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|— Proposed state —|
|Languages||Maithili & its dialects|
|Cities||Darbhanga, Madhubani, Muzaffarpur, Bhagalpur|
|Establishment status||Not yet established|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+05:30)|
Mithila (Devnagri: मिथिला, mithilā Tirhuta: মিথিলা) is a proposed state in India, comprising the Maithili speaking regions of Bihar and Jharkhand. Mithila is also known as Videha, Tirhut, Tirbhukti or Vajji.
Mithila also refers to a city in Ancient India, the capital of the Videha Kingdom, located in modern-day Nepal. The name Mithila is also commonly used to refer to the Videha Kingdom itself, as well as to the modern-day territories that fall within the ancient boundaries of Videha. The city of Mithila has been identified as Janakpur in the Dhanusa district of Nepal.
The main economic activities of this region are agriculture, animal husbandry and fishery. Major crops include rice, wheat, pulses, moong, urad, arhar, bamboo, mustard, jute, maize, mango, lichi and bananas. Costly agro-products such as chili, coriander, turmeric, ginger and tobacco are also grown in the region. Makhan (water chestnut), Euryle ferox and litchi are almost unique to Mithila; other crops include medicinal and flowering plants.
Barauni in Begusarai district has an oil refinery, petrochemical complex and fertiliser factory. Muzaffarpur is another commercial and industrial hub of Mithila. Major industrial companies include Bharat Wagon and Engineering, NTPC (electricity), IDPL (drugs and pharmaceuticals), and Britannia Industries (food).
Darbhanga is a primary medical center for North Bihar, as well as Nepal and Bhutan. It has several colleges and educational establishments. Darbhanga has sugar factories, a paper mill and a bicycle factory. It has a large railway station.
Bhagalpur has a hand loom industry and is famous for Khadi and Tasar silk small scale industries. Madhubani has several sugar factories. It is also a big center of Mithila art. Jainagar has several rice mills and is a big railway center connecting India and Nepal.
Ancient history 
Ramayana King Sirdhwaj Janaka was ruling Videha. He was the 24th king of Janaka Dynasty. Sitamarhi, a place in this region, bears a value of sacred Hindu belief where, Seeta (other name Vaidehi: The Princes of Videha) sprang to life out of an earthen pot while Rajarshi Janak was tilling the land. There had been 54 kings in this dynasty.
After the end of Janaka dynasty, Mithila was divided into 8 states and power was decentralised to the local representatives elected by the people. Mithila takes the credit of being first Democratic republic ever on the earth. During this peroid, south-west Mithila was know by the name VAJJI REPUBLIC or the GREAT UNION OF VAJJI. Out of the 8 states of Union, Licchavis were the most powerful and influential.
Even the powerful kingdom of Magadh had to conclude matrimonial alliances in 519 B.C. with the neighbouring estates of the Licchavis. Ajatshatru invaded Vaishali and extended his sway over Mithila. It was at this time that Patliputra (the modern Patna) was founded at the village Patali on the banks of the sacred river Ganga and Ajatshatru built an invincible fortress to keep vigil over the Licchavis on the other side of the river. Ambarati, 40 km from Muzaffarpur is believed to be the village home of Amrapali, the famous Royal court dancer of Vaishali. Vaishali, a center of religious renaissance, Baso Kund, the birthplace of Mahavir, the 24th Jain Tirthankar and a contemporary of Lord Buddha continue to attract visitors from across the international boarders.
From the visit of the Hiuen Tsang’s till the rise of the Pala dynasty, Mithila was under the control of King Harsha Vardhan. After 647 A.D., the region passed on to the local chiefs. In the 8th century A.D. the Pala kings continued to have their hold over Mithila until 1019 A.D. Later Chedi kings of Central India ruled till they were replaced by the Sena dynasty in 11th century.
Islamic invasion 
During 1210 and 1226, Ghais-u-ddin Iwaz, the ruler of Bengal, was the first Muslim to invade of Mithila. He, however, could not succeed in conquering the kingdom but was able to extort tributes. In 1323, Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq of Delhi, established his control over Mithila.
The history of Mithila will remain incomplete without a reference to the Simraon dynasty (in West Champaran) and its founder Nanyupa Deva who extended his power over the whole of Mithila as well as to some part of Nepal.
During the regime of Harasimha Deva, the last king of the dynasty, Tughlaq Shah invaded Mithila in 1323 and gained control over the territory. Tughlaq Shah handed over the management of Mithila to Pt. Kameshwar Thakur. Thus, the sovereign power of Mithila, became part of Delhi Sultenat, but continued to enjoy complete autonomy.
Vidyapati (1352–1448), was a Maithili poet and Sanskrit scholar in the region. He was born in Village Bisfi of Madhubani. Folklore says that he was such a great devotee of Lord Shiva that the lord was really pleased with him. And once He (Shiva) decided to come to live in his house as a servant, Ugna. At several places in the region, Lord Shiva is still worshipped by this name. It is said that the lord in form of servant had imposed a condition on Vidyapati that he could not disclose identity of Lord Shiva to anyone or else He would go away. One day, When Vidyapati's wife was angry at her servant and started to beat Ugna, Vidyapati could not tolerate it and asked his wife to stop and disclosed identity of Ugna. Lord Shiva disappeared and was never seen again.
