Mitsubishi Delica

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Mitsubishi Delica
Mitsubishi-L300.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer Mitsubishi Motors
Production 1968–present
Body and chassis
Body style Van
Truck

The Mitsubishi Delica is a range of trucks and multi-purpose vehicles (MPVs) built by Mitsubishi Motors since 1968. It was originally based on a small pickup truck introduced the previous year, also called the Delica, its name a contraction of the English language phrase Delivery car.[1] This truck, and a commercial van derived from it has received many names in export markets, being sold as the L300 (later L400) in Europe and New Zealand, Express and Starwagon in Australia, and plain Mitsubishi Van and Wagon in the US. The passenger car versions were known as Delica Star Wagon from 1979 until the 1994 introduction of the Delica Space Gear, which became simply Space Gear in Europe at least. The most recent version (not available as a commercial vehicle) is called the Delica D:5.

In Japan, the Delica Cargo nameplate was used on badge-engineered Mazda Bongos between 1999 and 2010. Since 2011, the Delica D:2 name has been applied to a rebadged Suzuki Solio.

First generation (1968–1979)[edit]

First generation
Delica T100.jpg
Overview
Also called Mitsubishi Colt T100/T120
Production 1968–1979
Assembly Japan: Nagoya (Nagoya Plant)
Indonesia: Jakarta (PTKYTBM)
Body and chassis
Body style 3-door van
2-door pickup
Powertrain
Engine
  • 1.1 L (1,088 cc) KE44 I4 (T100)
  • 1.4 L (1,378 cc) 4G41 I4 (T120)
Dimensions
Wheelbase
  • 2,120 mm (83 in) (T100/T120)
  • 2,270 mm (89 in) (T121)[2]

The production of the Delica light commercial cab-over pickup began in July 1968.[3] It received the chassis code T100, in line with the recently (January 1968) introduced "T90" Canter. Using a KE44 1,088 cc engine producing 58 PS (43 kW), its maximum payload was 600 kg (1,323 lb) and had a top end speed of 115 km/h (71 mph). A year later, in line with consumer needs, a cargo van and a passenger van were added to the line-up. The passenger van, discontinued in 1976, was called the 'Delica Coach' and could seat nine people in three rows of seats. The engine was upgraded to 62 PS (46 kW) in 1969.

1975–1979 Colt T120 (equivalent to Delica 1400), Indonesia

In March 1971 a slightly facelifted version, called the Delica 75, arrived. This (the T120) received a small grille rather than the naked metal front of the earliest Delicas, and a new 1.4-liter Neptune (4G41) engine rated at 64 kilowatts (86 hp) was added to the line-up. The smaller 1.1-liter engine may have remained available in a 600 kilograms (1,300 lb) version of the truck but if so, it soon vanished entirely.[4]

After a fall 1974 facelift, the Delica received a new nose with lots of plastic cladding and double headlights, now mounted beneath the swage line. It was now known only as the "Delica 1400", as this was the only engine with which it was available (mention of a Delica 1200 is most likely apocryphal, perhaps an issue of confusion arising from the "120" chassis code). A longer wheelbase (T121) 1-ton truck was added in 1976.[4]

Late Colt T120 van (Malta)

In export markets, this car was sometimes called simply the Colt T100 / T120. Record, a Greek manufacturer of agricultural vehicles, plagiarized the Delica T120 design (using the same windshield, for instance) for their fibreglass-bodied "GS2000" truck.[5]

Second generation (1979–1986)[edit]

Second generation
Mitsubishi L300 front 1984.jpg
1979–1983 Mitsubishi L300 wagon, Germany
Overview
Also called Chrysler L300 Express (AU)
Ford Husky (ZA)
Mitsubishi Colt Solar/L300 (RI)
Mitsubishi L300
Mitsubishi L300 Express (AU)
Hyundai Porter
Isuzu Bison (RI)
Mahindra Voyager (IN)
Production 1979–1986 (Van)
1979–1994 (Truck)
1987-present (Philippines)
Assembly Japan: Nagoya (Nagoya Plant)
Indonesia: Jakarta (PTKYTBM)
South Korea: Ulsan
Philippines: Cainta, Rizal (Misubishi Philippines) [6]
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door pickup
4-door van/wagon
Powertrain
Engine 1.4 L I4 (gasoline)
1.6 L I4 (gasoline)
1.8 L I4 (gasoline)
2.0 L I4 (gasoline)
2.3 L I4 (diesel)
2.5 L I4 (diesel)
Transmission 3-speed automatic
4-speed manual
5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase SWB: 2,200 mm (86.6 in)
LWB: 2,350 mm (92.5 in)
Length SWB: 4,100 mm (161.4 in)
LWB: 4,260 mm (167.7 in)
Van: 4,445 mm (175.0 in)
Width 1,670–1,690 mm (65.7–66.5 in) (van)
1,695 mm (66.7 in) (pickup)
Height 1,990 mm (78.3 in)
1984–1985 Mitsubishi L300 Express (SD) 4WD wagon, Australia
Mitsubishi Colt Solar pickup, Indonesia

