Mixed brigade

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This article is about the Spanish military unit. For the Japanese formation, see Independent Mixed Brigades (Imperial Japanese Army).
Mixed Brigades
Brigadas Mixtas
106-Brigada Mixta Standard-Spanish Republican Army.png
Standard of the 106 Mixed Brigade of the Popular Army of the Spanish Republic
Active 1936–1939
Country Flag of Spain (1931 - 1939).svg Spain
Branch Spanish Republican Armed Forces
Type Brigade
Role Home Defence
Part of Spanish Republican Army divisions
Engagements Spanish Civil War
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Enrique Líster
José María Galán

A mixed brigade (Spanish: brigada mixta) was a tactical military formation of the Spanish Republican Army following the coup of July 1936 and the onset of the Spanish Civil War. It was the basic military unit of the Republican People's Army after its war-dictated 1936 reorganization.[1]

History[edit]

The initial structure of this kind of brigade, approved in October 1936, was composed of four infantry battalions of five companies each, a mixed sapper battalion and a Service Corps company that included a medical corps group. Certain brigades had also a cavalry section. A division was composed of two or three mixed brigades.[2]

The mixed brigade was based on a model that would replace the columns (columnas) and militias of the pre-coup Spanish Republican Army.[3] The first six Mixed Brigades were created on 18 October 1936. The first was led by Communist colonel Enrique Líster,[4] the second by Jesús Martínez de Aragón, the third by José María Galán, the fourth by Eutiquiano Arellano, the fifth by Fernando Sabio and the sixth by Miguel Gallo Martínez.[5] By December 1936 there were fifteen brigades in full service (1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 11th and 12th International Brigades, 35th, 37th, 39th, 40th, 41st, 43rd, 44th, 50th and one unnumbered).[6] By the spring of 1937 there were forty active brigades and another fifteen were undergoing training; these brigades were swiftly placed in divisions.[7]

Mixed brigades were typically Army units, however, the 151 Brigada Mixta —among a few others— was a mixed brigade composed of Spanish Republican Navy Marines (Infantería de Marina) led by Commander Pedro Muñoz Caro. Photographer Robert Capa took pictures of the 151 Brigada Mixta in the Battle of the Segre.[8]

All the units ended up being disbanded after the defeat of the Republican military and the subsequent annihilation of the Spanish Republican state by the Francoist regime. The final fate of some of the mixed brigades and their members is unknown.[9][10]

Mixed Brigades[edit]

The Mixed Brigades of the International Brigades are in Roman numerals.

1st to 100th[edit]

