Modern Greek grammar

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Main article: Modern Greek

The grammar of Standard Modern Greek, as spoken in present-day Greece and Cyprus, is basically that of Demotic Greek, but it has also assimilated certain elements of Katharevousa, the archaic, learned variety of Greek imitating Classical Greek forms, which used to be the official language of Greece through much of the 19th and 20th centuries.[1][2] Modern Greek grammar has preserved many features of Ancient Greek, but has also undergone changes in a similar direction as many other modern Indo-European languages, from more synthetic to more analytic structures.

General characteristics[edit]

Syntax[edit]

The predominant word order in Greek is SVO (subject–verb–object), but word order is quite freely variable, with VSO and other orders as frequent alternatives.[3] Within the noun phrase, adjectives precede the noun (for example, το μεγάλο σπίτι, [to meˈɣalo ˈspiti], 'the big house'), while possessors follow it (for example, το σπίτι μου, [to ˈspiti mu], 'my house'; το σπίτι του Νίκου 'Nick's house').[4] Alternative constructions involving the opposite order of constituents are possible as a marked option (e.g. το σπίτι το μεγάλο 'the big house'; του Νίκου το σπίτι 'Nick's house')[5]

Greek is a pro-drop language, i.e. subjects are typically not overtly expressed whenever they are inferable from context.[6] Whereas the word order of the major elements within the clause is fairly free, certain grammatical elements attach to the verb as clitics and form a rigidly ordered group together with it. This applies particularly to unstressed object pronouns, negation particles, the tense particle θα [θa], and the subjunctive particle να [na]. Likewise, possessive pronouns are enclitic to the nouns they modify.

Morphology[edit]

Greek is a largely synthetic (inflectional) language. Although the complexity of the inflectional system has been somewhat reduced in comparison to Ancient Greek, there is also a considerable degree of continuity in the morphological system, and Greek still has a somewhat archaic character compared with other Indo-European languages of Europe.[7] Nouns, adjectives and verbs are each divided into several inflectional classes (declension classes and conjugation classes), which have different sets of endings. In the nominals, the ancient inflectional system is well preserved, with the exception of the loss of one case, the dative, and the restructuring of several of the inflectional classes. In the verbal system, the loss of synthetic inflectional categories is somewhat greater, and several new analytic (periphrastic) constructions have evolved instead.

Characteristics of the Balkan language area[edit]

Greek shares several syntactic characteristics with its geographical neighbours, with which it forms the so-called Balkan language area (sprachbund).[8] Among these characteristics are:

  • The lack of an infinitive. In Greek, verbal complementation in contexts where English would use an infinitive is typically formed with the help of finite (subjunctive) verb forms (e.g. θέλω να πάω, [ˈθelo na ˈpao], literally 'I-want that I-go', i.e. 'I want to go').
  • The merger of the dative and the genitive case. In Greek, indirect objects are expressed partly through genitive forms of nouns or pronouns, and partly through a periphrasis consisting of the preposition σε ([se], 'to') and the accusative.
  • The use of a future construction derived from the verb 'want' (θέλει να [ˈθeli na] → θα [θa]).
  • A tendency to use pre-verbal clitic object pronouns redundantly (clitic doubling), doubling an object that is also expressed elsewhere in the clause: for example, το είδα το αυτοκίνητο ([to ˈiða to aftoˈcinito], 'I saw it, the car", literally 'It I-saw the car').

On the other hand, one prominent feature of the Balkan language area that Greek does not share is the use of a postposed definite article. The Greek article (like the Ancient Greek one) stands before the noun.

Accent[edit]

Modern Greek has a stress accent, similar to English. The accent is notated with a stroke (΄) over the accented vowel and is called οξεία (oxeia, "acute") or τόνος (tonos, "accent") in Greek. The former term is taken from one of the accents used in polytonic orthography which officially became obsolete in 1982.

Most monosyllabic words take no accent such as in το ([to], "the") and ποιος ([pços], "who"). Exceptions include the conjunction ή ([i], "or"), the interrogative adverbs πώς ([pos], "how") and πού ([pu], "where") in both direct and indirect questions and some fixed expressions such as πού και πού ([pu ce pu], "occasionally") and πώς και πώς ([pos ce pos], "cravingly"). Moreover, weak personal pronouns are accented in cases where they may be mistaken for enclitics (see below). For example, ο σκύλος μού γάβγισε ([o ˈscilos mu ˈɣavʝise], "the dog barked at me") instead of ο σκύλος μου γάβγισε ([o ˈscilos‿mu ˈɣavʝise], "my dog barked").[9]

Enclitics are pronounced very closely to the previous word. Most enclitics are weak personal pronouns. Enclitics do not modify the accent of the previous word when this word is accented on the ultimate or penultimate syllable, for example οδηγός μας ([oðiˈɣos‿mas], "our driver") and βιβλίο σου ([viˈvlio‿su], "your book"). However, when the previous word is accented on the antepenultimate syllable, the enclitic causes the ultimate syllable to be accented too. For example, δάσκαλος ([ˈðaskalos], "teacher") but δάσκαλός μου ([ˈðaskaˌlos‿mu], "my teacher") and φόρεσε ([ˈforese], "wear (IMP)") but φόρεσέ το ([ˈforeˌse‿to], "wear it"). Finally, enclitics are accented only when they precede another enclitic and these two determine an imperative accented on the penultimate syllable. For example, φέρε μού το ([ˈfere‿ˌmu‿to], "bring it to me").[9]

In digraphs which are pronounced as simple phonemes such as αι [e], οι [i] and ει [i] and in the case of αυ ([af] or [av]) and ευ ([ef] or [ev]), the accent is placed on the second letter as in αί, εί, αύ etc. When the accent is placed on the first letter, the sequence is pronounced as an accented diphthong, for example άι [á͜i] as in γάιδαρος ([ɣá͜iðaros], "donkey"). When the second letter takes a diaeresis, the sequence is often pronounced as a diphthong, for example αϊ [a͜i] as in παϊδάκια ([pa͜iˈdaca], "ribs"). Finally, when the accent is placed on the second letter together with diaeresis, the vowels are pronounced separately and the second vowel is accented, for example αΐ [aˈi] as in σαΐτα ([saˈita], "paper airplane").