The Delica series was replaced in June 1979 by an all new design, bringing overall width up to the maximum 1,690-millimetre (67 in) dictated by Japanese regulations for "compact" vehicles.[7] Suspended at the front by an independent wishbone construction and a leaf spring at the rear, the Delica also features a sliding side door and one-piece gas strut tailgate.[8] The line-up was expanded to include ten model variations encompassing a wide variety of passenger (eight seats in a three/two/three configuration[9]), cargo and recreational applications. A four-wheel drive option was made available in 1982, a first in the Japanese van market. Engines were all four-cylinders well known from MMC's passenger cars and included the 1,439 cc, 80 PS (59 kW) Saturn (4G33) and 1.6-liter Saturn (4G32) engines. A 1.8-liter Sirius (4G62) version producing 100 PS (74 kW) appeared in May 1980, and a 2.0-liter Sirius (4G63B) petrol version became optional in 4WD versions from November 1983.[10] A 2.3-liter Astron (4D55) diesel appeared in October 1982 and was replaced by the larger 2.5-liter Astron (4D56) in 1986.

The four-wheel drive version of the Delica was first introduced to the Japanese market in October 1982.[10] This versatile vehicle utilized a modified version of the Mitsubishi Pajero's chassis, albeit usually with smaller engines (originally only the 1.8-liter gasoline).[9] After the introduction of the third generation Delica, the truck (separate cab) version of the second generation continued to be built until 1994.

Marketing[edit]

Australia

Chrysler Australia introduced the SA series Delica to the Australian market in April 1980 under the name "Chrysler L300 Express".[9] After acquiring control of the Chrysler Australia operations in the same month,[11] Mitsubishi Motors renamed the firm Mitsubishi Motors Australia in October 1980.[12] This resulted in the rebranding of the L300 Express as a Mitsubishi.[9] Fitted with a 1.6-liter engine and four-speed manual, both van (three-seater commercial) and wagon (eight-seater) variants were offered, with the commercial (van) version available with or without side rear windows.[9][13] The utility (pickup) version was not sold in Australia, as the L200 Express covered that segment of the market.[9] In November 1981 the SB series was introduced, now fitted with radial ply tires on larger diameter wheels, thus increasing the payload capacity from 925 to 1,000 kilograms (2,039 to 2,205 lb).[9] The following month, Mitsubishi introduced the high-roofed luxury "Deluxe" trim, fitted with electric sunroof and cloth upholstery.[9] The next update to the SB series arrived in October 1982, resulting in the "Deluxe" trim being renamed "Starwagon" and gaining a larger 1.8-liter engine—offered with a five-speed overdrive manual or optional three-speed automatic.[9] The "Star Wagon" (this was written either as one or as two words) moniker was also used on examples assembled by Todd Motors in New Zealand, albeit with the 65 PS (48 kW) 1.6-liter engine.[14] Mitsubishi extended the availability of the 1.8-liter engine to the lower-specification variants, albeit in automatic guise only.[15] The 1.8 was also available in the long wheelbase, high roof, panel van version.

From May 1983, the L300 Express received rectangular headlights in chrome surrounds as part of the SC iteration.[9] The SC also featured newly designed black resin bumpers and adjustments to the front suspension spring rate to improve ride and handling.[16] The four-wheel drive version, badged "4WD", came in October 1983 as a 1.8-liter model with floor-mounted five-speed manual only, therefore becoming a seven-passenger model by losing the front-row center seat.[9][17] After another facelift in late 1984, the car became the SD series, introducing better equipment and black headlight surrounds along with a black trim piece between the headlights on "Starwagon" and "4WD" trims.[18][19] The SD revision also upgraded the "4WD" to a 2.0-liter engine, with the 1.8-liter standard issue in a new long-wheelbase commercial (van) model.[18] A final minor update, the SE series appeared in 1986.[20]

Asia

This generation has been produced in the Philippines since 1987 as the "Mitsubishi Versa Van" (discontinued 2011) as well as the Cab/Chassis variant where local coach builders assemble rear bodies for passenger and cargo hauling purposes. Variations such as the FB (family business), PET (personal and equipment transport), WT (water tight aluminum van) and DS (drop side) have been made to cater to those needs. In 2010, an extended rear body variant for the FB variant called the Exceed was added.