Under Bengal 
By the end of 14th century, the whole of Mithila passed on to the kings of Jaunpur and remained under their control for nearly a century. Hussain Shah, the Nawab of Bengal had become very powerful in Mithila. The emperor of Delhi Sikandar Lodi,advanced against Hussain Shah in 1499 and got control of Mithila, after defeating the Nawab of Bengal.
Though Mithila had been annexed by rulers of Delhi, yet the petty powerful chieftains of Nabab of Jaunpur, continued to exercise effective control over this area till the days of Daud Khan. Daud Khan had his stronghold at Patna and Hajipur. After his fall, a separate Subah of state of Bihar was constituted and Mithila formed a part of state of Bihar. Thus, Mithila kingdom lost its identity.
British rule 
The East India Company, in 1764, after the battle of Buxar, took over control of Bihar (Including Mithila). Mithila kings got jamindari rights of tax collection, and continued to report to British empire till Indian independence in 1947. Maharaja Kameswar Singh was the last jamindar King of Mithila. The insurgency at Delhi in 1857, caused a grave concern to the English inhabitants, in Mithila. A revolutionary fervor began to permeate in the entire region. In 1912, Bihar was carved out of Bengal.
In 1908, 18-year old young Bengali revolutionary, Khudi Ram Bose, was hanged at Muzaffarpur for throwing the bomb at the carriage of Pringle Kennedy who was actually mistaken for Kingsford, the District Judge of Muzaffarpur. After independence of India in 1947, a memorial to this young revolutionary patriot was constructed at Muzaffrapur.
The visit of Mahatma Gandhi in Mithila (Motihari) in December 1920, and again in January 1927 had political effect in arousing the people and Mithila, who continued to play a prominent role in the Indian independence struggle.
At the time of independence, the Constituent Assembly discussed the possibility of creating a number of states including Mithila, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala. When the States Reorganisation Commission was formed in 1953, several states were created and reorganised. At that time there was scope for Mithila to be awarded with statehood, but no action was taken. In 2000, Jharkhand was curved out from Bihar on ethnical and geographical ground. Jharkhand also took 1 district of Mithila, named Sanhal Parganas, which is now divided into 6 districts.
In 1993 an organisation named Antarrashtriya Maithili Parishad was formed to promote the cause of Mithila, followed by Mithila Rajya Sangharsh Samiti in 1995, Mithila Vikas Party in 2008, and Akhil Bharatiya Mithila Party in 2009. There have been several peaceful protests and fasts (dharnas) organized in Mithila and Delhi, notably on 22 December 2008, 22 December 2009, 10 December 2011 and 21 Jan 2012.
Rivers and floods 
Mithila has seven major rivers, Mahananda, Gandak, Kosi, Bagmati, Kamala, Balan, Budhi Gandak. They flow from the Himalaya mountains in the north to the Ganges river in the south. These rivers regularly flood, depositing silt onto the farmlands and sometimes causing death or hardship. In the 1950s the Government of Bihar built high barriers on both banks, but these caused the rivers to silt up, which made them more prone to flooding.
Kosi Flood 2008 
|Duration:||18 August 2008|
|Fatalities:||434 (Dead bodies were found until 27 November 2008)|
|Areas affected:||Mithila, India, and Mithila, Nepal|
On 18 August 2008 the Kosi embankment burst at Kusha in Nepal, near the border with India. The Kosi river inundated areas of Mithila that hadn't experienced floods in many decades. 250 people died and 3 million people were forced from their homes. More than 300,000 houses were destroyed and at least 340,000 hectares (840,000 acres) of crops were damaged. Villagers in Mithila ate raw rice and flour mixed with polluted water. Hunger and disease were widespread. The Supaul district was the worst-hit; surging waters swamped 1,000 square kilometres (247,000 acres) of farmlands, destroying crops.
Political support 
- Bharatiya Janata Party
Several Bharatiya Janata Party leaders have supported the cause.
- BJP MP Kirti Azad from Darbhanga has organised dharnas and protests in support of Mithila.
- Senior BJP leader, Tarakant Jhaand, present chairman of Bihar Legislative Council, has organised public rallies supporting Mithila.
- Janata Dal (United)
Janata Dal (United) was the only party which supported the demand for statehood of Mithila during the 14th State assembly elections.
- In November 2011, Bihar Chief Minister Nitish Kumar also extended his support for the statehood of Mithila.
- Shravan Chaudhary, JDU state president, has openly supported the demand.
See also 
- Mithila, Nepal
- Tirhuta script
- Maithili language
- Maithil Brahmin
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- ..recently, we have had been vociferous demands from various regions such as Andhra, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Mahakoshal, Mithila and Jharkhand. I do not know whether I have left out any but there are thse areas which have been demanding that there should be realignment of present unwidely nad unnatural provinces... (Page no 672, Vol.4, Book No.1, Constituent Assembly of India, Dated: 18 July 1947)
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