As in Ancient Greek, in Modern Greek the accent cannot be placed before the antepenultimate syllable (Greek: νόμος της τρισυλλαβίας, law of limitation, sometimes historically called Dreimorengesetz). As a result many imparisyllabic nouns, i.e. nouns that do not have the same number of syllables in all their inflections, have the accent placed on the next syllable when a syllable is added, if the antepenult is already accented. For example NOM SG μάθημα ([ˈmaθima], "lesson") but GEN SG μαθήματος [maˈθimatos] and NOM PL μαθήματα [maˈθimata] etc. However, the transposition of the accent without the addition of a syllable is due to historical reasons; long vowels and diphthongs occupied two morae which had the same result as with the addition of a syllable. For example NOM SG άνθρωπος ([ˈanθropos], "human") but GEN SG ανθρώπου [anˈθropu], GEN PL ανθρώπων [anˈθropon] and ACC PL ανθρώπους [anˈθropus].[10]

Verbs[edit]

Greek verb morphology is structured around a basic 2-by-2 contrast of two aspects, namely imperfective and perfective, and two tenses, namely past and non-past (or present). The aspects are expressed by two separate verb stems, while the tenses are marked mainly by different sets of endings. Of the four possible combinations, only three can be used in indicative function: the present (i.e. imperfective non-past), the imperfect (i.e. imperfective past) and the aorist (i.e. perfective past). All four combinations can be used in subjunctive function, where they are typically preceded by the particle να or by one of a set of subordinating conjunctions. There are also two imperatives, one for each aspect.

In addition to these basic forms, Greek also has several periphrastic verb constructions. All the basic forms can be combined with the future particle θα (historically a contraction of θέλω να, 'want to'). Combined with the non-past forms, this creates an imperfective and a perfective future. Combined with the imperfective past it is used as a conditional, and with the perfective past as an inferential. There is also a perfect, which is expressed with an inflected form of the auxiliary verb έχω ('have'). It occurs both as a past perfect (pluperfect) and as a present perfect.

Modern Greek verbs additionally have three non-finite forms. There is a form traditionally called "απαρέμφατο" (i.e. 'infinitive', literally the 'invariant form'), which is historically derived from the perfective (aorist) infinitive, but has today lost all syntactical functions typically associated with that category. It is used only to form the periphrastic perfect and pluperfect, and is always formally identical to the 3rd person singular of the perfective non-past. There is also a passive participle, typically ending in -menos (-meni, -meno), which is inflected as a regular adjective. Its use is either as a canonical adjective, or as a part of a second, alternative perfect periphrasis with transitive verbs. Finally, there is another invariant form, formed from the present tense and typically ending in -ontas, which is variably called either a participle or a gerund by modern authors. It is historically derived from an old present participle, and its sole use today is to form non-finite adjunct adverbial clauses of time or manner, roughly corresponding to an -ing participle in English.

  • Regular perfect periphrasis, with aparemphato ("invariant form"), for example:
    • Έχω γράψει την επιταγή ([ˈexo ˈɣrapsi tin epitaˈʝi], 'I have written the cheque')
  • Alternative perfect periphrasis, with passive participle, for example:
    • Έχω την επιταγή γραμμένη ([ˈexo tin epitaˈʝi ɣraˈmeni], 'I have written the cheque')
  • Adverbial clause with present participle/gerund form, for example:
    • Έτρεξε στο δρόμο τραγουδώντας ([ˈetrekse sto ˈðromo traɣuˈðondas], 'he ran along the street singing')

The tables below exemplify the range of forms with those of one large inflectional class of verbs, the 1st Conjugation.

First conjugation[edit]

Aspect Stem   Non-past Past Imperative
Imperfective γραφ-   Present
(indic. + subj.)
Imperfect [continuous]
('I write') ('I was writing') ('write!')
1.Sg. γράφω έγραφα γράφε
2.Sg. γράφεις έγραφες
3.Sg. γράφει έγραφε
1.Pl. γράφουμε γράφαμε γράφετε
2.Pl. γράφετε γράφατε
3.Pl. γράφουν έγραφαν
Perfective γραψ-   Subjunctive Aorist [once]
('that I write') ('I wrote') ('write!')
1.Sg. γράψω έγραψα γράψε
2.Sg. γράψεις έγραψες
3.Sg. γράψει έγραψε
1.Pl. γράψουμε γράψαμε γράψτε
2.Pl. γράψετε γράψατε
3.Pl. γράψουν έγραψαν
Perfect εχ-
γράψει
  Present Perf. Past Perf.  
('I have written') ('I had written')
1.Sg. έχω γράψει είχα γράψει
2.Sg. έχεις γράψει είχες γράψει
3.Sg. έχει γράψει είχε γράψει
1.Pl. έχουμε γράψει είχαμε γράψει
2.Pl. έχετε γράψει είχατε γράψει
3.Pl. έχουν γράψει είχαν γράψει
  With subordinating particle "να" With future particle "θα"
Non-past Past Non-past Past
Imperfective να γράφει '(that) he write', 'to be writing' να έγραφε '(that) he was writing, 'to have been writing' θα γράφει 'he will be writing' θα έγραφε 'he would write'
Perfective να γράψει '(that) he write', 'to write' να έγραψε '(that) he wrote', 'to have written' θα γράψει 'he will write' θα έγραψε 'he probably wrote'

Second conjugation[edit]

Below are the corresponding forms of two subtypes of another class, the 2nd Conjugation.[11] Only the basic forms are shown here; the periphrastic combinations are formed as shown above. While the person-number endings are quite regular across all verbs within each of these classes, the formation of the two basic stems for each verb displays a lot of irregularity and can follow any of a large number of idiosyncratic patterns.

  verbs in -(α)ω/ώ
(αγαπώ 'love')
verbs in -ώ ( ← -εω)
(οδηγώ 'lead')
Present Imperfect Present Imperfect
1.Sg. αγαπώ, -άω αγαπούσα* οδηγώ οδηγούσα
2.Sg. αγαπάς αγαπούσες οδηγείς οδηγούσες
3.Sg. αγαπάει, -ά αγαπούσε οδηγεί οδηγούσε
1.Pl. αγαπάμε αγαπούσαμε οδηγούμε οδηγούσαμε
2.Pl. αγαπάτε αγαπούσατε οδηγείτε οδηγούσατε
3.Pl. αγαπούν(ε), -άν(ε) αγαπούσανε οδηγούν οδηγούσαν(ε)
  Subj. Aorist Subj. Aorist
1.Sg. αγαπήσω αγάπησα οδηγήσω οδήγησα
2.Sg. αγαπήσεις αγάπησες οδηγήσεις οδήγησες
3.Sg. αγαπήσει αγάπησε οδηγήσει οδήγησε
1.Pl. αγαπήσουμε αγαπήσαμε οδηγήσουμε οδηγήσαμε
2.Pl. αγαπήσετε αγαπήσατε οδηγήσετε οδηγήσατε
3.Pl. αγαπήσουν αγάπησαν(ε) οδηγήσουν οδήγησαν
*Alternative forms: αγάπαγα, -αγες, -αγε, -άγαμε, -άγατε, -αγαν(ε)

Augment[edit]