Number Establishment date Disbandment date Observations
1st 10 October 1936 9 February 1939 From the Fifth Regiment.
2nd 13 October 1936 February 1939 Included railroad workers
3rd October 1936 March 1939 (?)[11] Carabineros unit.[12]
4th November 1936 March 1939
5th October 1936 28 March 1939 Carabineros unit.
6th October 1936 March 1939
7th 27 March 1937 27 March 1939
8th 27 March 1937 27 March 1939
9th 23 January 1937 9 February 1939 Initially known as 1st Brigada Mixta Bis.
10th 21 December 1936 9 February 1939 Initially known as 1st Brigada móvil choque.
XI[13] 22 February 1936 February 1939
XII[14] 1 November 1936 9 February 1939
XIII 1 December 1936 February 1939
XIV 1 December 1936 25 September 1938
XIV Bis November 1937 February 1938 Bifurcation of the XIV International Brigade.[15]
XV[16] 31 January 1937 February 1939
16th December 1936 March 1939
17th December 1936 28 March 1939
18th November 1936 28 March 1939
19th December 1936 31 January 1939
20th November 1936 March 1939
21st December 1936 17 January 1939
22nd November 1936 March 1939 Former "Columna Peire".
23rd October 1936 January 1939
24th December 1936 January 1939
25th November 1936 March 1939
26th October 1936 28 March 1939
27th December 1936 28 March 1939
28th October 1936 March 1939
29th October 1936 28 March 1939 Former "Columna Cuevas".
30th 31 December 1936 March 1939
31st 2 January 1937 February 1939
32nd 31 December 1936 March 1939 Former "Columna Mangada".
33rd 6 January 1937 4 February 1939
34th 1 January 1937 27 March 1939 Former "Columna Robledo".
35th 1 January 1937 March 1939
36th 1 January 1937 March 1939 Took part in the 'Death Tunnel' events in Usera.
37th 31 December 1936 February 1939
38th 31 December 1936 February 1939 Former "Columna Perea".
39th 26 November 1936 March 1939 Former "Columna Palacios".
40th 26 November 1936 27 March 1939 Former "Columna Ortega".
41st 26 November 1936 March 1939
42nd 1 January 1937 March 1939 Included the Elche Battatlion[17]
43rd 26 November 1936 27 March 1939 Former "Columna Escobar".
44th 31 December 1936 27 March 1939
45th 31 December 1936 27 March 1939 Former "Columna Burillo".
46th 31 December 1936 March 1939
47th 31 December 1936 March 1939
48th 28 March 1937 March 1939
49th February 1937 February 1939 terminated after the bombing of Xàtiva.
50th February 1937 March 1939
51st 14 March 1937 March 1939
52nd January 1937 March 1939
53rd January 1937 March 1939
54th March 1937 March 1939
55th 1 March 1937 March 1939
56th January 1937 February 1939
57th 1 January 1937 March 1939
58th January 1937 March 1939
59th January 1937 9 February 1937
60th January 1937 4 February 1939 Former "Columna Rosal".
61st January 1937 March 1939 Former "Columna Rosal".
62nd December 1936 January 1939 (?)
63rd December 1936 March 1939
64th December 1936 March 1939
65th December 1936 March 1939 Carabineros unit.
66th December 1936 March 1939
67th February 1937 March 1939
68th January 1937 February 1939
69th December 1936 March 1939
70th 15 January 1937 March 1939
71st January 1937 27 March 1939
72nd January 1937 February 1939 Re-established after surviving the Battle of Bielsa.[18]
73rd March 1937 March 1939
74th January 1937 27 March 1939
75th February 1937 March 1939
76th April 1937 March 1939
77th February 1937 March 1939
78th February 1937 March 1939
79th February 1937 March 1939
80th February 1937 March 1939
81st March 1937 March 1939 Former "Columna Iberia".
82nd March 1937 March 1939
83rd March 1937 March 1939 Former "Columna Hierro".
84th March 1937 January 1938 Terminated after the "Mora de Rubielos events".
Re-established on 19 April 1938
Took part in the Battle of the Ebro.
Disappeared during the Catalonia Campaign.
85th March 1937 March 1939 Carabineros unit.
86th March 1937 28 March 1939 Originally Brigada móvil Puertollano in December 1936.
Reorganized as International Brigade.[19]
87th March 1937 March 1939 Carabineros unit.
88th March 1937 27 March 1939
89th March 1937 March 1939
90th May 1937 March 1939
91st March 1937 March 1939 Destroyed in the Battle of Mérida pocket (1938)
Later re-established.
92nd March 1937 March 1939 Originally known as 75th Brigada Mixta.
93rd January 1937 February 1939 (?) Originally known as 53rd Brigada Mixta.
94th March 1937 9 February 1939 Originally established upon the former "Columna Iberia".
Terminated in September 1937 after the Battle of Brunete.
Reason: ineptitude during combat.
Re-established with Infantería de Marina forces.
95th June 1937 9 February 1939 Originally established with Anarchist militias.
Terminated following the Battle of Brunete.
Reason: ineptitude during combat.
Re-established with Infantería de Marina forces.
96th June 1937 March 1939
97th June 1937 March 1939 (?)
98th 1 June 1937 March 1939
99th 12 June 1937 March 1939
100th June 1937 9 February 1939 Shock troops of the 11th Division.

