Modoc County, California
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2011)|
|County of Modoc|
|• Total||4,203.37 sq mi (10,886.7 km2)|
|• Land||3,944.10 sq mi (10,215.2 km2)|
|• Water||259.28 sq mi (671.5 km2)|
|• Density||2.3/sq mi (0.89/km2)|
|Time zone||Pacific Standard Time (UTC-8)|
|• Summer (DST)||Pacific Daylight Time (UTC-7)|
Modoc County is a county located in the far northeast corner of the U.S. state of California, bounded by the state of Oregon to the north and the state of Nevada to the east. As of the 2010 census, its population was 9,686, up from 9,449 at the 2000 census. The current county seat is Alturas, the county's only incorporated city. Previous county seats include Lake City and Centerville; the latter is now a ghost town. The county's official slogans include, "The last best place," and "Where the West still lives."
A large portion of Modoc County is federal land. Several federal agencies, including the United States Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, Bureau of Indian Affairs, and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, have employees assigned to the area, and their operations are a significant part of the economy and services in this rural area.
Modoc County is the only county in California to be bordered by both Nevada and Oregon, and is also one of three counties in California to border more than one state (the other counties being San Bernardino County, bordered by Nevada and Arizona; and Imperial County which borders Arizona and Baja California in Mexico). In California, this is the only almost rectangular county; there is a slight deviation around the Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Crime
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Government
- 6 Infrastructure
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Prior to the arrival of Europeans in the region, varying cultures of Native Americans inhabited the county for thousands of years. At the time of European encounter, the Modoc people lived in what is now northern California, near Lost River and Tule Lake. The county was named after them.:216 The Achumawi (or Pitt River Indians, for which the Pit River is named), and the Paiute also lived in the area.:216 To the north were the Klamath in present-day Oregon.
The first European explorers to visit Modoc County were the American John C. Frémont and his traveling party (including Kit Carson) in 1846, who had departed from Sutter's Fort near the confluence of the American and Sacramento Rivers. (This is where the city of Sacramento lies today.):216
The northern boundary of California, and eventually Modoc County, had been established as the 42nd parallel since the time of Mexican possession. In the absence of a reliable survey of the 120th meridian, the eastern boundary of northern California was a subject of contention before Modoc County formed. The Territory of Utah requested jurisdiction to the summit of the Sierra Nevada. At the time, the Warner Mountains were believed to be a part of the Sierra Nevada, so this would have included Surprise Valley, but California denied the request.:76–77
In 1856, the residents of Honey Lake Valley reckoned the 120th meridian to be west of their valley, placing them in Utah territory, and attempted to secede and form a territory they called Nataqua. Nataqua would have included Modoc County. In 1858, the Territory of Nevada, with its capital now in Carson City, successfully seceded from Utah, and assumed jurisdiction to the summit of the Sierra Nevada until the 120th meridian was surveyed in 1863.:76–77
After Nevada was granted statehood in 1864, the region of current Modoc County was placed within jurisdiction of Shasta County, California, and Siskiyou County was, in turn, generated from Shasta County in 1852.
Increasing traffic on the emigrant trail, unprovoked militia raids on innocent Modoc, and a cycle of retaliatory raids increased a cycle of violence between settlers and the tribes in the area.:217 In 1864, the Klamath, Modoc and Yahooskin band of the Shoshone signed a treaty ceding lands in both Oregon and California, and the tribes were colocated on the Klamath Reservation. Harassed by the Klamath, traditional competitors, a band of Modoc led by Captain Jack returned to California and the Tule Lake area.
The Modoc War (or Lava Beds War) of 1872-73 brought nationwide attention to the Modoc during the protracted battles. From strong defensive positions in the lava tubes, 52 Modoc warriors held off hundreds of US Army forces, who called in artillery to help.:218–219 Peace talks in 1873 stalled when the Modoc wanted their own reservation in California. Warriors urged killing the peace commissioners, thinking that the Americans would then leave, and Captain Jack and others shot and killed General Edward Canby and Rev. Eleazer Thomas, and wounded others. More Army troops were called in to lay siege to Captain Jack's Stronghold. Dissension arose, and some Modoc surrendered. Finally most were captured, and those responsible for the assassinations were tried and executed. More than 150 Modoc were transported to Indian Territory as prisoners of war.:219 The area has since been designated the Lava Beds National Monument.
Settlement of the county began in earnest in the 1870s, with the timber, gold, agriculture, and railroad industries bringing most of the settlers into the area. The county was a crossroads for the Lassen Applegate Trail, which brought settlers north from Nevada to the Oregon Trail and south to trails leading into California's central valley. Early settlers included the Dorris, Belli, Essex, Scherer, Trumbo, Flournoy, Polander, Rice and Campbell families.