The use of the past tense prefix e-, the so-called augment, shows some variation and irregularity between verb classes. In regular (demotic) verbs in standard modern Greek, the prefix is used depending on a stress rule, which specifies that each past tense verb form has its stress on the third syllable from the last (the antepenultimate); the prefix is only inserted whenever the verb would otherwise have fewer than three syllables. In these verbs, the augment always appears as e-. A number of frequent verbs have irregular forms involving other vowels, mostly η- (i-), for example, θέλω → ήθελα ('want'). In addition, verbs from the learned tradition partly preserve more complex patterns inherited from ancient Greek. In learned compound verbs with adverbial prefixes such as περι- (peri-) or υπο- (ipo-), the augment is inserted between the prefix and the verb stem (for example, περι-γράφω → περι-έ-γραψα ('describe'). Where the prefix itself ends in a vowel, the vowels in this position may be subject to further assimilation rules, such as in υπο-γράφω → υπ-έ-γραψα ('sign'). In addition, verbs whose stem begins in a vowel may also display vocalic changes instead of a syllabic augment, as in ελπίζω → ήλπιζα ('hope'). The table below presents some further examples of these patterns:

Type of verb Present tense Meaning Past tenses
Perfective Imperfective
Simple γράφω [ˈɣrafo] write έγραψα eɣrapsa] έγραφα eɣrafa]
Composite περιγράφω ← περί + γράφω [peɾiˈɣrafo] describe περιέγραψα [peɾiˈeɣrapsa] περιέγραφα [peɾiˈeɣrafa]
υπογράφω ← υπό + γράφω [ipoˈɣrafo] sign υπέγραψα [iˈpeɣrapsa] υπέγραφα [iˈpeɣrafa]
διαγράφω ← δια + γράφω [ðiaˈɣrafo] delete διέγραψα [ðiˈeɣrapsa] διέγραφα [ðiˈeɣrafa]
Initial vowel ελπίζω [elˈpizo] hope ήλπισα ilpisa] ήλπιζα ilpiza]
Composite and initial vowel υπάρχω ← υπό + άρχω [iˈparxo] exist υπήρξα [iˈpirksa] υπήρχα [iˈpirxa]
Irregular augment είμαι [ˈime] be —— —— ήμουν imun]
έχω [ˈexo] have —— —— είχα ixa]
θέλω [ˈθelo] want θέλησα (no augment) [ˈθelisa] ήθελα iθela]
ξέρω [ˈksero] know —— —— ήξερα iksera]
πίνω [ˈpino] drink ήπια ipia] έπινα epina]

Grammatical voice[edit]

Greek is one of the few modern Indo-European languages that still retains a morphological contrast between the two inherited Proto-Indo-European grammatical voices: active and mediopassive. The mediopassive has several functions:

  • Passive function, denoting an action that is performed on the subject by another agent (for example, σκοτώθηκε 'he was killed');
  • Reflexive function, denoting an action performed by the subject on him-/herself (for example, ξυρίστηκε 'he shaved himself');
  • Reciprocal function, denoting an action performed by several subjects on each other (for example, αγαπιούνται 'they love each other');
  • Modal function, denoting the possibility of an action (for example, τρώγεται 'it is edible');
  • Deponential function: verbs that occur only in the mediopassive and lack a corresponding active form. They often have meanings that are rendered as active in other languages: εργάζομαι 'Ι work'; κοιμάμαι 'I sleep'; δέχομαι 'I accept'. There are also many verbs that have both an active and a mediopassive form but where the mediopassive has a special function that may be rendered with a separate verb in other languages: for example, active σηκώνω 'I raise', passive σηκώνομαι 'I get up'; active βαράω 'I strike', passive βαριέμαι 'I am bored'.
  γράφω 'write' αγαπώ 'love' οδηγώ 'lead'
Present Imperfect Present Imperfect Present Imperfect
1.Sg. γράφομαι γραφόμουν αγαπιέμαι αγαπιόμουν* οδηγούμαι οδηγούμουν
2.Sg. γράφεσαι γραφόσουν αγαπιέσαι αγαπιόσουν οδηγείσαι οδηγούσουν
3.Sg. γράφεται γραφόταν(ε) αγαπιέται αγαπιόταν(ε) οδηγείται οδηγούνταν(ε)
1.Pl. γραφόμαστε γραφόμασταν αγαπιόμαστε αγαπιόμασταν οδηγούμαστε οδηγούμασταν
2.Pl. γράφεστε γραφόσασταν αγαπιέστε αγαπιόσασταν οδηγείστε οδηγούσασταν
3.Pl. γράφονται γράφονταν αγαπιούνται, -άν(ε) αγαπιούνταν οδηγούνται οδηγούνταν
  Subj. Aorist Subj. Aorist Subj. Aorist
1.Sg. γραφτώ γράφτηκα αγαπηθώ αγαπήθηκα οδηγηθώ οδηγήθηκα
2.Sg. γραφτείς γράφτηκες αγαπηθείς αγαπήθηκες οδηγηθείς οδηγήθηκες
3.Sg. γραφτεί γράφτηκε αγαπηθεί αγαπήθηκε οδηγηθεί οδηγήθηκε
1.Pl. γραφτούμε γραφτήκαμε αγαπηθούμε αγαπηθήκαμε οδηγηθούμε οδηγηθήκαμε
2.Pl. γραφτείτε γραφτήκατε αγαπηθείτε αγαπηθήκατε οδηγηθείτε οδηγηθήκατε
3.Pl. γραφτούν γράφτηκαν αγαπηθούν αγαπήθηκαν οδηγηθούν οδηγήθηκαν

There also two other categories of verbs, which historically correspond to the ancient contracted verbs.

  εγγυώμαι ('guarantee') στερούμαι ('lack')
  Present Imperfect Imperative Present Imperfect Imperative
Impf. εγγυώμαι
εγγυάσαι
εγγυάται
εγγυόμαστε
εγγυάστε
εγγυώνται
εγγυόμουν
εγγυόσουν
εγγυόταν
εγγυόμασταν
εγγυόσασταν
εγγυόνταν
 

 
 

 
στερούμαι
στερείσαι
στερείται
στερούμαστε
στερείστε
στερούνται
στερούμουν
στερούσουν
στερούνταν and στερείτο
στερούμασταν
στερούσασταν
στερούνταν
 

 
 

 
  Subjunctive Aorist Imperative Subjunctive Aorist Imperative
Pf. εγγυηθώ
εγγυηθείς
εγγυηθεί
εγγυηθούμε
εγγυηθείτε
εγγυηθούν
εγγυήθηκα
εγγυήθηκες
εγγυήθηκε
εγγυηθήκαμε
εγγυηθήκατε
εγγυήθηκαν
 
εγγυήσου
 
 
εγγυηθείτε
 
στερηθώ
στερηθείς
στερηθεί
στερηθούμε
στερηθείτε
στερηθούν (στερηθούνε)
στερήθηκα
στερήθηκες
στερήθηκε
στερηθήκαμε
στερηθήκατε
στερήθηκαν (στερηθήκανε)
 
στερήσου
 
 
στερηθείτε
 
  έχω εγγυηθεί     έχω στερηθεί  
  • There are also more formal suffixes instead of -μασταν, -σασταν: -μαστε, -σαστε. In this case the suffixes of the first person of the plural of present and imperfect are the same.