101st to 200th[edit]

Number Establishment date Disbandment date Observations
101st May 1937 9 February 1939 Shock troops of the 46th Division.
102nd March 1937 9 February 1939 Formed from the remainders of the "72nd Mixed Brigade".
103rd March 1937 March 1939
104th March 1937 February 1939
105th March 1937 March 1939
106th March 1937 March 1939
107th March 1937 March 1939
108th March 1937 March 1939
109th Spring 1937 March 1939 Annihilated in the Battle of Mérida pocket (1938).
110th March 1937 March 1937
111th 17 March 1937 27 March 1939
112th April 1937 28 March 1939
113th March 1937 27 March 1939
114th March 1937 26 March 1939
115th March 1937 March 1939
116th 28 April 1937 March 1939
117th 28 April 1937 January 1939 Fell apart in Catalonia.
118th 28 April 1937 March 1939
119th 28 April 1937 February 1939 Former "Columna Durruti".
120th 28 April 1937 January 1939 Former "Columna Durruti".
121st 28 April 1937 January 1939 Former "Columna Durruti".
122nd 28 April 1937 January 1939 Disbanded after the Battle of the Ebro.
123rd 28 April 1937 January 1939 Disbanded after the Battle of the Ebro.
124th 28 April 1937 January 1939 Disbanded after the Battle of the Ebro.
125th 28 April 1937 March 1939 Former "Columna Ascaso".
126th 28 April 1937 March 1939 Former "Columna Ascaso".
127th 28 April 1937 27 March 1939 Former "Columna Ascaso".
128th 28 April 1937 October 1937 Disbanded and re-established more than once.
CXXIX 8 February 1938 28 March 1939 It lost its International Battalions in October 1938.[20]
130th 28 April 1937 9 February 1939 Re-established after escaping the Bielsa pocket.[21]
131st 28 April 1937 9 February 1939
132nd 11 June 1937 28 March 1939 Former "Columna Macià-Companys".
133rd May 1937 January 1939
134th May 1937 26 January 1939
135th May 1937 February 1939
136th 1 May 1937 February 1939
137th 1 May 1937 February 1939
138th 1 May 1937 March 1939
139th 1 May 1937 February 1939
140th 1 May 1937 February 1939
141st May 1937 February 1939
142nd May 1937 12 February 1939
143rd May 1937 16 January 1939 Annihilated in Gayá
144th May 1937 January 1939
145th May 1937 January 1939
146th May 1937 23 January 1939
147th 1 May 1937 March 1939 Former "Columna Maroto".
148th 9 May 1937 March 1939
149th May 1937 February 1939
150th 11 June 1937 March 1939
CL[22] 27 May 1937 4 August 1937 Disbanded after the debacle at Brunete.
151st June 1937 January 1939 Formed with Infantería de Marina troops.
152nd June 1937 March 1939 Carabineros unit.
153rd June 1937 26 January 1939 (?)
154th January 1938 March 1939 Former 1st Basque Brigade; re-established as guerrilla unit.
155th January 1938 March 1939 Former 2nd Basque Brigade; re-established as guerrilla unit.
156th January 1938 March 1939 Former 3rd Basque Brigade; re-established as guerrilla unit.
157th January 1938 March 1939 Former 4th Basque Brigade; re-established as guerrilla unit.