This generation is still in production in Indonesia as the "Mitsubishi Colt L300",[21] equipped with the 2.5-liter 4D56 diesel engine. A gasoline engine was also available for a short period, but due to lack of demand, was discontinued. Since 2010, Isuzu Indonesia have sold this second generation Delica as the Isuzu Bison—available in pickup and minibus versions with an Isuzu Panther-sourced 4JA1L 2.5 litre diesel engine with 80 PS (59 kW). The Bison costs a bit more than a corresponding L300.[22]

In South Korea, Hyundai built the second generation Delica as the "Hyundai Porter", replacing an earlier model with the same name. South Korean production of this Porter continued alongside the third generation Delica, which was marketed by Hyundai as the "Grace". This Porter was replaced by an indigenously developed third generation Porter in March 1996.

From 1997 to 2000, the car was sold by Mahindra & Mahindra in India as the "Mahindra Voyager", but priced too high it was taken out of production after only a little over two years. The Voyager did meet with some success as an ambulance, but this association only further prevented prospective private purchasers.[23] Unique to the Mahindra Voyager is the fitment of PSA's 2.5 liter XD3P diesel engine, producing 72.5 PS (53 kW) DIN at 4000 rpm.[24]

Third generation (1986–2013)[edit]

Third generation
Mitsubishi Delica Van 003.JPG
Overview
Also called Mitsubishi L300
Mitsubishi Express (Australia)
Mitsubishi Starwagon (Australia)
Mitsubishi Versa Van
Mitsubishi Van/Wagon (US)[21]
Dodge 1000 (Mexico)
Hyundai Grace
Hyundai H-100
Production 1986–2013
Assembly Japan: Nagoya (Nagoya Plant)
Indonesia: Jakarta (Indobuana Autoraya)
South Korea: Ulsan
Taiwan (CMC)
Venezuela: Caracas[25]
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door pickup
4-door van
Layout Mid engine, rear-/four-wheel drive
Platform P01V–P35W
Powertrain
Engine 1,439 cc 4G33 I4 (gasoline)
1,597 cc 4G32 I4 (gasoline, P02/12)
1,795 cc 4G62 I4 (gasoline)
1,997 cc 4G63 I4 (gasoline)
2,351 cc 4G64 I4 (gasoline, P24)
2,476 cc 4D56 I4 (diesel)
2,476 cc 4D56 I4 (t/c diesel)
Transmission 4-speed automatic
5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,235–2,435 mm (88.0–95.9 in)
Length 4,380–4,780 mm (172.4–188.2 in)
Width 1,690 mm (66.5 in)
Height 1,840–1,955 mm (72.4–77.0 in)

In June 1986 the Delica underwent its third full model change. More aerodynamic than previous versions, its monocoque body and extensive safety features proved very popular in Japan's fast-growing recreational vehicle market segment. The more rounded design was referred to as "soft cube" styling by Mitsubishi.[26] Passenger versions continued to be sold as Delica Star Wagons, which became just plain "Starwagon" in Australia. The commercial version is called the "Express" in Australia. Two wheelbases have been offered.[27] In 1990, the Australian market received the naturally aspirated diesel engine as an option; this was the first Delica so equipped in that market.

Facelifted Delica Star Wagon

Although the subsequent L400 Delica and Delica Space Gear were introduced in 1994, the L300 Delica (van versions only) still remained in production in 2007 for export markets.[28] In Japan the commercial Delica range was replaced by a badge-engineered Mazda Bongo under an OEM deal which began in November 1999.