Be and have[edit]

The verbs είμαι ('be') and έχω ('have') are irregular and defective, as they both lack the aspectual contrast. The forms of both are given below.

Nouns[edit]

The Greek nominal system displays inflection for two numbers (singular and plural), three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter), and four cases (nominative, genitive, accusative and vocative). As in many other Indo-European languages, the distribution of grammatical gender across nouns is largely arbitrary and need not coincide with natural sex.[12] Case, number and gender are marked on the noun as well as on articles and adjectives modifying it. While there are four cases, there is a great degree of syncretism between case forms within most paradigms. Only one sub-group of the masculine nouns actually has four distinct forms in the four cases.

Articles[edit]

There are two articles in Modern Greek, the definite and the indefinite. They are both inflected for gender and case, and the definite article also for number. The article agrees with the noun it modifies.

Definite article[edit]

The definite article is used frequently in Greek, such as before proper names and nouns used in an abstract sense. For example,

  • Ο Αλέξανδρος ήρθε χθες (O Alexandros irthe chthes, "Alexander came yesterday")
  • Η ειλικρίνεια είναι η καλύτερη πρακτική . (I eilikrineia einai i kalyteri praktiki, "Honesty is the best policy")
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular Nominative ο η το
Accusative τον την το
Genitive του της του
Plural Nominative οι οι τα
Accusative τους τις τα
Genitive των των των

Indefinite article[edit]

The indefinite article is identical with the numeral one and has only singular. The use of the indefinite article is not dictated by rules and the speaker can use it according to the circumstances of his speech.[13] Indefiniteness in plural nouns is expressed by the bare noun without an article. For example,

  • Αγόρασα έναν υπολογιστή (Agorasa enan ypologisti, “I bought a computer”)

However, the indefinite article is not used in Greek as often as in English because it specifically expresses the concept of "one". For example,

  • Είναι δικηγόρος (Einai dikigoros, “He is a lawyer”)
  • Τι καλό παιδί! (Ti kalo paidi, “What a good boy!”)
Singular
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative ένας [ˈenas] μία [ˈmia] ένα [ˈena]
Accusative έναν [ˈenan] μία(ν)[note 1] [ˈmia(n)] ένα [ˈena]
Genitive ενός [eˈnos] μιας [mjas] ενός [eˈnos]

Declensions[edit]

Greek nouns are inflected by case and number. In addition each noun belongs to one of three genders: masculine, feminine and neuter. Within each of the three genders, there are several sub-groups (declension classes) with different sets of inflectional endings.

Masculine nouns[edit]

The main groups of masculine nouns have the nominative singular end in –ος [–os], –ης [–is], –ας [–as], –εας [–ˈeas]. Nouns in –os are identical to the Ancient Greek second declension, except for the final –n of the accusative singular. However, in other parts of speech that follow the same declension and where clarity is necessary, such as in pronouns, the –n is added. When the word has more than two syllables and the antepenult is accented, the accent fluctuates between the antepenult and the penult according to whether the last syllable has one of the ancient long diphthongs, –ου, –ων or –ους. Nouns in –is correspond to the ancient first declension and have the accent on the ultima syllable in genitive plural, and so do some nouns ending in –ίας [–ˈias].[14] Nouns in –as stem from the ancient third declension. They formed their nominative singular from the accusative singular and retain the original accent in genitive plural.[14] Nouns in –eas stem from the ancient third declension and form their plural respectively.

Moreover, there are other categories and forms too that have to do either with Demotic or Katharevousa. For example, through Demotic, many nouns, especially oxytones (those that are accented on the last syllable) in -άς (-as) or -ής (-is) form their plural by adding the stem extension -άδ- (-ad-) and -ήδ- (-id-) respectively. Although this declension group is an element of Demotic, it has its roots in Ionic Greek that influenced later Koine.[15] On the other hand, from Katharevousa, nouns such as μυς (mys, "muscle") follow the ancient declension in all cases except for the dative.

  -ος/-οι
άνθρωπος
([ˈanθropos] 'man')
-ης/-ες
πολίτης
([poˈlitis] 'citizen')
-ας/-ες
πατέρας
([paˈteras] 'father')
-εας/-εις
προβολέας
([provoˈleas] 'searchlight')
-ας/-αδες
ψαράς
([psaˈras] 'fisherman')
Singular Nominative
Genitive
Accusative
Vocative
άνθρωπος
ανθρώπου
άνθρωπο
άνθρωπε
[-os]
[-u]
[-o]
[-e]
πολίτης
πολίτη
πολίτη
πολίτη
[-is]
[-i]
[-i]
[-i]
πατέρας
πατέρα
πατέρα
πατέρα
[-as]
[-a]
[-a]
[-a]
προβολέας
προβολέα
προβολέα
προβολέα
[-eas]
[-ea]
[-ea]
[-ea]
ψαράς
ψαρά
ψαρά
ψαρά
[-as]
[-a]
[-a]
[-a]
Plural Nominative
Genitive
Accusative
άνθρωποι
ανθρώπων
ανθρώπους
[-i]
[-on]
[-us]
πολίτες
πολιτών
πολίτες
[-es]
[-ˈon]
[-es]
πατέρες
πατέρων
πατέρες
[-es]
[-on]
[-es]
προβολείς
προβολέων
προβολείς
[-is]
[-eon]
[-is]
ψαράδες
ψαράδων
ψαράδες
[-aðes]
[-aðon]
[-aðes]

Feminine nouns[edit]

Most feminine nouns end in -η [-i], -α [-a] and -ος [-os]. Those that end in -i and many that end in -a stem from the ancient first declension and have the accent on the ultima syllable in genitive plural. The rest of those that end in -a originate from the ancient third declension and have formed their nominative singular from the ancient accusative singular; those nouns keep the accent unchanged in genitive plural. The nouns that end in -os are identical to the respective masculine nouns. Finally, many feminine nouns that end in -η (-i) correspond to Ancient Greek nouns in -ις (-is). Their singular forms have been adapted to the rest of the feminine nouns, while their plural forms have retained the ancient pattern in -εις (-eis). The forms of the genitive singular -εως (-eos) are also found as a stylistic variant and they are fully acceptable.

