Model–view–controller (MVC) is a software pattern for implementing user interfaces. It divides a given software application into three interconnected parts, so as to separate internal representations of information from the ways that information is presented to or accepted from the user. The central component, the model, consists of application data, business rules, logic and functions. A view can be any output representation of information, such as a chart or a diagram. Multiple views of the same information are possible, such as a bar chart for management and a tabular view for accountants. The third part, the controller, accepts input and converts it to commands for the model or view.
In addition to dividing the application into three kinds of components, the model–view–controller design defines the interactions between them.
- A controller can send commands to the model to update the model's state (e.g., editing a document). It can also send commands to its associated view to change the view's presentation of the model (e.g., by scrolling through a document).
- A model notifies its associated views and controllers when there has been a change in its state. This notification allows the views to produce updated output, and the controllers to change the available set of commands. In some cases an MVC implementation might instead be "passive," so that other components must poll the model for updates rather than being notified.
- A view requests information from the model that it needs for generating an output representation to the user.
Use in web applications
Although originally developed for desktop computing, model–view–controller has been widely adopted as an architecture for World Wide Web applications in major programming languages. Several commercial and noncommercial application frameworks have been created that enforce the pattern. These frameworks vary in their interpretations, mainly in the way that the MVC responsibilities are divided between the client and server.
MVC was one of the seminal insights in the early development of graphical user interfaces, and one of the first approaches to describe and implement software constructs in terms of their responsibilities.
Trygve Reenskaug introduced MVC into Smalltalk-76 while visiting Xerox Parc in the 1970s. In the 1980s, Jim Althoff and others implemented a version of MVC for the Smalltalk-80 class library. It was only later, in a 1988 article in The Journal of Object Technology, that MVC was expressed as a general concept.
- Hierarchical model–view–controller
- Model View ViewModel
- Observer pattern
- Three-tier architecture
- "More deeply, the framework exists to separate the representation of information from user interaction." The DCI Architecture: A New Vision of Object-Oriented Programming - Trygve Reenskaug and James Coplien - March 20, 2009.
- "... the user input, the modeling of the external world, and the visual feedback to the user are explicitly separated and handled by three types of object." Applications Programming in Smalltalk-80(TM):How to use Model–View–Controller (MVC).
- Simple Example of MVC (Model View Controller) Design Pattern for Abstraction
- Buschmann, Frank (1996) Pattern-Oriented Software Architecture.
- Leff, Avraham; Rayfield, James T. (September 2001). "Web-Application Development Using the Model/View/Controller Design Pattern". IEEE Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference. pp. 118–127.
- Model View Controller History. C2.com (2012-05-11). Retrieved on 2013-12-09.
- Notes and Historical documents from Trygve Reenskaug, inventor of MVC.
- "A note on DynaBook requirements", Trygve Reenskaug, 22 March 1979, SysReq.pdf.
- Krasner, Glenn E.; Pope, Stephen T. (Aug–Sep 1988). "A cookbook for using the model–view controller user interface paradigm in Smalltalk-80". The JOT (SIGS Publications). Also published as "A Description of the Model–View–Controller User Interface Paradigm in the Smalltalk-80 System" (Report), ParcPlace Systems; Retrieved 2012-06-05.
- The evolution of MVC and other UI architectures from Martin Fowler.
- Model–View–Controller Pattern in WikiBooks.
- What Are The Benefits of MVC? - quotes at length from the Gang of Four (software).
- Martin Fowler on the history of UI Architectures and the evolution of MVC
- YouTube: MVC (Model View Controller) - A quick explanation.
- YouTube: 1. MVC and Introduction to Objective-C (September 27, 2011). Stanford University introductory lecture on the MVC pattern.
- Cocoa Core Competencies: Overview of the MVC pattern.