||This article may contain original research. (November 2007)|
||This article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2007)|
|Stylistic origins||Mod, rhythm and blues, jazz, reggae, ska, soul, beat, power pop, pub rock, punk rock, New Wave|
|Cultural origins||late 1970s, England (mostly London)
early 1980s, United States
|Typical instruments||Guitar – bass – drums – brass – keyboards|
|Derivative forms||Britpop, Indie rock|
|United Kingdom, then other countries|
|Timeline of punk rock, Quadrophenia (film)|
The mod revival was a music genre and subculture that started in England in 1978 and later spread to other countries (to a lesser degree). The mod revival's mainstream popularity was relatively short, although its influence has lasted for decades. The mod revival post-dated a Teddy Boy revival, and mod revivalists sometimes clashed with Teddy Boy revivalists, skinhead revivalists, casuals, punks and rival gang members.
The late 1970s mod revival combined musical and cultural elements of the 1970s pub rock, punk rock and New Wave music genres with influences from 1960s mod and beat music bands such as The Who, Small Faces and The Kinks. The revival was largely spurred on by the band The Jam, who had adopted a stark mod look and mixed the energy of punk with the sound of 1960s mod bands. Their debut album In the City (1977), mixed R&B standards with originals modelled on The Who's early singles. They confirmed their status as the leading mod revival band with their third album All Mod Cons (1978), on which Paul Weller's song-writing drew heavily on the British-focused narratives of the Kinks. The revival was also spurred on by small concerts at venues such as the Cambridge and Hop Poles Hotels, and Howard Hall Enfield, the Wellington, Waterloo Road, London, and the Bridge House in Canning Town. In 1979, the film Quadrophenia, which romanticised the original 1960s mod subculture, widened the impact and popularity of the mod revival across the UK. The original mod revival fanzine, Maximum Speed started in 1979 and spawned other home-produced fanzines from then until the mid-to-late 1980s.
Pub rock bands like Red Beans and Rice, The Little Roosters, The Inmates, Nine Below Zero and Eddie and the Hot Rods, became major acts in the growing mod revival scene in London. Other bands grew up to feed the desire for mod music, often combining the music of 1960s mod groups with elements of punk music, including The Lambrettas, The Merton Parkas, Squire, and Purple Hearts. These acts managed to develop cult followings and some had pop hits, before the revival petered out in the early 1980s. Other notable mod revival bands include: The Chords, Secret Affair, The Jolt, and The Fixations.
Whereas the original mods looked forward (although maintaining nostalgia for British cultural icons), the mod revival was a conscious effort to harken back to an earlier generation in terms of style. Like their 1960s mod predecessors, revival bands were often self-consciously British (i.e. displaying Union Jack flags and the Royal Air Force roundel). Mod revivalists were usually from working-class backgrounds, or aimed to appear so. The mod revival contained a wide range of individuals; from those who were peacockish, colourful, and dandified – wearing suits and styles of the 1960s – to others who took a more minimalist approach; wearing basic casual items such as fitted jeans, Fred Perry tennis shirts and fishtail parkas.
Some mod revivalists were mostly interested in live performances by contemporary bands, and others focused on DJ events featuring recordings of 1960s music. During this period, the interest in R&B and soul music increased, with a small number of clubs and bars holding events; such as Henri's at the Bedford Head in London's Covent Garden, 6T's (later to move to the Starlight club in West Hampstead, which in turn moved to 100 Club), the Top Alex in Southend, the Hercules in Lambeth North, The Castle in Tooting, Cheeky Pete's in Richmond, the Mildmay Tavern in Dalston, and the Crystal Palace Hotel.
Another British tradition that returned at the same time was the penchant for members of youth subcultures to go to seaside resorts on bank holidays and fight members of other subcultures. This originated in the early 1960s with the mods and rockers fighting each other at places such as Brighton. The phenomenon returned in 1969 through to 1970 with skinheads fighting Teddy boys and bikers. In 1977 it returned yet again, with punks fighting Teddy Boys at Margate, and revival skinheads fighting Teddy boys, bikers and rockers at Southend and Margate. This carried on until 1978. In 1979 and 1980, the resorts became major battlegrounds on bank holidays for young skinheads and mods together against Teddy boys and rockers. By 1981, the unity between skinheads and mods had mainly disappeared, and by the mid-1980s, casuals (well-dressed football hooligans) had joined in the disturbances. Some of the main resorts involved were Margate, Brighton, Southend, Clacton, Hastings and Scarborough.
In the early 1980s in the UK, a mod revival scene influenced by the original 1960s mod subculture developed at the Shepherds Bush nightclub Sneakers, which was run by Tony Class with Paul hallam and Richard "Shirley" Early taking the Deejaying duties. The club featured rare R&B and soul music, and attendees wore sharp tailor-made clothing. Also in Shepherds Bush through the early-to-late 1980s was Club MOD, at The Bush Hotel, where Tony Class DJed soul music and songs by mod revival bands. The mod revival also had some crossover with the 2 Tone ska revival of the late 1970s and early 1980s; associated with bands such The Specials, The Beat, The Selecter, and Madness. Often these bands wore mod-like clothes, and their roots in black music paralleled that of the original mods.
In the mid-1980s, there was a brief mod revival centred around bands such as The Moment, The Prisoners, Makin' Time and the Gents. Fanzines following on from Maximum Speed – such as Mission Impossible, Patriotic, Roadrunner, Extraordinary Sensations and Chris Hunt's Shadows & Reflections – helped generate further interest in this stage of the mod revival. Weller broke up The Jam in 1982 and formed The Style Council, who abandoned most of the elements of punk to adopt music much more based in R&B and early soul. Also in the mid-1980s, the northern soul scene underwent a change of pace, with slower R&B-style records becoming popular at all-nighters at clubs such as Top Of The World in Stafford and 100 Club in London. Around this time, some mod revivalists became interested in psychedelic rock, freakbeat and rare British and American garage rock. This interest was partly sparked by companies re-issuing recordings by bands such as The Action and The Creation.
Many revival mods in the UK joined the scooterist and scooter rally scene, which led to the development of the scooterboy subculture of the 1980s. Several mods enjoyed a mixture of the two styles, although some scooterboys renounced any previous involvement with the mod subculture.
The UK mod revival was followed by a mod revival in North America in the early 1980s, particularly in Southern California, led by bands such as The Untouchables. The mod scene in Los Angeles and Orange County was partly influenced by the UK 2-Tone ska revival movement, and was unique in its racial diversity.
In the 1990s, Britpop bands such as Oasis, Blur and Ocean Colour Scene were influenced by the mod revival; both in music and fashion. In the 2000s (decade), some indie rock acts, such as The Libertines, Kaiser Chiefs, Little Man Tate, The Last Shadow Puppets, Twisted Wheel and Rinaldi Sings, were influenced by the mod revival. The main mod revival band of any profile in 2012 are East London's Missing Andy, who appeared on Sky1's "Must be the Music" television show in 2011, eventually finishing second.
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