In May 2013, Mitsubishi discontinued the commercial version of the third generation Delica in Australia—badged as the Mitsubishi Express due to its inferior safety—the Express was the last new car to be sold in Australia with a one-star ANCAP rating. The Express had changed little since it was facelifted in 2003.[29]

A large range of engines were available, from a 1.4-liter up to a 2.4-liter petrol, and also a 2.5-liter diesel and turbodiesel. Rear- or four-wheel drive, several bodystyles and two different wheelbases made for a particularly extensive line-up. The four-wheel drive chassis was based on that of the contemporary Mitsubishi Pajero, although parts are seldom interchangeable. Late general export market versions received a carburetted 16-valve version of the 2.0-liter 4G63 four-cylinder, with 116 hp (87 kW) at 6,000 rpm.[27]

Marketing[edit]

Asia

Cargo versions are built by the China Motor Corporation in Taiwan.[30] This generation Delica was also built under license by Hyundai of South Korea, where it was called the "Hyundai Grace" or "Hyundai H-100" in some Eurasian markets. Launched in December 1986, this version originally received the twin headlights as used in the US market versions, but after a front-end facelift the new more aerodynamic version received thinner and more rounded headlights. This version was called the "New Grace". Both the 2.4-liter gasoline and 2.5-liter turbodiesel inline-four engines were available, both Mitsubishi designs. Hyundai terminology resulted in the 4D56 diesel engine being renamed D4BX / D4BA.

North America

From 1987 until 1990, Mitsubishi sold this model in small numbers in the United States as the "Wagon" for passenger versions and "Van" for windowless cargo versions.[31] The US versions all received a 107 horsepower (80 kW) version of the 2.4-liter 4G64 engine. For model years 1990 and 1991 an LS version of the Wagon was added.[32] Taiwanese-produced CMC Delica vans are sold in Mexico as the Dodge 1000[33] as of July 2007.[34] The Mitsubishi Expo LRV replaced the Van/Wagon in 1992.

In the early 2000s enthusiasts began importing the popular van to Canada. The 4WD turbo diesel van is also a common choice for Canadian postal workers who require a right hand drive vehicle.[35]

United Kingdom

Introduced for 1987, the British market received the new L300 with either the 1.6 petrol or 2.5 diesel engine. Both wheelbases were available.

Pre-facelift Mitsubishi Delica pickup, Japan
Pre-facelift Hyundai Grace, South Korea
Facelift Hyundai New Grace, Sweden

Fourth generation (1994–2007)[edit]

Fourth generation
P5270011 Mitsubishi Delica Super Exceed (RLH).JPG
Overview
Also called Mitsubishi L400
Mitsubishi Space Gear
Mitsubishi Starwagon (Australia)
Production 1994–2007
Assembly Japan: Nagoya
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door van
Layout Front engine, rear-wheel-drive layout
Front engine, all-wheel-drive
Powertrain
Engine 2.5 L 4D56 I4 (t/c diesel)
2.4 L 4G64 I4 (gasoline)
2.8 L 4M40 I4 (t/c diesel)
3.0 L 6G72 V6 (gasoline)
Transmission 4-speed automatic
5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,800–3,000 mm (110.2–118.1 in)
Length 4,595–5,085 mm (180.9–200.2 in)
Width 1,695 mm (66.7 in)
Height 1,855–2,070 mm (73.0–81.5 in)
Curb weight 1,690–2,170 kg (3,730–4,780 lb)

1994–1996[edit]

Released on May 12, 1994, the newest Delica received considerably more aerodynamic bodywork. No truck model was available of this generation, and passenger models were now called Delica Space Gear in the domestic Japanese market. Body specifications of the Space Gear in Japan ranged from XR, XG, Exceed, Super Exceed and Royal Exceed, and both long and short-wheelbase versions were available.

Mitsubishi Delica Space Gear rear

The fourth generation Delica is based on the chassis of the Mitsubishi Pajero[citation needed] and has full off road capabilities, with four-wheel drive, high and low ratio gears and differential locking. It has engine variations from 2.5 liters through to a 2.8-liter intercooled turbodiesel. A 2.4-liter and a 3.0-liter V6 petrol or gasoline engine with 12 or 24 valves, each with 4 gears and overdrive. Apart from the 2.8-liter diesel model they are available as a two or a four wheel drive version.

In many export markets, the cargo versions of the fourth generation were called the Mitsubishi L400 while the passenger versions were called Mitsubishi Space Gear – without using the Delica nameplate at all.

