Mitcham, London

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Mitcham
Eagle House, London Road, Mitcham. - geograph.org.uk - 22085.jpg
Eagle House, London Road, Mitcham, built in 1705
Mitcham is located in Greater London
Mitcham
Mitcham
 Mitcham shown within Greater London
Population 103,298 [1]
OS grid reference TQ285685
London borough Merton
Ceremonial county Greater London
Region London
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town MITCHAM
Postcode district CR4
Dialling code 020
Police Metropolitan
Fire London
Ambulance London
EU Parliament London
UK Parliament Mitcham and Morden
London Assembly Merton and Wandsworth
List of places
UK
England
London

Coordinates: 51°24′03″N 0°09′06″W / 51.4009°N 0.1517°W / 51.4009; -0.1517

Mitcham is a district in the south west area of Greater London, in the London Borough of Merton. A suburban area, Mitcham is located on the border of Inner London and Outer London, and is traditionally in the county of Surrey. It is both residentially and financially developed, well served by Transport for London, and home to Mitcham Town Centre, Mitcham Common, Mitcham Library, and Mitcham Cricket Green. Nearby districts include Wimbledon, Streatham, Tooting, Morden and Sutton.

Location[edit]

Mitcham is on the east side of the London Borough of Merton and is bounded by the London Borough of Wandsworth, the London Borough of Croydon, the London Borough of Lambeth and the London Borough of Sutton. Mitcham is close to Wimbledon, Croydon, Streatham and Tooting. The River Wandle bounds the town to the southwest. The original village lies in the west, although expansion has pushed the eastern boundary the furthest. Mitcham Common takes up the greater part of the boundary and area to the south.

Mitcham had until recently never been well served by railway, due to its being equidistant between the historic lines of Waterloo to Southampton and London Bridge to Brighton. However, a recent addition of Mitcham Eastfields railway station in June 2008, nearer to the centre of the town than Mitcham Junction, on the same line, has improved transport links. It is the first suburban station to be built in 50 years in the area. The station serves routes to London Victoria, Blackfriars and London Bridge, as well as direct links by train to St Albans and Bedford and Luton airport. An 18th-century milestone on Figges Marsh indicates Mitcham to be 8.5 miles from Whitehall.

History[edit]

Mitcham Parish Church, Church Road, Mitcham dates in part from the Saxon era.

The toponym "Mitcham" is Old English in origin and means big settlement. Before the Romans and Saxons were present, there was a Celtic settlement in the area, with evidence of a hill fort in the Pollards Hill area. The discovery of Roman-era graves and a well on the site of the Mitcham gas works evince Roman settlement. The Saxon graveyard, located on the North bank of the Wandle is the largest discovered to date, and many of the finds therein are on display in the British Museum. The area is a possible location for the Battle of Merton, 871, in which King Ethelred of Wessex was either mortally wounded or killed outright. The Church of England parish church of St Peter and St Paul dates from the Saxon era. Although it was mostly rebuilt in 1819–21, the current building retains the original Saxon tower. The Domesday Book of 1086 lists Mitcham as a small farming community, with 250 people living in two hamlets; Mitcham, an area known today as Upper Mitcham; and Whitford, today known as the Lower Green area.

The area lay within the Anglo-Saxon administrative division of Wallington hundred.

The Domesday Book records Mitcham as Michelham. It was held partly by the Canons of Bayeux; partly by William, son of Ansculf and partly by Osbert.[2] Its domesday assets were: 8 hides and 1 virgate. It had ½ mill worth £1, 3½ ploughs, 56 acres (23 ha) of meadow. It rendered £4 5s 4d.

Potter & Moore aftershave, made with Mitcham lavender

During her reign Queen Elizabeth I made at least five visits to the area. John Donne and Sir Walter Raleigh also had residences here in this era. It was at this time that Mitcham became gentrified, as due to the abundance of lavender fields Mitcham became renowned for its soothing air. The air also led people to settle in the area during times of plague.

When industrialisation occurred, Mitcham quickly grew to become a town and most of the farms were swallowed up in the expansion. Remnants of this farming history today include: Mitcham Common itself; Arthur's Pond, sited on the corner of Watney's Road and Commonside East, and named for a local farmer; Alfred Mizen School (Now named Garden Primary), named after a local nursery man who was very charitable towards the burgeoning town; and the road New Barnes Avenue, which was named after the farm that stood on that site.

There were many lavender fields in Mitcham, and peppermint and lavender oils were also distilled. In 1749 two local physic gardeners, John Potter and William Moore, founded a company to make and market toiletries made from locally-grown herbs and flowers.[3] Lavender features on Merton Council's coat of arms and the badge of the local football team, Tooting & Mitcham United F.C., as well as in the name of a local council ward, Lavender Field.