Modoc County was formed when Governor Newton Booth signed an Act of the California Legislature on February 17, 1874 after residents of the Surprise Valley region lobbied for the creation of a new county from eastern Siskiyou County land.:216 The county residents considered naming the newly formed county after General Edward Canby, who had been killed the year before at peace talks in an ambush by Modoc. The idea of naming the county "Summit" was also considered, but the populace eventually settled on "Modoc"; the war was over and 153 of Captain Jack's band had been transported to Indian Territory as prisoners.
The Dorris Bridge post office opened in 1871, was renamed Dorrisville in 1874; due to its central location, Dorrisville became the county seat when Modoc County formed that year, although both Adin and Cedarville were larger towns.:84 In 1876, it was renamed Alturas, which means "The Heights" in Spanish. The census of 1880 showed a population of 148. Settlement continued over the next two decades, until the city was officially incorporated on September 16, 1901; the county's only incorporated city.
During World War II, the US government developed several thousand acres just south of Newell as a Japanese American internment camp, responding to fears and prejudice by Californians. Tule Lake War Relocation Center was the site of temporary exile for thousands of Japanese-American citizens, who lost most of their businesses and properties where they had formerly lived in coastal areas. A historical marker marks the site along State Route 139 in Newell.
Tule Lake was the largest of the "segregation camps." On November 8, 2005 Senator Dianne Feinstein called for the camp to be designated a National Historic Landmark. In December 2008 it was designated by President George W. Bush as one of nine sites—the only one in the contiguous 48 states—to be part of the new World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument.
According to the 2000 census, the county has a total area of 4,203.37 square miles (10,886.7 km2), of which 3,944.10 square miles (10,215.2 km2) (or 93.83%) is land and 259.28 square miles (671.5 km2) (or 6.17%) is water.
There are 2.25 persons per square mile, making this one of the most sparsely populated counties in California. It is also (almost) the only rectangular county in California, there is a slight deviation around the Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge.
The county is very diverse geographically. The northwestern edge of the county is dominated by the Medicine Lake Highlands, the largest shield volcano on the U.S. West Coast. The Lava Beds National Monument lies partly within the northwest corner of the County. Also along the western edge of the county is the massive Glass Mountain lava flow. The southwestern corner of the county is a unique ecosystem of isolated hardwoods (oaks) and volcanic mountains with intermountain river valleys.
The northern half of the county is the Modoc Plateau, a 1-mile (1.6 km) high expanse of lava flows, cinder cones, juniper flats, pine forests, and seasonal lakes, plus the alkaline Goose Lake. Nearly 1 million acres (4,000 km²) of the Modoc National Forest lie on the plateau between the Medicine Lake Highlands in the west and the Warner Mountains in the east. The plateau supports large herds of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Rocky Mountain Elk (Cervus canadensis), and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana). There are also several herds of wild horses on the plateau. The Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuge and Long Bell State Game Refuge are located on the plateau as well. The Lost River watershed, which later drains into the Klamath River basin, drains the north part of the plateau, while southern watersheds either collect in basin reservoirs or flow into the large Big Sage Reservoir, which sits in the center of the county, which later flows into the Pit River.
Below the rim of the Plateau is Big Valley in the extreme southwest corner of the county, and the large Warm Springs Valley that forms the bottom of the Pit River watershed that runs through the county. The north fork and south fork of the Pit River come together just south of Alturas. The River collects hundreds of other small creeks as it flows south towards Lake Shasta, where it joins the Sacramento River and drains into the San Francisco Bay.
The eastern edge of the county is dominated by the Warner Mountains. The Pit River originates in this mountain range. Hundreds of alpine lakes dot the range, all of which are fed by snow-melt and natural springs. East of the Warner Range is Surprise Valley and the western edge of the Great Basin.
Hot Springs and lava caves are common to Modoc County. There are some geothermal energy resources available in the county, though their viability is highly variable.
A great diversity of plants are found in Modoc County, since this is situated within the biodiverse California Floristic Province. Numerous native trees are found in the county including Garry Oak and Washoe Pine trees. Jeffrey Pine and Ponderosa Pine are also found in large numbers.