158th January 1938 March 1939 Former 5th Basque Brigade; re-established as guerrilla unit.
159th January 1938 March 1939 Former 6th Basque Brigade; re-established as guerrilla unit.
160th January 1938 March 1939 Former 7th Basque Brigade; re-established as guerrilla unit.
161st January 1938 March 1939 Former 8th Basque Brigade; re-established as guerrilla unit.
162nd January 1938 March 1939 Former 9th Basque Brigade; re-established as guerrilla unit.
163rd January 1938 March 1939 Former 13th Basque Brigade; re-established as guerrilla unit.
164th January 1938 March 1939 Former 11th Basque Brigade; re-established as guerrilla unit.
165th January 1938 March 1939 Former 12th Basque Brigade; re-established as guerrilla unit.
166th 6 August 1937 October 1937 Former 1st Santander Brigade.
167th 6 August 1937 21 August 1937 Former 2nd Santander Brigade.
168th 6 August 1937 21 August 1937 Former 3rd Santander Brigade.
169th 6 August 1937 September 1937 Former 8th Santander Brigade.
170th 6 August 1937 21 August 1937 Former 4th Santander Brigade.
171st 6 August 1937 21 August 1937 Former 5th Santander Brigade.
172nd 6 August 1937 21 August 1937 Former 6th Santander Brigade.
173rd 6 August 1937 25 August 1937 Former 7th Santander Brigade.
174th 30 April 1938 January 1939 (?) Former 9th Santander Brigade.
175th 30 April 1938 March 1939 Former 10th Santander Brigade.
176th 30 April 1938 February 1939 Former 11th Santander Brigade.
177th 30 April 1938 January 1939 (?) Former 12th Santander Brigade.
177th 30 April 1938 2 January 1939 (?) Former 14th Santander Brigade.
179th 19 April 1938 February 1939 Carabineros unit.[23]
180th 30 April 1938 March 1939 Former 16th Asturian Brigade.
181st 30 April 1938 March 1939
182nd 30 April 1938 March 1939
183rd 30 April 1938 March 1939 Former 3rd Asturian Brigade.
184th 6 August 1937 21 October 1937 Former 10th Asturian Brigade.
185th 6 August 1937 September 1937 Former 15th Asturian Brigade.
186th 6 August 1937 October 1937 Former 13th Asturian Brigade.
187th 6 August 1937 October 1937 Former 14th Asturian Brigade.
188th 6 August 1937 October 1937 Former 17th Asturian Brigade.
189th 30 April 1938 March 1939 Former 1st Asturian Brigade.
190th 30 April 1938 March 1939 Former 2nd Asturian Brigade.
191st 30 April 1938 March 1939
192nd 30 April 1938 March 1939 Former 5th Asturian Brigade.
193rd 30 April 1938 March 1939 Former 6th Asturian Brigade.
194th 22 May 1938 March 1939 Former 4th Asturian Brigade.
195th 22 May 1938 March 1939 Former 7th Asturian Brigade.
196th 22 May 1938 January 1939 Fell apart in Catalonia.[24]
197th 22 May 1938 March 1939
198th 30 April 1938 January 1939 Fell apart in Catalonia along with the 196th and 199th
199th 30 April 1938 January 1939 Fell apart in Catalonia along with the 196th and 198th
200th May 1938 28 March 1939 Ordered to retreat from the front in January 1939.[25]