  -η/-ες
μάχη
([ˈmaçi], 'battle')
-α/-ες
θάλασσα
([ˈθalasa], 'sea')
-ος/-οι
μέθοδος
([ˈmeθoðos], 'method')
-η/-εις
δύναμη
([ˈðinami], 'force')
Singular Nominative
Genitive
Accusative
Vocative
μάχη
μάχης
μάχη
μάχη
[-i]
[-is]
[-i]
[-i]
θάλασσα
θάλασσας
θάλασσα
θάλασσα
[-a]
[-as]
[-a]
[-a]
μέθοδος
μεθόδου
μέθοδο
μέθοδε
[-os]
[-u]
[-o]
[-e]
δύναμη
δύναμης and δυνάμεως
δύναμη
δύναμη
[-i]
[-is] and[-eos]
[-i]
[-i]
Plural Nominative
Genitive
Accusative
μάχες
μαχών
μάχες
[-es]
[-ˈon]
[-es]
θάλασσες
θαλασσών
θάλασσες
[-es]
[-ˈon]
[-es]
μέθοδοι
μεθόδων
μεθόδους
[-i]
[-on]
[-us]
δυνάμεις
δυνάμεων
δυνάμεις
[-is]
[-eon]
[-is]

Neuter nouns[edit]

Most neuter nouns end either in -ο [-o] (plural: -α [-a]) or -ι [-i] (plural: [-ja] or -ia). Indeed, most of them that end in -i initially ended in -io, an ending for diminutives that many nouns acquired already since Koine Greek. As a result, the endings of the plural and of the genitive singular are reminiscent of those older forms. For example, the diminutive of the ancient Greek word παῖς (pais, "child") is παιδίον (paidion) and hence the modern noun παιδί (paidi).[16] Other neuter nouns end in -α (-a) and -ος (-os) and their declension is similar to the ancient one. Moreover, some nouns in -ιμο (-imo), which are usually derivatives of verbs, are declined similarly to those that end in -a. Finally, all neuter nouns have identical forms across the nominative, accusative and vocative.

  -ο/-α
βιβλίο
([viˈvlio], 'book')
-ί/-ιά
παιδί
([peˈði], 'child')
-α/-ατα
πρόβλημα
([ˈprovlima], 'problem')
-ος/-η
μέγεθος
([ˈmeʝeθos], 'size')
-ιμο/-ίματα
δέσιμο
([ˈðesimo], 'tying')
Singular Nominative
Genitive
Accusative
βιβλίο
βιβλίου
βιβλίο
[-o]
[-u]
[-o]
παιδί
παιδιού
παιδί
[-i]
[-ˈju]
[-i]
πρόβλημα
προβλήματος
πρόβλημα
[-a]
[-atos]
[-a]
μέγεθος
μεγέθους
μέγεθος
[-os]
[-us]
[-os]
δέσιμο
δεσίματος
δέσιμο
[-o]
[-atos]
[-o]
Plural Nominative
Genitive
Accusative
βιβλία
βιβλίων
βιβλία
[-a]
[-on]
[-a]
παιδιά
παιδιών
παιδιά
[-ˈja]
[-ˈjon]
[-ˈja]
προβλήματα
προβλημάτων
προβλήματα
[-ata]
[-ˈaton]
[-ata]
μεγέθη
μεγεθών
μεγέθη
[-i]
[-ˈon]
[-i]
δεσίματα
δεσιμάτων
δεσίματα
[-ata]
[-ˈaton]
[-ata]

For other neuter nouns, the ancient declension is used. For example, το φως (fos, "light") becomes του φωτός, τα φώτα and των φώτων and οξύ (oxy, "acid") becomes του οξέος, τα οξέα and των οξέων.

Adjectives[edit]

Adjectives agree with nouns in gender, case and number. Therefore, each adjective has a threefold declension paradigm for the three genders. Adjectives show agreement both when they are used as attributes, e.g. η όμορφη γυναίκα (i omorfi gynaika, "the beautiful woman") and when they are used as predicates e.g. η γυναίκα είναι όμορφη (i gynaika einai omorfi, "the woman is beautiful").

Most adjectives take forms in -ος (–os) in the masculine, –ο (–o) in the neuter and either –η (–i), –α (–a) or –ια (–ia) in the feminine. All those adjectives are declined similarly with the nouns that have the same endings. However they keep the accent stable where nouns change it. Nouns with a consonant before the ending usually form the feminine with –η, those with a vowel before the ending in –α and some nouns that end in –κός ([-ˈkos], –kos) or –χός ([-ˈxos], -chos) usually form it in –ια although the ending –η is applicable for those too.

Other classes of adjectives include those that take forms in –ης (–is) in both masculine and feminine and in –ες (–es) in neuter. They are declined similarly with the ancient declension. Those that are not accented on the ultima usually raise the accent in the neuter. Another group includes adjectives that end in –υς ([–is], –ys). Although some are declined somewhat archaically such as οξύς (oxys, "acute"), most of them are declined according to the rules of Demotic Greek and in many cases and persons they acquire other endings, such as in the case of πλατύς (platys, "wide").

  -ης, -ες/-εις, -η
συνεχής
([sineˈçis], 'continual')
-υς, -ια, –υ/-ιοι, –ιες, -ια
πλατύς
([plaˈtis], 'wide')
-υς, -εια, –υ/-εις, -ειες, –εα
οξύς
([oˈksis], 'acute')
Masc. & Fem. Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular Nominative
Genitive
Accusative
Vocative
συνεχής
συνεχούς
συνεχή
συνεχής
[-is]
[-us]
[-i]
[-is]
συνεχές
συνεχούς
συνεχές
συνεχές
[-es]
[-us]
[-es]
[-es]
πλατύς
πλατιού
πλατύ
πλατύ
[-is]
[-ju]
[-i]
[-i]
πλατιά
πλατιάς
πλατιά
πλατιά
[-ja]
[-jas]
[-ja]
[-ja]
πλατύ
πλατιού
πλατύ
πλατύ
[-i]
[-ju]
[-i]
[-i]
οξύς
οξέος
οξύ
οξύ
[-is]
[-eos]
[-i]
[-i]
οξεία
οξείας
οξεία
οξεία
[-ia]
[-ias]
[-ia]
[-ia]
οξύ
οξέος
οξύ
οξύ
[-i]
[-eos]
[-i]
[-i]
Plural Nominative
Genitive
Accusative
Vocative
συνεχείς
συνεχών
συνεχείς
συνεχείς
[-is]
[-on]
[-is]
[-is]
συνεχή
συνεχών
συνεχή
συνεχή
[-i]
[-on]
[-i]
[-i]
πλατιοί
πλατιών
πλατιούς
πλατιοί
[-ji]
[-jon]
[-jus]
[-ji]
πλατιές
πλατιών
πλατιές
πλατιές
[-jes]
[-jon]
[-jes]
[-jes]
πλατιά
πλατιών
πλατιά
πλατιἀ
[-ja]
[-ja]
[-ja]
[-ja]
οξείς
οξέων
οξείς
οξείς
[-is]
[-eon]
[-is]
[-is]
οξείες
οξειών
οξείες
οξείες
[-ies]
[-ion]
[-ies]
[-ies]
οξέα
οξέων
οξέα
οξέα
[-ea]
[-eon]
[-ea]
[-ea]

