||This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2008)|
|Toby "Winema" Riddle (Modoc, 1848–1920)|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Related ethnic groups|
The Modoc are a Native American people who originally lived in the area which is now northeastern California and central Southern Oregon. They are currently divided between Oregon and Oklahoma and are enrolled in either of two federally recognized tribes, the Klamath Tribes in Oregon and the Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma.
Prior to the 19th century, when European explorers first encountered the Modoc, like all Plateau Indians, they caught salmon during salmon runs and migrated seasonally to hunt and gather other food. In winter, they built earthen dug-out lodges shaped like beehives, covered with sticks and plastered with mud, located near lake shores with reliable sources of seeds from aquatic woka plants and fishing.
In addition to the Klamath, with whom they shared a language and the Modoc Plateau, the groups neighboring the Modoc home were the following:
- Shasta on the Klamath River;
- Rogue River Athabaskans and Takelma west over the Cascade Mountains;
- Northern Paiute east in the desert;
- Karuk and Yurok further down the Klamath River; and
- Achomawi or Pit River to the south, in the meadows of the Pit River drainages.
Applegate Trail established
Brothers Jesse and Lindsay Applegate, accompanied by 13 other white settlers, established the Applegate Trail, or South Emigrant Trail, in 1846. It connected a point on the Oregon Trail near Fort Hall, Idaho, and the Willamette Valley in western Oregon. The new route was created to encourage European-American settlers to western Oregon, to eliminate the hazards encountered on the Columbia Route, and to provide an alternate route in the event of trouble with the United Kingdom, since the British Hudson's Bay Company controlled the Columbia Route. The Applegate brothers became the first known white people in present-day Lava Beds National Monument.
The opening of the Applegate Trail allegedly brought the first regular contact between the Modoc and the European-American settlers, who had largely ignored their territory before. Many of the events of the Modoc War took place along the trail.
Beginning in 1847, the Modoc raided the invading emigrants on the Applegate Trail. The Modoc, numbering about 600 warriors under the leadership of Old Chief Schonchin, inhabited the region around Lower Klamath Lake, Tule Lake, and the Lost River in northern California and southern Oregon.
In September 1852, the Modoc destroyed an emigrant train at Bloody Point on the east shore of Tule Lake. Only three of the 65 persons in the train escaped immediate death. The Modoc took two young girls as captives. One or both of them may have been killed several years later by jealous Modoc women. The only man to survive the attack made his way to Yreka, California. After hearing his news, Yreka settlers tried to organize a militia under the leadership of Sheriff Charles McDermit, Jim Crosby, and Ben Wright. They went to the scene of the massacre to bury the dead and avenge their death. Crosby's party had one skirmish with a band of Modoc and returned to Yreka.
Ben Wright and a small group stayed on to avenge the deaths. He was a notorious Indian hater. Accounts differ as to what took place when Wright's party met the Modoc on Lost River, but most agree that Wright planned to ambush them, which he did in November 1852. Wright and his forces attacked, killing approximately 40 Modoc, in what came to be known as the "Ben Wright Massacre."
Historians have estimated that at least 300 emigrants and settlers were killed by the Modoc during the years 1846 to 1873. Perhaps as many Modoc were killed by settlers and slave traders.
Treaty with the United States
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (April 2010)|
The United States, the Klamath, Modoc, and Yahooskin band of Snake tribes signed a treaty in 1864, establishing the Klamath Reservation. The treaty required the tribes to cede the land bounded on the north by the 44th parallel, on the west and south by the ridges of the Cascade Mountains, and on the east by lines touching Goose Lake and Henley Lake back up to the 44th parallel. In return, the United States was to make a lump sum payment of $35,000, and annual payments totaling $80,000 over 15 years, as well as providing infrastructure and staff for a reservation. The treaty provided that if the Indians drank or stored intoxicating liquor on the reservation, the payments could be withheld and that the United States could locate additional tribes on the reservation in the future. The tribes requested Lindsay Applegate as the US Indian agent.
The terms of the 1864 treaty demanded that the Modoc surrender their lands near Lost River, Tule Lake, and Lower Klamath Lake in exchange for lands in the Upper Klamath Valley. They did so, under the leadership of Chief Schonchin. The Indian agent estimated the total population of the three tribes at about 2,000 when the treaty was signed.
The land of the reservation did not provide enough food for both the Klamath and the Modoc peoples. Illness and tension between the tribes increased. The Modoc requested a separate reservation closer to their ancestral home, but neither the federal nor the California government would approve it.
Kintpuash (also called Captain Jack) led a band of Modoc in 1870 to leave reservation and return to their traditional homelands. They built a village near the Lost River. These Modoc had not been adequately represented in the treaty negotiations and wished to end the harassment by the Klamath on the reservation.
In November 1872, the U.S. Army was sent to Lost River to attempt to force the Keintpuash's band back to the reservation. A battle broke out, and the Modoc escaped to what is called Captain Jack's Stronghold in what is now Lava Beds National Monument, California. The band of fewer than 53 warriors was able to hold off the 3,000 troops of the U.S. Army for several months, defeating them in combat several times. In April 1873, the Modoc left the Stronghold and began to splinter. Keintpuash and his group were the last to be captured on June 4, 1873, when they voluntarily gave themselves up. The U.S. government personnel had assured them that their people would be treated fairly and that the warriors would be allowed to live on their own land.
