Mistress of the Robes

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The Mistress of the Robes (Danish: hofmesterinde; Norwegian: overhoffmesterinne; Swedish: överhovmästarinna) is the senior lady in the royal households of Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

Contents

Denmark[edit]

In Denmark, the chief lady-in-waiting is entitled hofmesterinde in Danish, corresponding to the English title Mistress of the Robes.

Mistress of the Robes to Christina of Saxony, 1481–1513[edit]

Mistress of the Robes to Isabella of Austria, 1515–1523[edit]

Mistress of the Robes to Sophie of Pomerania, 1523–1533[edit]

Mistress of the Robes to Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow 1572–1631[edit]

Mistress of the Robes to Anne Catherine of Brandenburg 1597–1612[edit]

  • 1597–1612: Beate Huitfeldt

Mistress of the Robes to Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Kassel 1670–1714[edit]

  • 1695–1705: Dorothea Justina Haxthausen
  • Louise Charlotte von Schlaberndorf

Mistress of the Robes to Louise of Mecklenburg-Güstrow 1699–1721[edit]

  • 1699–1716: Abel Cathrine Buchwald

Mistress of the Robes to Juliana Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel 1752–1796[edit]

Mistress of the Robes to Caroline Matilda of Great Britain 1766–1772[edit]

Mistress of the Robes to Marie of Hesse-Kassel 1808–1852[edit]

  • 1823–1839: Lucie Charlotte Sehestedt Juul

Mistress of the Robes to Caroline Amalie of Augustenburg 1839–1881[edit]

Mistress of the Robes to Louise of Hesse-Kassel 1863–1898[edit]

  • 1864–1876: Ida Marie Bille
  • 1876–1888: Julia Adelaide Harriet Raben-Levetzau

Mistress of the Robes to Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin 1912–1952[edit]

  • 1912–1935: Louise Grevenkop-Castenskiold
  • 1935–1952: Inger Wedell

Norway[edit]

During the union of Sweden-Norway in 1814–1905, Sweden and Norway shared the same royal family. At that time, there were two Mistresses of the Robes for the same queen: one as Queen of Sweden at the Swedish royal court when she lived in Sweden, and a separate Mistress of the Robes as Queen of Norway at the Norwegian royal court, who served in her post during the visits of the Swedish-Norwegian royal family to Norway.

Presently, the overhoffmesterinne in Norway acts as a vice hostess at the Norwegian royal court when the queen and the other female members of the royal family are absent.

Mistress of the Robes to Désirée Clary, 1823–1861[edit]

Mistress of the Robes to Josephine of Leuchtenberg, 1844–1876[edit]

Mistress of the Robes to Louise of the Netherlands, 1859–1871[edit]

  • 1859–1871: Juliane Cathrine Wilhelmine Wedel Jarlsberg

Mistress of the Robes to Sophia of Nassau, 1872–1905[edit]

  • 1873–1887: Alette Due
  • 1887–1905: Elise Lovenskiold

Sweden[edit]

In Sweden, the Mistress of the Robes is the second highest-ranking official of the royal household, preceded only by the Marshal of the Realm. She ranks immediately below the members of the royal family, the speaker of the Parliament and the prime minister, and has precedence over former speakers of the Parliament and former prime ministers. The incumbent is Countess Alice Trolle-Wachtmeister, who has served since 1994.

The title and position have changed over time. Before the reign of Queen Christina (1632–1654), the title was generally referred to as hovmästarinna (the Court Mistress), but during and after the reign of Christina, it became the custom to have two such Court mistresses subordinate to one överhovmästarinna (the Chief Court Mistress).[1] Only the Queen and the Queen Dowager had a Mistress of the Robes called överhovmästarinna (the Chief Court Mistress) while the equivalent at the courts of other female members of the royal house was called hovmästarinna (the Court Mistress). The position was the highest a female courtier could have in the Swedish royal court, and the överhovmästarinna was ranked an Excellency, something unusual for a woman in the 17th century, which placed her immediately after the female members of the royal house in rank. Her role was to uphold etiquette at court, and receive and carry out the instructions of the Queen in the management of the court. She managed the employment of new members to the court of the Queen, and every meeting and letter to the Queen passed through her.[2] She also managed the ceremony of the court presentation, in which nobles were presented to the royal family and thus allowed to show themselves officially at court.[3] She could also represent the Queen on some occasions at court ceremonies and parties as hostess.