The adjective πολύς (polys, "many, much") is irregular:

  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular Nominative
Genitive
Accusative
Vocative
πολύς
πολλού
πολύ
πολύ
[-is]
[-u]
[-i]
[-i]
πολλή
πολλής
πολλή
πολλή
[-i]
[-is]
[-i]
[-i]
πολύ
πολλού
πολύ
πολύ
[-i]
[-u]
[-i]
[-i]
Plural Nominative
Genitive
Accusative
Vocative
πολλοί
πολλών
πολλούς
πολλοί
[-i]
[-on]
[-us]
[-i]
πολλές
πολλών
πολλές
πολλές
[-es]
[-on]
[-es]
[-es]
πολλά
πολλών
πολλά
πολλά
[-a]
[-on]
[-a]
[-a]

Comparative and superlative[edit]

Adjectives in Modern Greek can form a comparative for expressing comparisons. Similar to English, it can be formed in two ways, as a periphrastic form (as in English POS beautiful, COMP more beautiful) and as synthetic form using grammatical suffixes, as in English POS large COMP larger. The periphrastic comparative is formed by the particle πιο ([pço], pio, originally "more") preceding the adjective. The synthetic forms of the regular adjectives in -ος, -η and -o is created with the suffix -οτερος (-oteros), -οτερη (-oteri) and -οτερο (-otero). For those adjectives that end in -ης and -ες or -υς, -εια and -υ the corresponding suffixes are -εστερος (-esteros) etc. and -υτερος (-yteros) etc. respectively.

A superlative is expressed by combining the comparative, in either its periphrastic or synthetic form, with a preceding definite article. Thus, Modern Greek does not distinguish between the largest house and the larger house; both are το μεγαλύτερο σπίτι.

Besides the superlative proper, sometimes called "relative superlative", there is also an "absolute superlative" or elative, expressing the meaning "very...", for example ωραιότατος means very beautiful. Elatives are formed with the suffixes -οτατος, -οτατη and -οτατο for the regular adjectives, -εστατος etc. for those in -ης and -υτατος for those in -υς.

Simple form Comparative form Superlative form
Relative Absolute (elative)
Periphrastic Synthetic Periphrastic Synthetic
Adjectives ωραίος nice πιο ωραίος ωραιότερος ο πιο ωραίος ο ωραιότερος ωραιότατος
βαθύς deep πιο βαθύς βαθύτερος ο πιο βαθύς ο βαθύτερος βαθύτατος
επιεικής lenient πιο επιεικής επιεικέστερος ο πιο επιεικής ο επιεικέστερος επιεικέστατος
Participles μεθυσμένος drunk πιο μεθυσμένος ο πιο μεθυσμένος
Adverbs ωραία nicely πιο ωραία ωραιότερα ωραιότατα
επιεικώς leniently πιο επιεικώς επιεικέστερα επιεικέστατα

Numerals[edit]

The numerals one, three and four are declined irregularly. Other numerals such as διακόσιοι (diakosioi, "two hundred"), τριακόσιοι (triakosioi, "three hundred") etc. and χίλιοι (chilioi, "thousand") are declined regularly like adjectives. Other numerals including two are not declined.

Singular Plural
ένας (enas, "one") τρεις (treis, "three") τέσσερις (tesseris, "four")
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masc. & Fem. Neuter Masc. & Fem. Neuter
Nominative ένας [ˈenas] μία [ˈmia] ένα [ˈena] τρεις [tris] τρία [ˈtria] τέσσερις [ˈteseris] τέσσερα [ˈtesera]
Genitive ενός [eˈnos] μιας [mɲas] ενός [eˈnos] τριών [triˈon] τριών [triˈon] τεσσάρων [teˈsaron] τεσσάρων [teˈsaron]
Accusative έναν[note 1] [ˈenan] μία [ˈmia] ένα [ˈena] τρεις [tris] τρία [ˈtria] τέσσερις [ˈteseris] τέσσερα [ˈtesera]

Personal pronouns[edit]

There are strong pronouns (stressed, free) and weak pronouns (unstressed, clitic). Nominative pronouns only have the strong form (except in some minor environments) and are used as subjects only when special emphasis is intended, since unstressed subjects recoverable from context are not overtly expressed anyway. Genitive (possessive) pronouns are used in their weak forms as pre-verbal clitics to express indirect objects (for example, του μίλησα, [tu ˈmilisa], 'I talked to him'), and as a post-nominal clitic to express possession (for example, οι φίλοι του, [i ˈfili tu], 'his friends'). The strong genitive forms are relatively rare and used only for special emphasis (for example, αυτού οι φίλοι, [afˈtu i ˈfili], 'his friends'); often they are doubled by the weak forms (for example, αυτού του μίλησα, [afˈtu tu ˈmilisa], ' him I talked to'). An alternative way of giving emphasis to a possessive pronoun is propping it up with the stressed adjective δικός ([ðiˈkos], 'own'), for example, οι δικοί του φίλοι ([i ðiˈci tu ˈfili], ' his friends').

Accusative pronouns exist both in a weak and a strong form. The weak form is used as a pre-verbal clitic (for example, τον είδα, [ton ˈiða], 'I saw him'); the strong form is used elsewhere in the clause (for example, είδα αυτόν, [ˈiða afˈton], 'I saw him'). Third-person pronouns have separate forms for the three genders; those of the first and second Person do not. The weak third-person forms are similar to the corresponding forms of the definite article. The strong third-person forms function simultaneously as generic demonstratives ('this, that').

The strong plural forms of the third person in the genitive and accusative (αυτών, αυτούς etc.) have optional alternative forms extended by an additional syllable [-on-] or [-un-] (αυτωνών, αυτουνούς etc.)

