Mitsubishi i

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For the Mitsubishi i electric car, see Mitsubishi i-MiEV.
Mitsubishi i
Mitsubishi i.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer Mitsubishi Motors
Production 2006–2013
Assembly Kurashiki, Okayama, Japan (Mizushima plant)
Designer Olivier Boulay
Body and chassis
Class Kei car
Body style 5-door hatchback
Layout Mid-engine, rear-/four-wheel drive
Platform Mitsubishi MR platform
Powertrain
Engine 659 cc DOHC MIVEC 12v I3
Transmission 4-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,550 mm (100.4 in)
Length 3,395 mm (133.7 in)
Width 1,475 mm (58.1 in)
Height 1,600 mm (63.0 in)
Curb weight 890–900 kg (1,960–1,980 lb)

The Mitsubishi i (三菱・i Mitsubishi i?) is a kei car from automaker Mitsubishi Motors, first released in January 2006,[1] twenty eight months after its debut at the 2003 Frankfurt Motor Show.[2] It is the first four-door automobile since the 1960s to employ a "rear midship" setup with the engine behind the passengers, in an attempt to improve safety and interior space without enlarging the overall exterior.[1][3]

The innovative layout and styling of the i proved an immediate critical and commercial success, exceeding Mitsubishi's initial sales targets by 20 percent and winning thirteen awards in its first year.[4][5] Although designed with the Japanese keijidōsha light automobile class in mind, the attention it generated led to its subsequent introduction in right hand drive markets in Asia, Oceania and Europe. It is also used as a basis of the 2009 i-MiEV battery electric vehicle.

Concepts: i, Se-Ro[edit]

A very early sketch of the i during preliminary design and development of the vehicle.
The 2003 Mitsubishi "i" Concept debuted the car's striking exterior.

Two prototypes were exhibited during the car's development. The first was the "i" Concept, which debuted at the 60th Frankfurt Motor Show in 2003, and previewed the car's striking exterior.[2] Motoring journalists were quick to seize on the distinctive silhouette, calling it "a very good egg",[6] and a "crystal ball" with which to see the future of Mitsubishi.[7] One reviewer even speculated it to be an allusion by the vehicle's French-born designer Olivier Boulay to the Renault 4CV, France's popular post-war "people's car" with which the i shared its four-seat, rear-engined layout.[7] Its styling was formally lauded when the i won the Grand Prize at the 50th anniversary Good Design Awards from the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry in October 2006, the first kei car to win the award.[8][9]

Explaining the choice of name, the company claimed that "i" could represent the owner (I, the nominative personal pronoun) as an encouragement to personal expression, or innovation, intelligence and imagination, keywords in the car's development.[10] It was also a play on the Japanese word for love, 愛 (pronounced [ai]).[11]

The "i" Concept was powered by a 999 cc powerplant with the company's Mitsubishi Smart Idling (MSI) system, which turns off the engine automatically when the vehicle is stationary, and can restart it within 0.2 seconds.[12] So equipped, Mitsubishi claimed the car was capable of fuel consumption of no more than 3.8 litres per 100 kilometres (74.3 mpg-imp; 61.9 mpg-US).[12]

The 2003 Mitsubishi Se-Ro concept, which introduced the 660 cc engine used in the production version of the i.

The second prototype, called the Se-Ro and exhibited at the 2003 Tokyo Motor Show, previewed the production model's more conventional mechanical underpinnings, despite having a more radical appearance which bore little resemblance to the final design.[13] Instead, its polished aluminium body was styled to resemble a zeppelin or airship,[14][15] which Se-Ro design head Shuji Yamada described as a realization of his fantasies of the future from childhood.[16] The aviation theme continued with the name; there are also Mitsubishi Pajero Model And Spy Shots; Se-Ro, short for "secret room", was a veiled reference to the Mitsubishi Zero fighter aircraft of World War II.[17]

Technical details[edit]

Body and dimensions[edit]

A lightweight steel (not aluminium) structure and a rear-engined layout allowed Mitsubishi to incorporate a larger front crumple zone, in order to meet current safety legislation requirements without compromising interior space.[1] With no powertrain in front of the driver, the designers were able to shorten the front overhang and lengthen the wheelbase to 2,550 millimetres (100.4 in), giving greater legroom for passengers than many comparable kei cars whose wheelbase is typically 130–190 mm (5.1–7.5 in) less.[3] The downside of this design was a reduction in cargo-carrying capacity, which was necessarily compromised by the engine's location in the rear.[18]

The engine of the i as seen in cutaway, behind the rear seats and under the floor of the rear hatch storage area, just ahead of the rear axle.