201st to 246th[edit]

Number Establishment date Disbandment date Observations
201st 30 April 1938 28 March 1939
202nd 30 April 1938 29 March 1939
203rd May 1938 March 1939
204th 30 April 1938 March 1939
205th May 1938 March 1939
206th[26] May 1938 March 1939
207th May 1938 March 1939
208th April 1938 March 1939
209th August 1937 March 1939
210th August 1937 March 1939
211th August 1937 March 1939 Carabineros unit.
212th 28 August 1937 March 1939
213th 24 August 1937 January 1939 (?)
214th 24 August 1937 March 1939
215th 24 August 1937 March 1939
216th 24 August 1937 March 1939
217th 24 August 1937 March 1939
218th 24 August 1937 March 1939
219th[27] 24 August 1937 26 March 1939
220th 24 August 1937 26 March 1939
221st 24 August 1937 March 1939 Fate unknown
222nd Summer 1937 March 1939 Carabineros unit.
223rd Summer 1937 March 1939 Engaged in coastal defence.[28]
224th Summer 1937 January 1939 (?) Restructured in spring 1938. [29]
225th Summer 1937 March 1939 Coastal defence
226th Summer 1937 9 February 1939 part of the 42nd Division
227th 22 April 1938 9 February 1939
228th December 1938 January 1939 Carabineros unit.
229th December 1938 January 1939 (?)
230th February 1938 Data lacking Guerrilla unit.
231st February 1938 Data lacking Guerrilla unit.
232nd February 1938 Data lacking Guerrilla unit.
233rd February 1938 Data lacking Guerrilla unit.
234th February 1938 Data lacking Guerrilla unit.
235th February 1938 Data lacking Guerrilla unit.
236th February 1938 Data lacking Guerrilla unit.
237th February 1938 Data lacking Guerrilla unit.
238th February 1938 Data lacking Guerrilla unit.
239th February 1938 Data lacking Guerrilla unit.
240th February 1938 Data lacking Guerrilla unit.
241st December 1938 Unknown Did not see combat action before disbandment.
242nd December 1938 February 1939
243rd December 1938 Unknown Did not see combat action before disbandment.
244th December 1938 Unknown Did not see combat action before disbandment.
245th December 1938 February 1939
246th Unknown Unknown Could not be fully established before the Spanish
Republican Army fell apart.[30]

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Orden, circular, creando un Comisariado general de Guerra con la misión que se indica. (PDF). Año CCLXXV Tomo IV, Núm. 290. Gaceta de Madrid: diario oficial de la República. 16 October 1936. p. 355. 
  2. ^ Thomas, Hugh. (2001). The Spanish Civil War. Penguin Books. London. p.526
  3. ^ las Quintas de la Guerra
  4. ^ Thomas, Hugh. (2001). The Spanish Civil War. Penguin Books. London. p.529
  5. ^ Las Brigadas Mixtas en el Ejército Popular de la República Española
  6. ^ Thomas, Hugh. (2001). The Spanish Civil War. Penguin Books. London. p.526
  7. ^ Thomas, Hugh. (2001). The Spanish Civil War. Penguin Books. London. p.530
  8. ^ Robert Capa picture of the 151 Brigada Mixta at the Battle of the Segre
  9. ^ Elche - Memoria Digital, 221 Brigada Mixta
  10. ^ Re: Necesito ayuda datos de la brigada mixta 221 y 222 en Castellon y Valencia
  11. ^ Date uncertain
  12. ^ Brigadas Mixtas del Ejército Popular - 3 Brigada Mixta
  13. ^ Antony Beevor (2006); p. 167
  14. ^ Hugh Thomas (1976); p. 528
  15. ^ Carlos Engel Masoliver (1999); p. 37
  16. ^ Hugh Thomas (1976), p. 639
  17. ^ Fragmentos de metralla: el Batallón Elche en la red
  18. ^ Hugh Thomas (1976); p. 892
  19. ^ Carlos Engel Masoliver (1999); p. 114
  20. ^ Carlos Engel Masoliver (1999); p. 41
  21. ^ Hugh Thomas (1976); p. 892
  22. ^ Hugh Thomas (1976); p. 1035
  23. ^ Carlos Engel Masoliver (1999); p. 194
  24. ^ This was a Central Zone brigade that was sent by sea to Catalonia along with the 198th and 199th Mixed Brigades in December 1938 in order to support the republican troops there. After disembarking in Barcelona it was incapable of reorganizing itself and fell apart in the middle of the chaos provoked by the retreat towards the French border.
  25. ^ Carlos Engel Masoliver (1999); p. 204
  26. ^ Carlos Engel Masoliver (1999); p. 208
  27. ^ Carlos Engel Masoliver (1999); p. 219
  28. ^ Carlos Engel Masoliver (1999); p. 222
  29. ^ Suffered such heavy losses during the Aragon Offensive that it was no longer operational and was disbanded. Re-established anew on 19 April 1938.
  30. ^ Carlos Engel Masoliver (1999); p. 228

External links[edit]