Cities and towns
- California Pines
- Daphnedale Park
- Davis Creek
- Ft. Bidwell
- Lake City
- New Pine Creek
||Klamath & Lake counties (Oregon)|
|Siskiyou County||Washoe County, Nevada|
|Shasta County||Lassen County|
National protected areas
- Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuge
- Lava Beds National Monument (part)
- Modoc National Forest (part)
- Shasta National Forest (part)
- Modoc National Wildlife Refuge (part)
- Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge (part)
The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense.
|Population and crime rates|
|Motor vehicle theft||7||0.73|
Cities by population and crime rates
|Cities by population and crime rates|
|City||Population||Violent crimes||Violent crime rate
per 1,000 persons
|Property crimes||Property crime rate
per 1,000 persons
|Population, race, and income|
|Black or African American||108||1.1%|
|American Indian or Alaska Native||327||3.4%|
|Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander||8||0.1%|
|Some other race||389||4.1%|
|Two or more races||290||3.0%|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||1,290||13.5%|
|Per capita income||$20,769|
|Median household income||$35,402|
|Median family income||$46,047|
Places by population, race, and income
|Places by population and race|
|Asian||Black or African
|Hispanic or Latino
(of any race)
|New Pine Creek||CDP||104||93.3%||6.7%||0.0%||0.0%||0.0%||0.0%|
|Places by population and income|
|Place||Type||Population||Per capita income||Median household income||Median family income|
|New Pine Creek||CDP||104||$31,602||$28,472|||
As of the census of 2000, there were 9,449 people, 3,784 households, and 2,550 families residing in the county. The population density was 2 people per square mile (1/km²). There were 4,807 housing units at an average density of 1 per square mile (0/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 85.9% White, 0.7% Black or African American, 4.2% American Indian, 0.6% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 5.7% from other races, and 2.8% from two or more races. 11.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 3,784 households out of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.6% were married couples living together, 8.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.6% were non-families. 28.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.91.
In the county the population was spread out with 25.6% under the age of 18, 5.7% from 18 to 24, 23.3% from 25 to 44, 27.7% from 45 to 64, and 17.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 102.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.7 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $27,522, and the median income for a family was $35,978. Males had a median income of $30,538 versus $23,438 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,285. About 16.4% of families and 21.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.7% of those under age 18 and 8.6% of those age 65 or over.
Modoc County has the lowest median household income of any county in California.
In 2005, the median home price reached $100,000 for the first time ever, over a 40% increase since 2000. Much of this can be traced to an influx of residents from other parts of the state, who find the housing bargains attractive. Some of these are retirees who have sold their houses for large profits in other parts of the state, using the proceeds to live on, while others are people who are able to telecommute. This sudden rise in housing prices become unaffordable for locals, who find themselves unable to purchase homes given their limited incomes.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Modoc County had a population of 9,686. The racial makeup of Modoc County was 8,084 (83.5%) White, 82 (0.8%) African American, 370 (3.8%) Native American, 78 (0.8%) Asian, 21 (0.2%) Pacific Islander, 680 (7.0%) from other races, and 371 (3.8%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1,342 persons (13.9%).
|Population reported at 2010 United States Census|
(of any race)
(of any race)
(of any race)
|New Pine Creek||98||89||0||0||0||1||0||8||4|
(of any race)
|All others not CDPs (combined)||4,067||3,506||45||131||25||2||241||117||432|
Voter registration statistics
|Population and registered voters|
|Registered voters[note 4]||5,273||55.0%|
|Peace and Freedom||6||0.1%|
|No party preference||931||17.7%|
Cities by population and voter registration
|Cities by population and voter registration|
|Democratic||Republican||D–R spread||Other||No party preference|
|2012||69.7% 2,779||27.9% 1,113||2.4% 94|
|2008||67.5% 2,981||29.8% 1,313||2.2% 95|
|2004||72.4% 3,235||25.7% 1,149||1.9% 83|
|2000||72.5% 2,969||23.1% 945||4.5% 183|
|1996||53.1% 2,285||31.8% 1,368||15.1% 650|
|1992||39.0% 1,803||32.2% 1,489||28.8% 1,333|
|1988||62.7% 2,518||35.3% 1,416||2.1% 83|
|1984||69.5% 2,995||28.3% 1,219||2.2% 96|
|1980||64.5% 2,579||26.2% 1,046||9.4% 375|
|1976||51.2% 1,917||46.3% 1,733||2.5% 94|
|1972||58.5% 2,085||35.7% 1,271||5.9% 209|
|1968||52.4% 1,713||38.7% 1,264||8.9% 290|
|1964||41.3% 1,386||58.7% 1,972||0.0% 0|
|1960||51.8% 1,839||47.6% 1,691||0.6% 20|
|1956||53.2% 1,981||46.4% 1,729||0.4% 13|
|1952||61.4% 2,634||38.0% 1,633||0.6% 26|
|1948||46.5% 1,480||50.3% 1,607||2.9% 93|
|1944||45.4% 1,288||54.3% 1,540||0.3% 9|
|1940||37.8% 1,371||61.5% 2,232||0.7% 27|
|1936||34.2% 968||64.6% 1,828||1.2% 35|
|1932||27.5% 655||68.9% 1,643||3.7% 88|
|1928||56.8% 942||42.8% 711||0.4% 7|
|1924||43.7% 731||22.4% 374||33.9% 567|
|1920||62.6% 992||33.8% 535||3.7% 58|
Modoc is a strongly Republican county in Presidential and congressional elections. It is the most Republican county in California. The last Democrat to win a majority in the county was Lyndon Johnson in 1964.