Drivetrain[edit]

The i has a "rear-midship" engine mounted just ahead of the rear axle, a highly unusual configuration in a small car where front-engine design has dominated since the 1970s.[3] The 3B20 three-cylinder powerplant has an aluminium cylinder block, a displacement of 659 cubic centimetres, and incorporates double overhead camshafts with MIVEC variable valve timing in the cylinder head. Initially only an intercooled and turbocharged engine was offered, until a naturally aspirated version was introduced for 2007.[19][20] A four-speed automatic gearbox transmits power to the rear or all four wheels, depending on specification.

Two Mitsubishi i kei cars photographed together in Japan. The silver i is a dealer model for customers to test drive.

Suspension, brakes and tires[edit]

MacPherson struts are used in the front suspension, and an unusual three-link De Dion tube/Watt's linkage is used in the rear.[2] Front discs with anti-lock braking (ABS) and electronic brakeforce distribution (EBD) are standard across the range.[21] In common with many other mid- or rear-engined vehicles its fifteen-inch wheels have uneven-sized tires, 145/65 on the fronts and wider 175/55 on the rears, in an effort to minimise the chances of oversteer caused by the rear-biased weight distribution.[3][12]

Specifications[edit]

Three individual models, or grades, were available on the car's release in 2006; S, M, and G, in ascending order of price. They all shared the same five-door hatchback body style and turbocharged engine, but offered differing levels of options and standard equipment. In 2007 the base S model was given the new naturally aspirated powerplant, and was positioned below the two new grades, L and LX, whose engine it shared.[21]

Model/grade Engine Peak power Peak torque
S (2007) 3B20 659 cc, DOHC, MIVEC 38 kW (52 PS) at 7000 rpm 57 N·m (42 lb·ft) at 4000 rpm
L
LX
S (2006) 3B20T 659 cc, DOHC, MIVEC, turbocharger 42–48 kW (57–65 PS) at 6000 rpm 85–95 N·m (63–70 lb·ft) at 3000 rpm
M
G

Domestic and international markets[edit]

Mass production began at the company's Mizushima plant in Kurashiki, Okayama, in December 2005,[22] before it was released for sale on January 24, 2006.[1] Priced from ¥1,281,000 to ¥1,617,000, Mitsubishi initially aimed for 5,000 cars per month within the domestic market, and managed to exceed its target in its first month by over 1,000.[23] By the end of 2006, approximately 37,000 had been sold.[24] The company has already exported the i to Singapore, Brunei, Hong Kong, and New Zealand,[25][26] where like Japan they drive on the left, and introduced it to the United Kingdom on July 1, 2007, with a price of UK£9,000 and a target of 300 sales per year.[27][28]

Annual production and sales[edit]

Fiscal year Production Sales
Japan Overseas Total
2005 19,705 16,105 3 16,108
2006 31,725 29,498 454 29,952
2007 12,163 15,540 892 16,432
2008 8,501 8,793 267 9,060
2009 6,344 6,439 36 6,475
2010 4,655 4,685 - 4,685
2011 3,651 3,828 - 3,828
2012 2,340 2,328 - 2,328

(source: Facts & Figures 2012 [1], Mitsubishi Motors website)

Special editions[edit]

The unique Hello Kitty edition of the Mitsubishi i, which was on public display in Tokyo for one week before being auctioned for charity.

From July 25 to 31, 2006 the company displayed a unique Mitsubishi i Hello Kitty edition at the Mitsukoshi department store in Tokyo's Nihonbashi district. Based on the two-wheel drive G model, it had a pink paint scheme with co-ordinated interior, "Princess Kitty" decals on the doors and windows, a ribbon decal on the roof, and themed headrests with small, feline ears. The car, which was described as "the most quintessentially Japanese car...ever" for fusing two of the country's cultural iconsHello Kitty and keijidōsha[29]—was eventually sold in a charity auction on behalf of UNICEF.[29]

Other limited production models include the i Play edition, a run of 3,000 cars only available in white or black, and featuring a dashboard-mounted slot for an iPod nano,[30][31]

Also 100 of the i Kurashiki edition with faux denim upholstery, to be sold at a single Mitsubishi dealership in Kurashiki, Okayama, the prefecture where the bulk of Japan's domestic blue jeans manufacturers are located.[32]

1st Anniversary special editions based on the L and M grades were also introduced in early 2007 to commemorate the car's first year on sale.[33]

Electric car version[edit]

Main article: Mitsubishi i MiEV
Mitsubishi i MiEV recharging from an on-street charging station in Japan.