Mistress of the Robes to Catherine Stenbock 1552–1621[edit]

  • 1552–1568: Anna Hogenskild

Mistress of the Robes to Karin Månsdotter 1567–1568[edit]

Mistress of the Robes to Catherine Jagellon 1568–1583[edit]

Mistress of the Robes to Gunilla Bielke 1585–1597[edit]

  • 1587–1592: Kerstin Oxenstierna

Mistress of the Robes to Christina of Holstein-Gottorp 1604–1625[edit]

  • 1604–1608 : Carin Ulfsdotter Snakeborg
  • 1608–1612 : Gunilla Jönsdotter Struss
  • 1612–1619 : Carin Kyle

Mistress of the Robes to Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg 1620–1655[edit]

  • 1620–1623 : Hebbla Eriksdotter Stålarm
  • Catharina von Schnideck
  • Regina Catharina von Windisch-Grätz
  • 1628–1633 : Brita Gylta
  • 1633–1634 : Ebba Mauritzdotter Leijonhufvud
  • 1634–1639 : Elisabet Gyllenstierna
  • 1639–1640 : Christina Posse
  • 1640–1649 : Vacant
  • 1649–1655 : Görvel Posse

Mistress of the Robes to Christina 1632–1654[edit]

Mistress of the Robes to Hedvig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp, 1654–1715[edit]

  • 1655–1660 : Elisabet Carlsdotter Gyllenhielm
  • 1660–1664 : Görwel Bååt
  • 1664–1671 : Görvel Posse
  • 1671–1686 : Occa Maria Johanna von Riperda
  • 1686–1715 : Märta Berendes (equivalent position at the court of the princesses in 1687–1717)

Mistress of the Robes to Ulrika Eleonora of Denmark, 1680–1693[edit]

  • 1680–1693 : Maria Elisabeth Stenbock

Mistress of the Robes to Ulrika Eleonora 1718–1741[edit]

  • 1717–1736 : Katarina Ebba Horn af Åminne
  • 1736–1741 : Hedvig Elisabet Strömfelt (equivalent position to the Crown princess in 1744–1751)

Mistress of the Robes to Louisa Ulrika of Prussia, 1751–1782[edit]

  • 1751–1751 : Hedvig Elisabet Strömfelt
  • 1751–1754 : Ulla Tessin
  • 1754–1761 : Ulrica Catharina Stromberg
  • 1761–1765 : Ulrika Juliana Gyllenstierna
  • 1765–1771 : Brita Stina Sparre
  • 1771–1782 : Fredrika Eleonora von Düben

Mistress of the Robes to Sophia Magdalena of Denmark, 1771–1813[edit]

Mistress of the Robes to Frederica of Baden, 1797–1809[edit]

  • 1795–1805 : Hedvig Catharina Piper
  • 1805–1810 : Lovisa Sophia von Fersen

Mistress of the Robes to Hedvig Elisabeth Charlotte of Holstein-Gottorp, 1809–1818[edit]

Mistress of the Robes to Désirée Clary, 1823–1861[edit]

Mistress of the Robes to Josephine of Leuchtenberg, 1844–1876[edit]

  • 1844–1866: Charlotta Skjöldebrand

Mistress of the Robes to Louise of the Netherlands, 1859–1872[edit]

  • 1859–1860: Stefanie Hamilton
  • 1860–1869: Wilhelmina Bonde
  • 1871–1872: Anne-Malène Wachtmeister

Mistress of the Robes to Sophia of Nassau, 1872–1907[edit]

  • 1872–1879: Elisabet Augusta Piper
  • 1880–1890: Malvina De la Gardie
  • 1890–1907: Ebba Åkerhielm

Mistress of the Robes to Victoria of Baden, 1907–1931[edit]

  • 1907–1908: Vacant
  • 1908–1931: Augusta Lewenhaupt

United Kingdom[edit]

Formerly (as the name implies) responsible for the queen's clothes and jewelry, the post now has the responsibility for arranging the rota of attendance of the ladies-in-waiting on the queen, along with various duties at state ceremonies. In the past, whenever the queen was a queen regnant rather than a queen consort, the Mistress of the Robes was a political appointment, changing with the government. However, this has not been the case since the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, and Queen Elizabeth II has only had two Mistresses of the Robes in more than sixty years' reign. Queens dowager have their own Mistresses of the Robes, and in the 18th century Princesses of Wales had one too. In modern times, the Mistress of the Robes is almost always a duchess.