  1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Masc. Fem. Neut.
Strong Singular Nominative εγώ [eˈɣo] εσύ [eˈsi] αυτός [afˈtos] αυτή [afˈti] αυτό [afˈto]
Genitive εμένα [eˈmena] εσένα [eˈsena] αυτoύ [afˈtu] αυτής [afˈtis] αυτού [afˈtu]
Accusative εμένα [eˈmena] εσένα [eˈsena] αυτόν [afˈton] αυτήν [afˈtin] αυτό [afˈto]
Plural Nominative εμείς [eˈmis] εσείς [eˈsis] αυτοί [afˈti] αυτές [afˈtes] αυτά [afˈta]
Genitive εμάς [eˈmas] εσάς [eˈsas] αυτών [afˈton] αυτών [afˈton] αυτών [afˈton]
Accusative εμάς [eˈmas] εσάς [eˈsas] αυτούς [afˈtus] αυτές [afˈtes] αυτά [afˈta]
Weak Singular Nominative τος [tos] τη [ti] το [to]
Genitive μου [mu] σου [su] του [tu] της [tis] του [tu]
Accusative με [me] σε [se] τον [ton] την[note 1] [tin] το [to]
Plural Nominative τοι [ti] τες [tes] τα [ta]
Genitive μας [mas] σας [sas] τους [tus] τους [tus] τους [tus]
Accusative μας [mas] σας [sas] τους [tus] τις/τες [tis]/[tes] τα [ta]

Besides αυτός [afˈtos] as a generic demonstrative, there are also the more specific spatial demonstrative pronouns τούτος, -η, -ο ([tuˈtos], 'this here') and εκείνος, -η, -ο ([eˈcinos], 'that there').

Prepositions[edit]

In Demotic Greek, prepositions normally require the accusative case: από (from), για (for), με (with), μετά (after), χωρίς (without), ως (as) and σε (to, in or at). The preposition σε, when followed by a definite article, fuses with it into forms like στο (σε + το) and στη (σε + τη). While there is only a relatively small number of simple prepositions native to Demotic, the two most basic prepositions σε and από can enter into a large number of combinations with preceding adverbs to form new compound prepositions, for example, πάνω σε (on), κάτω από (underneath), πλάι σε (beside) etc.

A few prepositions that take cases other than the accusative have been borrowed into Standard Modern Greek from the learned tradition of Katharevousa: κατά (against), υπέρ (in favor of, for), αντί (instead of). Other prepositions live on in a fossilised form in certain fixed expressions (for example, εν τω μεταξύ 'in the meantime', dative).

The preposition από (apó, 'from') is also used to express the agent in passive sentences, like English by.

Conjunctions[edit]

Coordinating and subordinating conjunctions in Greek include:

Kinds Conjunctions Meaning
Copulative και (κι), ούτε, μήτε, ουδέ, μηδέ and, neither
Separatist ή, είτε or, either
Negative μα, αλλά, παρά, όμως, ωστόσο, ενώ, αν και, μολονότι, μόνο but, although, however, whereas
Inferential λοιπόν, ώστε, άρα, επομένως, που so, so as, thus, that
Explanatory δηλαδή so, in other words
Special ότι, πως, που that
Temporal όταν, σαν, ενώ, καθώς, αφού, αφότου, πριν (πριν να), μόλις, προτού, ώσπου, ωσότου, όσο που, όποτε when, while, after, before, just, until
Explaining γιατί, διότι, επειδή, αφού because
Hypothetical αν, εάν, άμα, σαν if
Final να, για να so as, (in order)to
Efficacious ώστε (να), που so as, in order to
Hesitant μη(ν), μήπως maybe, perhaps
Comparative παρά to, than

The word να ([na]) serves as a generic subordinator corresponding roughly to English to (+ infinitive) or that in sentences like προτιμώ να πάω ([protiˈmo na ˈpao], 'I prefer to go', literally 'I prefer that I go') or προτιμώ να πάει ο Γιάννης ([protiˈmo na ˈpai o ˈʝannis], 'I prefer that John go'). It marks the following verb as being in the subjunctive mood. Somewhat similar to the English to-infinitive its use is often associated with meanings of non-factuality, i.e. events that have not (yet) come true, that are expected, wished for etc. In this, it contrasts with ότι [ˈoti] and πως [pos], which correspond to English that when used with a meaning of factuality. The difference can be seen in the contrast between μας είπε να πάμε βόλτα ([mas ˈipe na ˈpame ˈvolta], 'he told us to go for a walk') vs. μας είπε πως πήγε βόλτα ([mas ˈipe pos ˈpiʝe ˈvolta], 'he told us that he went for a walk'). When used on its own with a following verb, να may express a wish or order, as in να πάει! ([na ˈpai], 'let him go' or 'may he go'). Unlike the other subordinating conjunctions, να is always immediately followed by the verb it governs, separated from it only by any clitics that might be attached to the verb, but not by a subject or other clause-initial material.

Negation[edit]

For sentence negation, Greek has two distinct negation particles, δε(ν) ([ˈðe(n)], de(n)) and μη(ν)[note 1] ([ˈmi(n)], mi(n)). Δεν is used in clauses with indicative mood, while μην is used primarily in subjunctive contexts, either after subjunctive-inducing να or as a negative replacement for να. Both particles are syntactically part of the proclitic group in front of the verb, and can be separated from the verb only by intervening clitic pronouns.[17] The distinction between δεν and μην is a particularly archaic feature in Greek, continuing an old prohibitive negation marker inherited from Indo-European.[18] As such, μην is often associated with the expression of a wish for an event not to come true:

  • Δεν του ζήτησα να έρθει. (Den tou zitisa na erthei, "I didn't ask him to come.")
  • Του ζήτησα να μην έρθει. (Tou zitisa na min erthei, "I asked him not to come.")

When used alone with a subjunctive verb in the second person, prohibitive μην serves as the functional equivalent to a negative imperative, which itself cannot be negated. Thus, the negation of the positive imperative τρέξε ([ˈtrekse], 'run!') is μην τρέξεις ([min ˈtreksis], 'don't run!').

The particle όχι serves as the stand-alone utterance of negation ('no'), and also for negation of elliptical, verbless sentences and for contrastive negation of individual constituents:

  • Κάλεσα την Μαρία, όχι τον Γιώργο. (Kalesa tin Maria, ochi ton Giorgo, "I invited Mary, not George.")

For constituent negation, Greek employs negative concord. The negated constituent is marked with a negative-polarity item (e.g. κανένας 'any, anybody/nobody', τίποτα 'anything/nothing', πουθενα 'anywhere/nowhere'), and the verb is additionally marked with the sentence negator δεν (or μην).[19] In verbless, elliptical contexts the negative-polarity items can also serve to express negation alone.

  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative
Genitive
Accusative
κανένας or κανείς
κανενός
κανέναν[note 1]
[-enas] or [-is]
[-enos]
[-enan]
καμία
καμιάς
καμία
[-mia]
[-mias]
[-mia]
κανένα
κανενός
κανένα
[-ena]
[-enos]
[-ena]

The negative pronoun κανείς ([kaˈnis], kaneis), i.e. nobody or anybody is declined in all three genders and three cases and can be used as the English determiner no.

  • Δεν θέλω κανέναν εδώ. (Den thelo kanenan edo, "I want nobody here.")
  • —Είναι κανείς εδώ; —Όχι, κανείς. (—Einai kaneis edo? —Ochi, kaneis, "'Is anyone here?' 'No, nobody.'")
  • Δεν έκανα κανένα λάθος. (Den ekana kanena lathos, "I have made no mistake.")