Mitsubishi has given the i a prominent role in the company's alternative propulsion research projects, developing a version using their MiEV (Mitsubishi innovative Electric Vehicle) technology in 2006 and exhibited at the 22nd International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium & Exposition in Yokohama. MMC provided three power companies with vehicles in 2006 and 2007 in order to evaluate how a "fast-charge" infrastructure might be developed for electric vehicles. Fleet testing by five power companies was conducted later in 2007,[34] with a view to future public sales between 2008 and 2010.[35][36]

The Mitsubishi i MiEV electric car was launched in Japan for fleet customers in July 2009 and for the general public in April 2010.[37][38] Sales to the public in Hong Kong began in May 2010,[39] and a trial began in Australia in September 2010.[40] Sales in several European countries began in late 2010 and between December 2011 and March 2012 for the United States west and east coasts, respectively.[41][42][43]

Awards[edit]

The i won the 2007 Car of the Year award from the Japanese Automotive Researchers and Journalists Conference (RJC),[44] and two other "Car of the Year" awards, from the Carview Corporation website and the Consumer's Choice.[4] It also won the "Most Advanced Technology" Special Achievement Award at the 2006–07 Japan Car of the Year awards, where it was nominated unsuccessfully in the overall Car of the Year category,[45] and ranked first in the Japan Mini-Car APEAL Study published by J.D. Power Asia Pacific in October 2006, with a higher score than any previous winner.[46]