Mistress of the Robes to Mary I, 1553–1558[edit]

Mistress of the Robes to Elizabeth I, 1558–1603[edit]

Mistress of the Robes to Anne of Denmark, 1603–1619[edit]

  • 1603–1619: Audrey (Etheldreda), Lady Walsingham

Mistresses of the Robes to Anne, 1704–1714[edit]

Mistresses of the Robes to Caroline of Ansbach, 1714–1737[edit]

Mistresses of the Robes to Augusta of Saxe-Gotha 1736–1763[edit]

Mistress of the Robes to Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, 1761–1818[edit]

Mistress of the Robes to Caroline of Brunswick 1795–1820[edit]

Mistress of the Robes to Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, 1830–1837[edit]

Mistress of the Robes to Victoria, 1837–1901[edit]

Mistress of the Robes to Alexandra of Denmark, 1901–1925[edit]

Mistress of the Robes to Mary of Teck, 1910–1953[edit]

Mistress of the Robes to Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, 1937–2002[edit]

Mistress of the Robes to Elizabeth II, 1953–present[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fabian Persson (1999). Servants of Fortune. The Swedish court between 1598 and 1721. Lund: Wallin & Dalholm. ISBN 91-628-3340-5
  2. ^ Fabian Persson (1999). Servants of Fortune. The Swedish court between 1598 and 1721. Lund: Wallin & Dalholm. ISBN 91-628-3340-5
  3. ^ Tydén-Jordan Astrid, red (1987). Kungligt klädd, kungligt mode. Stockholm: Bergh. Libris 7401256. ISBN 91-502-0849-7
  4. ^ a b G. A. Bergenroth, P. De Gayangos, and others, Calendar of letters, despatches, and state papers, relating to the negotiations between England and Spain, 13 vols., (1862–1954); M. A. S. Hume, Calendar of letters and state papers, relating to English affairs, preserved in the archives of Simancas, 4 vols., (1892–9)
  5. ^ Cokayne et al., The Complete Peerage, volume VIII, p.496
  6. ^ Cokayne et al., The Complete Peerage, volume I, p.212
  7. ^ Wier, Alison, Britain's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy, The Bodley Head, 1999, p.265
  8. ^ Cokayne et al., The Complete Peerage, volume XII/2, p.589
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Institute of Historical Research
  10. ^ The London Gazette, 29 August 1837, p.15
  11. ^ The London Gazette, 10 September 1841, p.1
  12. ^ The London Gazette, 10 July 1846, p.5
  13. ^ The London Gazette, 16 March 1852, p.2
  14. ^ The London Gazette, 18 January 1853, p.5
  15. ^ The London Gazette, 5 March 1858, p.2
  16. ^ The London Gazette, 24 June 1859, p.3
  17. ^ The London Gazette, 26 April 1861, p.2
  18. ^ The London Gazette, 22 December 1868, p.1
  19. ^ The London Gazette, 25 January 1870, p.1
  20. ^ The London Gazette, 3 March 1874, p.6
  21. ^ The London Gazette, 7 May 1880, p.5
  22. ^ The London Gazette, 12 January 1883, p.6
  23. ^ The London Gazette, 27 June 1885, p.6
  24. ^ The London Gazette, 3 September 1886, p.4
  25. ^ The London Gazette, 16 July 1895, p.24
  26. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27292. p. 1648. 8 March 1901.
  27. ^ The London Gazette, 28 October 1913, p.2
  28. ^ The London Gazette, 21 June 1910, p.1
  29. ^ The London Gazette, 14 November 1916, p.1
  30. ^ The London Gazette, 5 March 1937, p.2
  31. ^ The London Gazette, 17 April 1964, p.1
  32. ^ The London Gazette, 20 January 1953, p.1
  33. ^ The London Gazette, 3 January 1967, p.1