health (Greater Toronto Area Health Department).[82]

Transportation[edit]

Highways[edit]

Highway 403 in Mississauga, showing HOV lanes adjacent to the median.
At 18 lanes wide, Highway 401 in Mississauga near Pearson International Airport is one of the widest and busiest freeways in the world.

Highway 401 (the Macdonald-Cartier Freeway, connecting Windsor to Quebec) passes through the city's north end. The eastern part uses the collector/express lane system and feeds into Highway 403, the main freeway in the city, which runs through the City Centre and Erin Mills areas. The Queen Elizabeth Way, the city's first freeway, runs through the southern half of the city. These three freeways each run east-west, with the exception of the 403 from the 401 to Cawthra Road, and from the 407 to QEW. North of the 401, the collector lanes of the 403 become Highway 410, which goes to Brampton. Part of Highway 409 is within the city of Mississauga, and it provides access to Pearson Airport. Two other freeways run along or close to Mississauga's municipal borders. Highway 407 runs metres from the northern city limits in a power transmission corridor and forms the city's boundary with Milton between highways 401 and 403. Highway 427 forms the Toronto-Mississauga boundary in the northeast, and is always within 2 kilometres of the boundary further south, with the exception of the area around Centennial Park.

Rail[edit]

Mississauga is on three major railway lines (one each owned by the Canadian National Railway, the Canadian Pacific Railway, and Metrolinx). Although Via Rail trains on the Quebec City-Windsor Corridor pass through Mississauga, the city lacks a station; the nearest stations are located in the neighbouring cities of Brampton, Oakville, and Toronto. The only passenger rail service is provided by GO Transit, on the Lakeshore West, Georgetown, and Milton lines. However these lines mainly serve commuters going to and from Toronto's Union Station.

There are plans for the construction of an LRT line along Hurontario Street stretching from Port Credit to southern Brampton, and possibly to Brampton's downtown. The project went through the Transit Project Assessment Process (TRAP) which includes environmental assessment. Light rail transit could possibly be built on some other main thoroughfares, namely Dundas Street and Lakeshore Road, but no definite dates have been set.[83]

Bus[edit]

Main article: MiWay

The city's public transit service, MiWay (formerly Mississauga Transit), provides bus service across the city, and connects to the Toronto subway, GO Transit, Oakville Transit, and Brampton Transit. MiWay operates routes for both local service (branded as "MiLocal") and limited-stop service (branded as "MiExpress").

Mississauga Transitway[edit]

A 12-station busway similar to Ottawa's Transitway is being built along Highway 403 from Winston Churchill Boulevard to Renforth Avenue, via the Mississauga City Centre Transit Terminal.[84] When finished, the service is expected to connect to Kipling Subway Station in Toronto, via mixed lanes. [85]

Air[edit]

Lester B. Pearson International Airport (YYZ) in the northeastern part of the city is a hub for Air Canada and WestJet and provides flights to regional, national, and international destinations. It is Canada's busiest airport with over 30 million passenger movements annually. It is served by over 75 airlines and flies to over 180 destinations.[86]

Bicycle[edit]

In 2010, the City of Mississauga approved a Cycling Master Plan outlining a strategy to develop over 900 kilometres (560 miles) of on and off-road cycling routes in the city over the next 20 years. Over 1,000 Mississauga citizens and stakeholders contributed their thoughts and ideas to help develop this plan. The plan focuses on fostering cycling as a way of life in the city, building an integrated network of cycling routes and aims to adopt a safety first approach to cycling.[87]

Education[edit]

Hazel McCallion Academic Learning Centre at U of T Mississauga

Mississauga is the home to the University of Toronto Mississauga, one of three campuses of the University of Toronto. UTM has an enrolment of approximately 13,200 students. It is growing at a rate of about 1,000 students per year since 2002, following a major expansion. U of T Mississauga has 15 academic departments, 143 programs and 87 areas of study, and includes Institutes for Management and Innovation, and Communication, Culture, Information and Technology. The Mississauga Academy of Medicine is located on campus in the Terrence Donnelly Health Sciences Complex. The campus employs over 2,000 full- and part-time employees (including 800 permanent faculty and staff), and has more than 47,000 alumni, including astronaut Dr. Roberta Bondar, filmmaker Richie Mehta, actor Zaib Shaikh and writer/poet Dionne Brand. The $35-million Innovation Complex, which opened in September 2014, houses the Institute for Management and Innovation, a new model for business education combining management studies with key industry sectors, and the first phase of the multi-phase North Building reconstruction, known as Deerfield Hall, opened in September 2014.

Sheridan College Business education facility in downtown Mississauga

Sheridan College opened a new $46 million facility in Mississauga in 2011. The school has two main concentrations: business education, and programs to accelerate the movement of new Canadians into the workforce. The 150,000 sq ft (14,000 m2) campus will be located on an 8.5-acre (34,000 m2) parcel of land in City Centre just north of the Living Arts Centre. The campus accommodated 1,700 students upon completion of phase one of construction in Fall 2011. Phase two of construction after 2011 increased capacity by 3,740 students to a combined total of 5,000; it also included construction of a 10-level municipal parking garage.[88][89][90][91]

Mississauga is served by the Peel District School Board, which operates the secular Anglophone public schools, the Dufferin-Peel Catholic District School Board, which operates Catholic Anglophone public schools, the Conseil scolaire Viamonde, which operates secular Francophone schools, and the Conseil scolaire de district catholique Centre-Sud, which operates Catholic Francophone schools. Within the city, the four boards run a total of more than 150 schools.

Multiple schools in Mississauga also offer specialized programs:

Media[edit]

Main article: Media in Peel

Mississauga is primarily served by media based in Toronto, with markets in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) that cover most of the news in the GTA. Examples of this being the majority of radio stations transmitting from the nearby CN Tower in Toronto. However, Mississauga also has The Mississauga News, a regional newspaper that is published two days a week in print and daily online.[93] There is also the Sunday Times, a community newspaper for the South Asian community that is published weekly in print and also available online, as well as MississaugaLife Magazine Sprit of the City, a monthly general interest magazine.[94] The city also has one specialty radio station: FM 91.9 CFRE, the campus radio station of the University of Toronto Mississauga.

The following national cable television stations also broadcast from Mississauga.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]