Aside from the 2006 Good Design Grand Prix, its style won Design Awards from the Japan Automotive Hall of Fame (JAHFA), and the magazines Popeye and Car Styling.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "New concept for the future of small: 'i'" (Press release). Mitsubishi Motors. January 24, 2006. 
  2. ^ a b c ""i" Concept Test Car". Mitsubishi Motors. 
  3. ^ a b c d Wan, Mark (November 18, 2005). "Mitsubishi i". Autozine. 
  4. ^ a b c Facts & Figures (PDF). Mitsubishi Motors. 2007. p. 39. 
  5. ^ Rowley, Ian (November 14, 2006). "Mitsubishi's award winning minicar". Businessweek. 
  6. ^ Sey, Euan (June 20, 2006). "Mitsubishi 'i': All round, a very good egg". The Independent. Archived from the original on October 8, 2006. 
  7. ^ a b Mathioudakis, Byron (October 21, 2003). "Tokyo show: Mitsubishi's crystal ball concepts". GoAuto.com.au. 
  8. ^ "Good Design Grand Prize 2006". G-Mark.org. 
  9. ^ ""i" takes Good Design Grand Prize 2006" (Press release). Mitsubishi Motors. October 25, 2006. 
  10. ^ "Mitsubishi Motors chooses 'Outlander' and 'i' as names for new SUV and kei minicar models" (Press release). Mitsubishi Motors. May 23, 2005. 
  11. ^ "Mitsubishi i Concept". Automobile Magazine. September 12, 2003. 
  12. ^ a b c Mitsubishi Motors Technical Review no.16 (PDF). Mitsubishi Motors. 2004. pp. 29–50. 
  13. ^ "Mitsubish Sero concept for the Tokyo Motor Show". Car Design News. October 16, 2003. 
  14. ^ "Concept Car: Mitsubishi SE-RO". 4Car. November 13, 2003. 
  15. ^ Schaffels, Brandy A. "First Look: Mitsubishi Se-Ro". Motor Trend. 
  16. ^ "Design Concept: Cool & Emotional" (Press release). Mitsubishi Motors press pack, Tokyo Motor Show. 2003. 
  17. ^ Shahmanesh-Banks, Nargess (March 2004). "Going Japanese". Automotive Engineer. [dead link]
  18. ^ Sey, Euan (April 26, 2006). "Driven: Mitsubishi i". 4Car. 
  19. ^ "Mitsubishi Motors Announces FY2006 First Half Financial Results and Forecasts for the Full Year" (Press release). Mitsubishi Motors. October 30, 2006. 
  20. ^ "Mitsubishi i performance" (in Japanese). Mitsubishi Motors. 
  21. ^ a b "Mitsubishi i specifications" (in Japanese). Mitsubishi Motors. 
  22. ^ Facts & Figures (PDF). Mitsubishi Motors. 2006. p. 9. 
  23. ^ "New Mitsubishi Outlander Japan's Best Selling SUV" (Press release). Mitsubishi Motors GB. April 21, 2006. 
  24. ^ "Mitsubishi “i” to go on sale in the UK", Automotoportal, February 16, 2007
  25. ^ Treece, James B. (October 10, 2006). "Waiting for Export". Automotive News. 
  26. ^ "Innovative Award winning i-car Released in New Zealand" (Press release). Mitsubishi Motors New Zealand. December 1, 2006. [dead link]
  27. ^ "New model - i". Mitsubishi Motors UK. February 16, 2007. 
  28. ^ "Mitsubishi: i-car and Eclipse coming?". 4Car. March 21, 2006. 
  29. ^ a b "The ultimate kei? Mitsubishi i Hello Kitty 'Princess Kitty' edition", Alex Nunez, Autoblog.com, July 7, 2006
  30. ^ "Mitsubishi Motors lineup" (in Japanese). Mitsubishi-motors.co.jp. January 23, 2007. 
  31. ^ "Mitsubishi 'i (the eye)' "Play Edition"" (in Japanese). Mitsubishi-motors.co.jp. May 17, 2006. 
  32. ^ "Mitsubishi releases jeans-themed "i" Kurashiki Edition", Alex Nunez, Autoblog.com, December 14, 2006
  33. ^ "Mitsubishi i' Grade/price" (in Japanese). Mitsubishi-motors.co.jp. March 7, 2007. [dead link]
  34. ^ "Mitsubishi Motors builds new research EV, "i MiEV" for joint research with power companies" (Press release). Mitsubishi Motors. October 11, 2006. 
  35. ^ "Mitsubishi i MiEV Single Motor EV", James Fraser, The Energy Blog, October 12, 2006
  36. ^ "Mitsubishi i: In Detail", F. de Leeuw van Weenen, WorldCarFans.com, August 18, 2006
  37. ^ "Mitsubishi Motors Begins Production of i-MiEV; Targeting 1,400 Units in Fiscal 2009". Green Car Congress. 2009-06-05. Retrieved 2010-04-04. 
  38. ^ Yuri Kageyama (2010-03-31). "Japanese Start Buying Affordable Electric Cars". Associated Press. Retrieved 2010-04-24. [dead link]
  39. ^ "Mitsubishi Begins Sales of i-MiEV to Individuals in Hong Kong; First Individual Sales Outside of Japan". Green Car Congress. 2010-05-20. Retrieved 2010-05-21. 
  40. ^ "Electrifying news; Sydney Council buysi MiEV electric car". Sydney Central. 2010-09-15. Retrieved 2010-09-27. 
  41. ^ Tim Pollard (2010-03-24). "Mitsubishi i-MiEV (2011) electric car to cost £39,000". CAR magazine. Retrieved 2010-03-24. 
  42. ^ "Mitsubishi Targets i-MiEV Starting Price Below $30,000". WardsAuto. 2010-04-01. Retrieved 2010-05-21. 
  43. ^ "Mitsubishi i Electric Vehicles Arrive on East Coast". 
  44. ^ ""i" takes RJC Car of the Year 2007" (Press release). Mitsubishi Motors. November 15, 2006. 
  45. ^ "" i " takes "Most Advanced Technology" Special Achievement Award in the Car of the Year Japan 2006–2007" (Press release). Mitsubishi Motors. November 20, 2006. 
  46. ^ "The Mitsubishi i Ranks Highest in Appealing to Mini-Car Owners in Japan" (PDF) (Press release). J.D. Power Asia Pacific. October 31, 2006. [dead link]

External links[edit]

  • Official sites:
"Japan" (in Japanese). "Singapore". "New Zealand". "United Kingdom".