Mitcham was industrialised first along the banks of the Wandle, where snuff, copper, flour, iron and dye were all worked. Mitcham, along with nearby Merton Abbey, became the calico cloth printing centres of England by 1750. Asprey, suppliers of luxury goods made from various materials, was founded in Mitcham as a silk-printing business in 1781. William Morris opened a factory on the River Wandle at Merton Abbey. Merton Abbey Mills were the Liberty silk-printing works. It is now a craft village and its waterwheel has been preserved.

The activity along the Wandle led to the building of the Surrey Iron Railway, the World's first public railway, in 1803. The decline and failure of the railway in the 1840s also heralded a change in industry, as horticulture gradually gave way to manufacturing, with paint, varnish, linoleum and firework manufacturers moving into the area. The work provided and migratory patterns eventually resulted in a doubling of the population between the years 1900 and 1910.

Mitcham became a borough on 19 September 1934 with the charter of incorporation being presented to the 84-year old mayor, Mr. R.M. Chart, by the Lord Lieutenant of Surrey, Lord Ashcombe.[4]

Mitcham's population
19th Century 20th Century
1801 3,466 1901 14,903
1811 4,175 1911 29,606
1821 4,453 1921 35,119
1831 4,387 1931 56,859
1841 4,532 1941¹ war
1851 4,641 1951 67,269
1861 5,078 1961 63,690
1871 6,498 1971 60,608
1881 8,960 1981 57,158
1891 12,127 1991² n/a
  1. no census was held due to war
  2. census data no longer relates to parish boundaries
source: UK census

Social housing schemes in the 1930s included New Close, aimed at housing people made homeless by a factory explosion in 1933 and Sunshine Way, for housing the poor from inner London. This industry made Mitcham a target for German bombing during World War II. During this time Mitcham also returned to its agricultural roots, with Mitcham Common being farmed to help with the war effort.

From 1929 the electronics company Mullard had a factory on New Road.

Post war, the areas of Eastfields, Phipps Bridge and Pollards Hill were rebuilt to provide cheaper more affordable housing. The largest council housing project in Mitcham is Phipps Bridge estate. Further expansion of the housing estates in Eastfields, Phipps Bridge and Pollards Hill occurred after 1965. In Mitcham Cricket Green, the area lays reasonable, although not definitive, claim to having the world's oldest cricket ground in continual use, and the world's oldest club in Mitcham Cricket Club. The ground is also notable for having a road separate the pavilion from the pitch. Local folklore also claims Mitcham has the oldest fair in England, believing it to have been granted a charter by Queen Elizabeth I, although this claim has not been proven.

Literature

Mitcham is referred to in a rhyme dating back to the 18th century. The rhyme was revised in the Victorian era as:

Open Space[edit]

Pond on Mitcham Common.

Mitcham is home to a large area (460 acres) of South London's open green space in the form of Mitcham Common. There are several ponds and a few buildings on the Common.

The Seven Islands pond is the largest of all the ponds on the Common, and was created as the result of gravel extraction during the 19th century. The most recent, Bidder's pond, was created in 1990 and named for George Parker Bidder.

The buildings comprising the Windmill Trading Estate have existed in one form or another since 1782, when the estate was established as workhouses for the poor. Companies to have utilised the buildings include Hooper's Telegraph Works. Recently the Estate has been replaced by a mixed-tenure of housing apartments. The Mill House Ecology Centre and the Mill House Pub are located near the site of an old windmill, the remnants of which still exist.

Also see separate article on Mitcham Common.

Notable buildings[edit]