On November 4, 2008 Modoc County delivered the most lop-sided vote in favor of John McCain of any county in California, with 67.9% of voters opting for the Republican. The county also voted 74.2% in favor of Proposition 8 which amended the California Constitution to ban same-sex marriages; only Kern and Tulare counties voted in higher proportion, both opting for the Proposition with 75.4% of the vote.
Additionally, the eastern Modoc County communities of Eagleville, Cedarville, Lake City, and Fort Bidwell are connected via Surprise Valley Road, which runs from the southern county line to the Oregon border.
There are general aviation airports near Alturas (Alturas Municipal Airport and California Pines Airport). Other airports include Cedarville Airport, Eagleville Airport, Fort Bidwell Airport, and Tulelake Municipal Airport.
- Modoc County Historical Museum
- Hiking trails in Modoc County
- List of school districts in Modoc County, California
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Modoc County, California
- Only larceny-theft cases involving property over $400 in value are reported as property crimes.
- Other = Some other race + Two or more races
- Native American = Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander + American Indian or Alaska Native
- Percentage of registered voters with respect to total population. Percentages of party members with respect to registered voters follow.
- Mildred Brooke Hoover; Douglas E. Kyle (2002). Historic Spots in California. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-7817-6. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
- Pease, Robert W. (1965). Modoc County; University of California Publications in Geography, Volume 17. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
- "Reprinted from a previous issue...". Nataqua News (Thumbs Up Publishing). 1997. Retrieved 2010-04-05.
- "Modoc County History". Alturas Chamber of Commerce. Modoc County Government. 2009. Retrieved 21 July 2009.
- "Modoc Wars, 1873-74". California State Military Museum. 2009. Retrieved 21 July 2009.
- Durham, David L. (1998). California's Geographic Names: A Gazetteer of Historic and Modern Names of the State. Quill Driver Books. p. 351. ISBN 9781884995149.
- Gudde, Erwin; William Bright (2004). California Place Names (Fourth ed.). University of California Press. p. 10. ISBN 0-520-24217-3.
- "Census 2000 U.S. Gazetteer Files: Counties". United States Census. Retrieved 2011-02-13.
- C. Michael Hogan, Quercus kelloggii, Globaltwitcher, 2008
- Michael G. Barbour; William Dwight Billings (2000). North American Terrestrial Vegetation. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-55986-7. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
- U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B02001. American FactFinder. Retrieved 2013-10-26.
- Office of the Attorney General, Department of Justice, State of California. Table 11: Crimes – 2009. Retrieved 2013-11-14.
- United States Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation. Crime in the United States, 2012, Table 8 (California). Retrieved 2013-11-14.
- U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B03003. American FactFinder. Retrieved 2013-10-26.
- U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B19301. American FactFinder. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
- U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B19013. American FactFinder. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
- U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B19113. American FactFinder. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
- U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates. American FactFinder. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
- U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B01003. American FactFinder. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
- Data unavailable
- "U.S. Decennial Census". Census.gov. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012". Census.gov. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- La Ganga, Maria L., "Housing Bargains, at a Price", Los Angeles Times, January 13, 2006
- "2010 Census P.L. 94-171 Summary File Data". United States Census Bureau.
- California Secretary of State. February 10, 2013 - Report of Registration. Retrieved 2013-10-31.
- "California's 1st Congressional District - Representatives & District Map". Civic Impulse, LLC. Retrieved March 1, 2013.
- "Senators". State of California. Retrieved March 10, 2013.
- "Members Assembly". State of California. Retrieved March 2, 2013.
- "California results". Los Angeles Times.
- Butler, Kristen. "Another county votes to secede from California". UPI. Retrieved September 26, 2013.
- Modoc County Official Website
- h2g2 Guide Entry A1065278: Modoc County, California, USA
- Modoc County, CAGenWeb California GenWeb Project for Modoc County
- OpenRoad.TV (Modoc County's Living West video story)