On the other hand, the negative pronoun ουδείς ([uˈðis], oudeis), from the learned tradition of Ancient Greek, is used without negative concord:

  • Ουδείς πείστηκε. (Oudeis peistike, "No one was convinced.")
  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative
Genitive
Accusative
ουδείς
ουδενός
ουδένα
[-is]
[-enos]
[-ena]
ουδεμία
ουδεμιάς
ουδεμία(ν)
[-mia]
[-mias]
[-mia(n)]
ουδέν
ουδενός
ουδέν
[-en]
[-enos]
[-en]

Relative clauses[edit]

Greek has two different ways of forming relative clauses. The simpler and by far the more frequent uses the invariable relativizer που ([pu], 'that', literally 'where'), as in: η γυναίκα που είδα χτες ([i ʝiˈneka pu ˈiða xtes], 'the woman that I saw yesterday'). When the relativized element is a subject, object or adverbial within the relative clause, then – as in English – it has no other overt expression within the relative clause apart from the relativizer. Some other types of relativized elements, however, such as possessors, are represented within the clause by a resumptive pronoun, as in: η γυναίκα που βρήκα την τσάντα της (/i ʝiˈneka pu ˈvrika tin ˈt͡sanda tis/, 'the woman whose handbag I found', literally 'the woman that I found her handbag').

The second and more formal form of relative clauses employs complex inflected relative pronouns. They are composite elements consisting of the definite article and a following pronominal element that is inflected like an adjective: ο οποίος, η οποία, το οποίο ([o oˈpios, i oˈpia, to oˈpio] etc., literally 'the which'). Both elements are inflected for case, number and gender according to the grammatical properties of the relativized item within the relative clause, as in: η γυναίκα την οποία είδα χτες ([i ʝiˈneka tin oˈpia ˈiða xtes], 'the woman whom I saw yesterday'); η γυναίκα της οποίας βρήκα την τσάντα ([i ʝiˈneka tis oˈpias ˈvrika tin ˈt͡sanda], 'the woman whose handbag I found').

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e In these cases, the final -ν (-n) is omitted before words that begin with a consonant except when this consonant is a voiceless stop κ [k], π [p] and τ [t], a double consonant ξ [ks] or ψ [ps] and one of the consonant clusters μπ [b], ντ [d], γκ [g], τσ [ts] and τζ [dz].

References[edit]

  1. ^ Geoffrey Horrocks, Greek: A History of the Language and its Speakers, Longman, New York, 1997, ISBN 0582307090, p. 364
  2. ^ (Greek) Γεώργιος Μπαμπινιώτης (5 December 1999). "Τι γλώσσα μιλάμε". Τα Νέα; Retrieved June 2012
  3. ^ Holton, Mackridge & Philippaki-Warburton 1997, §C.5.2
  4. ^ Holton, Mackridge & Philippaki-Warburton 1997, §C.2.4.3.2
  5. ^ Holton, Mackridge & Philippaki-Warburton 1997, §C.2.11
  6. ^ Joseph 1994
  7. ^ Robert Browning, Medieval and Modern Greek, Cambridge University Press, Second Edition, 1983, ISBN 0521299780
  8. ^ Lindstedt 1998
  9. ^ a b Καρανικόλας, Α. κά., Νεοελληνική Γραμματική:Αναπροσαρμογή της μικρής νεοελληνικής γραμματικής του Μανόλη Τριανταφυλλίδη, Οργανισμός Εκδόσεως Διδακτικών Βιβλίων, Αθήνα, 2004, pp. 22–26
  10. ^ (Greek) Portal for the Greek Language: νόμος της τρισυλλαβίας Retrieved June 2012
  11. ^ Holton, Mackridge & Philippaki-Warburton 1997, §B.7.3–4
  12. ^ Holton, Mackridge & Philippaki-Warburton 1997, §C.2.2
  13. ^ Χρ. Κλαίρης, Γ. Μπαμπινιώτης, Γραμματική της Νέας Ελληνικής: Δομολειτουργική–Επικοινωνιακή, Ελληνικά Γράμματα, Αθήνα, 2004, ISBN 9604068121
  14. ^ a b B.F.C. Atkinson, The Greek Language, Cambridge University Press, Second Edition, October 1933, p. 316
  15. ^ (Greek) §§ α & β, Χαραλαμπάκης, Χ. (1997; 1999), Θέματα ιστορίας της ελληνικής γλώσσας: Δημιουργία της ελληνιστικής κοινής, edited by Νίκος Παντελίδης, 2007, Πύλη για την Ελληνική γλώσσα Retrieved May 2012
  16. ^ (Greek) Παπαναστασίου, Γ. (2001), Θέματα ιστορίας της ελληνικής γλώσσας: Δημιουργία της ελληνιστικής κοινής, edited by Νίκος Παντελίδης, 2007, Πύλη για την Ελληνική γλώσσα Retrieved May 2012
  17. ^ B.D. Joseph, I. Philippaki-Warburton, Modern Greek, Great Britain, 1987, ISBN 0709914520, p. 62
  18. ^ Wackernagel, Jacob (2009). Lectures on syntax, with special reference to Greek, Latin, and Germanic. Edited by David Langslow. Oxford: University Press. p. §11.258. 
  19. ^ B.D. Joseph, I. Philippaki-Warburton, Modern Greek, Great Britain, 1987, ISBN 0709914520, p. 65

Bibliography[edit]

  • Hardy, D. A. and Doyle, T. A. Greek language and people, BBC Books, 1996. ISBN 0-563-16575-8
  • Holton, David; Mackridge, Peter; Philippaki-Warburton, Irini (1997). Greek: A comprehensive grammar of the modern language. London: Routledge. 
  • Holton, David; Mackridge, Peter; Philippaki-Warburton, Irini (1998). Grammatiki tis ellinikis glossas. Athens: Pataki.  [Greek translation of Holton, Mackridge & Philippaki-Warburton 1997]
  • Holton, David; Mackridge, Peter; Philippaki-Warburton, Irini (2004). Greek: An essential grammar of the modern language. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-23210-4.  [abridged version of Holton, Mackridge & Philippaki-Warburton 1997]
  • Joseph, Brian D. (1994). "On weak subjects and pro-drop in Greek". In Philippaki-Warburton, Irini. Themes in Greek Linguistics (Papers from the First International Conference on Greek Linguistics, Reading, September 1993). Amsterdam: Benjamins. pp. 21–32. 
  • Lindstedt, Jouko (1998). "On the Balkan Linguistic Type". Studia Slavica Finlandensia 15: 91–101. 

Lindstedt, J. 1999. On the Nature of Linguistic Balkanisms. Paper read at the Eighth In

External links[edit]