In Australia, where this generation was only available as a passenger version, it retained the "Mitsubishi Starwagon" name and was available between September 1994 and 2003. These Australian models were made available in four levels of specification: GL, GLX, GLS and 4WD.[36] Mitsubishi fitted the GL with a 2.0-liter carburetored inline-four, with the GLX gaining a fuel-injected 2.4-liter inline-four, and the GLS a 3.0-liter V6. Both four-cyliner engines were fitted standard with a five-speed manual transmission with optional four-speed column-shift automatic. The 3.0-liter GLS offered a four-speed floor-mounted automatic as its sole transmission option. The facelift model, released in 1996 saw the range rationalised with only the base GL and mid-range GLX models retained.

1996–2007[edit]

In 1996, the Delica was upgraded with a facelift model. The upgrade is mostly cosmetic with changes to the lighting clusters and front bodypanel, with the integration of a moulded bumper in place of the original three section bullbar. The engine was upgraded with an electronic control type distribution type jet pump and an electronic sidestep was made standard on the higher specification versions.

Delica Cargo (commercial van)
Fourth generation (L400) Delica Space Gear, Series 2

Fifth generation (2007–present)[edit]

Fifth generation
Mitsubishi Delica D5 001.jpg
Overview
Production 2007–present
Assembly Japan: Nagoya (Nagoya Plant)
Body and chassis
Layout Front-engine, front-wheel-drive
Front-engine, all-wheel-drive
Platform Mitsubishi GS platform
Powertrain
Engine 1,998 cc 4B11 I4 (gasoline)
2,359 cc 4B12 I4 (gasoline)
2,268 cc 4N14 I4 (diesel)
Transmission CVT INVECS-III automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,850 mm (112.2 in)
Length 4,729 mm (186.2 in)
Width 1,796 mm (70.7 in)
Height 1,871 mm (73.7 in)

On October 30, 2006 Mitsubishi Motors announced that the next generation of its monobox minivan would be called the Delica D:5, based on the Concept D-5 prototype first exhibited at the 39th Tokyo Motor Show in 2005.[37] It is an eight-seater, that features Mitsubishi's AWC four wheel drive system and an INVECS-III continuously variable transmission, coupled to a 4B12 2.4 L MIVEC inline-four engine. Based on a new global GS platform, new Delica features Mitsubishi's next-generation RISE safety body. A 2.0-liter version of this engine is also available.

It was released in Japan on January 31, 2007, with prices ranging from ¥2,614,500 to ¥3,412,500.[38]

Available for January 2013 is the clean diesel variant of the D:5, which comes with Mitsubishi's brand new 2.2 L 4-cylinder turbo diesel engine (4N14) that produces 148 PS of power and 360 Nm of torque. Mitsubishi claims that this new 4N14 diesel engine is reliable at low revs and smooth acceleration until high revs. With reduced pressure and temperature in the cylinder, it achieves a low compression ratio of 14.9. The Mitsubishi Delica D:5 with Clean Diesel engine has a fuel consumption of 13.6 km/L based on JC08 Mode cycle.[39]

Other models using the name[edit]

Between November 1999 and 2010, Mitsubishi retailed a rebadged version of the Mazda Bongo as the Delica in Japan, replacing the cargo version of the fourth generation Delica in that market. In 2011, Mitsubishi replaced this model with a badge engineered Nissan NV200 retitled Delica D:3.

To complement the Delica D:5, a smaller Delica D:2 passenger van appeared in March 2011. Equipped with a 1.2 L (1,242 cc) four-cylinder Suzuki K12B engine and a continuously variable transmission (CVT), the car is a rebadged Suzuki Solio provided under an original equipment manufacturer deal.[40]

1999–2010 Mitsubishi Delica
Main article: Mazda Bongo
 
2011– Mitsubishi Delica D:2
Main article: Suzuki Solio
 
2011– Mitsubishi Delica D:3
Main article: Nissan NV200
 

Production[edit]

Year Japan Philippines Taiwan China
1995 109,930 n/a n/a
1996 88,978 n/a n/a
1997 69,495 n/a n/a
1998 34,614 n/a n/a
1999 17,758 n/a n/a
2000 28,242 2,918 8,125
2001 12,965 2,079 5,133 690
2002 17,456 2,925 4,192 600
2003 13,011 3,529 5,166 13,710
2004 16,432 2,826 3,862 16,074
2005 16,444 3,685 2,315 5,960
2006 16,041 3,992 1,160
2007 14,824 4,580 1,115

References[edit]

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  25. ^ Un aliado de su negocio hecho a la medida MMC Automoritz S.A.
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