Old Mitcham Station
Mitcham Library, London Rd
St Barnabas church, Gorringe Pk Ave
  • The Canons. House originally built in 1680; it was the home of the family Cranmer until it was sold to the local council in 1939. The name originates from an Augustinian priory that was given this site in the 12th Century. The pond next to which it is located and the dovecote both predate the house.
  • Eagle House, built in 1705.(See photograph in "Infobox" above.) Eagle House is a Queen Anne house built in the Dutch style on land formerly owned by Sir Walter Raleigh. It is on London Road, Mitcham, the grounds forming a triangle bounded by London Road, Bond Road and Western Road. The building was commissioned by the marrano doctor Fernando Mendes (1647–1724), former physician to King Charles II.
  • Mitcham Common Windmill, a post mill dating from 1806.
  • Old Mitcham Station, on the Surrey Iron Railway route. Now called Station Court, the building was a former merchant's home and is possibly the oldest station in the world.(see photograph, right.)
  • The Tate Almshouses, built in 1829 to provide for the poor by Mary Tate.
  • The Watermead Fishing Cottages.
  • Vestry Hall, the annex of which now houses the Wandle Industrial Museum.
  • Mitcham Public Library, built in 1933.(See photograph, below right.)
  • Elm Lodge, 1808. This listed Regency house was occupied by Dr. Parrott, a village doctor, in the early 19th century, and for a short time by the artist, Sir William Nicholson. The curved canopy over the entrance door is a typical feature of this period.
  • Mitcham Court. The centre portion, first known as Elm Court, was built in 1840, the wings later. Caesar Czarnikow, a sugar merchant, lived here circa 1865-86 and presented the village with a new horse-drawn fire engine. Sir Harry Mallaby-Deeley, M.P., conveyed the house to the borough in the mid-1930s. The Ionic columned porch and the ironwork on the ground floor windows are notable features.
  • Renshaw's factory[dead link], a marzipan factory, founded in 1898 in the City and thus one of the earliest in the country, which came to Mitcham in 1924. It was on Locks Lane until 1991, when the company moved its operations to Liverpool. The factory was featured in three 1950s British Pathe News shorts. The building has lent its name to the area where it stood, Renshaw Corner.
  • Poulters Park, Home to Mitcham Rugby Union Football Club
  • Imperial Fields, Tooting & Mitcham United F.C.'s home ground.
  • Mitcham Methodist Church was designed by the architect Edward Mills (1915-1998), and built in 1958-9. Regarded as the best surviving work by the most successful Nonconformist architect of the period. A radical and inspiring building that was forwarded by the 20th Century Society for listing as it was under threat. Grade II listed on 5 March 2010.[6]
  • St Barnabas church, Gorringe Park Avenue, Mitcham. Built in the gothic style, on 17 May 1913 the foundation stone of the church building was laid, and on 14 November 1914 the church was consecrated - by the bishop of Southwark. The architect was HP Burke-Downing. The building is still in use as an Anglican church. Both the church itself and the adjacent parish hall are Grade II listed.
  • The White House, Mitcham on which the wall plaque says: "This 18th Century house was renovated in the Regency style in 1826 by Dr.A.C.Bartley, a village doctor, whose daughter wrote reminiscences of old Mitcham. The house remained in his family until 1919. Fluted Greek Doric columns support a slightly altered porch with a bowed front." Grade II listed.

Notable residents[edit]

Jo Brand in 1994

Demographics[edit]

Mitcham and Morden (Westminster Parliamentary Constituency)
  • Population - 103,298[1]
Ethnic Group[7]

British - 40,608, Irish - 1,840, Gypsy or Irish Traveller - 161, Other White - 12,899

White and Black Caribbean - 1,862, White and Black African - 856, White and Asian - 1,163, Other Mixed - 1,444

Indian - 4,536, Pakistani - 5,054, Bangladeshi - 1,484, Chinese - 1,169, Other Asian - 10,194

African - 9,036, Caribbean - 7,029, Other Black - 1,912

  • Other Ethnic Group

Arab - 670, Other ethnic group - 1,381

Religion[8]
  • Christian - 57,665
  • No Religion - 17,677, Religion Not Stated - 6,887
  • Muslim - 11,046
  • Hindu - 8,400

Buddhist - 862, Sikh - 252, Jewish - 147, Other Religion - 362

Gender[9]
  • Female: 52,237
  • Male: 51,061

Transport and locale[edit]

Mitcham is on the Croydon Tramlink providing easy access to Wimbledon as well as Croydon

Nearest stations[edit]

Recent developments[edit]

A new railway station, Mitcham Eastfields railway station in the area of Eastfields, opened on Monday 2 June 2008. This is located at Eastfields Road level crossing, about a mile to the north of Mitcham Junction. The station has filled in a gap in the rail system and serves the centre of Mitcham more directly.

Nearest places[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Population Density, 2011". Area: Mitcham and Morden (Westminster Parliamentary Constituency). Office for National Statistics. 
  2. ^ "Surrey". The Domesday Book online - Surrey. 
  3. ^ "Potter and Moore - An Introduction". Potter & Moore. 
  4. ^ Daily Mirror page 13, September 19, 1934
  5. ^ "Chapter XIV: Local Allusions to Women". sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 5 December 2013. 
  6. ^ "Mitcham Methodist Church, exterior (E. Mills)". Flickr. 
  7. ^ "Ethnic Group, 2011". Area: Mitcham and Morden (Westminster Parliamentary Constituency). Office for National Statistics. 
  8. ^ "Religion, 2011". Area: Mitcham and Morden (Westminster Parliamentary Constituency). Office for National Statistics. 
  9. ^ "Se, 2011". Area: Mitcham and Morden (Westminster Parliamentary Constituency). Office for National Statistics. 

External links[edit]