The U.S. Army tried, convicted and executed Keintpuash and three of his warriors in October 1873 for the murder of Major General Edward Canby earlier that year at a parley. The general had violated agreements made with the Modoc. The Army sent the rest of the band to Oklahoma as prisoners of war with Scarfaced Charley as their chief. The tribe's spiritual leader, Curley Headed Doctor, also made the removal to Indian Territory.
In the 1870s, Peter Cooper brought Indians to speak to Indian rights groups in eastern cities. One of the delegations was from the Modoc and Klamath tribes. In 1907, the group in Oklahoma was given permission, if they wished, to return to Oregon. Several people did, but most stayed at their new home.
Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. James Mooney put the aboriginal population of the Modoc at 400. Alfred L. Kroeber estimated the Modoc population within California as 500 at the year 1770. University of Oregon anthropologist Theodore Stern suggested that there had been a total of about 500 Modoc.
About 600 members of the tribe currently live in Klamath County, Oregon, in and around their ancestral homelands. This group included the Modocs who stayed on the reservation during the Modoc War, as well as the descendants of those who chose to return to Oregon from Oklahoma in 1909. Since that time, many of them have followed the path of the Klamath. The shared tribal government of the Klamath, Modoc and Yahooskin in Oregon is known as the Klamath Tribes.
Two hundred Modocs live in Oklahoma on the Quapaw Indian Reservation at the far northeast corner of Oklahoma. They are descendants of the band led by Captain Jack (Keintpuash) during the Modoc War. The Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma was officially recognized by the United States government in 1978, and their constitution was approved in 1991.
The original language of the Modoc and that of the Klamath, their neighbors to the north, were branches of the family of Plateau Penutian languages. The Klamath and Modoc languages together are sometimes referred to as Lutuamian languages. Both peoples called themselves maklaks, meaning "people". To distinguish between the tribes, the Modoc called themselves Moatokni maklaks, from muat meaning "South". The Achomawi, a band of the Pit River tribe, called them Lutuami, meaning "Lake Dwellers".
The religion of the Modoc is not known in detail. The number five figured heavily in ritual, as in the Shuyuhalsh, a five-night dance rite of passage for adolescent girls. A sweat lodge was used for purification and mourning ceremonies.
- 2011 Oklahoma Indian Nations Pocket Pictorial Directory. Oklahoma Indian Affairs Commission. 2011: 22. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- "Appendix O: Federally Recognized Indian Tribes with Interest in the Planning Area" (PDF). Western Oregon Plan Revision Final Environmental Impact Statement For the Revision of the Resource Management Plans of the Western Oregon Bureau of Land Management Districts. Bureau of Land Management. 1 February 2001. pp. 516–517.
- Arnold, et al., p. 507
- Pease, pp. 46–48
- Kroeber, pp. 305–335
- Waldman, p. 134
- Barr, p. 275
- Soil Survey of Douglas County Area, p. 20
- Grubbs, p. 25
- Fisher, Don C. (June 1937). "Outline of Events in the History of the Modoc War". Nature Notes from Crater Lake (Crater Lake National Park, Oregon: National Park Service) 10 (1). OCLC 15927646.
- Pease, pp. 60–66
- Philip, p. 66
- Michno, pp. 90–91
- Thrapp, p. 1276
- Donnelly, Robert. "Klamath Indian Reservation". The Oregon History Project. Oregon Historical Society. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
- Heard, p. 33
- Murray, pp. 24–28
- Walling, p. 204
- Murray, p. 74
- "Modoc NF History, 1945 -- Chapter II, Early History Emigrant Traills and Indian Warfare." USDA Forest Service. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, pp. 104–105
- Neiderheiser, p. 260
- Heard, p. 275
- Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, pp. 10, 102
- Waldman, p. 169
- Thrapp, Dan L. (1991-08). "Captain Jack". Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography. 1: A-F. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.
- Mooney, James (1928). The Aboriginal Population of America North of Mexico 80 (7). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. p. 18.
- Kroeber, p. 883
- Stern, Theodore (June 1998). "Klamath and Modoc". In Deward E. Walker, William C. Sturtevant, Gen. Edit. Handbook of North American Indians. 12, Plateau. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. pp. 446–456. ISBN 0-16-049514-8.
- Arnold, James R.; Tucker, Spencer C.; Wiener, Roberta, ed. (2011). The Encyclopedia of North American Indian Wars, 1607–1890 1. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-697-8. OCLC 838905208.
- Barr, Tom (2012). Scenic Routes & Byways: Oregon. Guilford, Connecticut: Globe Pequot Press. ISBN 978-0-7627-7956-7. OCLC 756579553.
- Grubbs, Bruce (2006). Hiking Nevada: A Guide to Nevada's Greatest Hiking Adventures (Second ed.). Helena, Montana: Falcon Press. ISBN 978-0-7627-3417-7. OCLC 70915489.
- Kroeber, Alfred Louis (1976) . Handbook of the Indians of California. Bulletin (Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology) (78). New York, New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 9780486233680. OCLC 2972541.
- Heard, Joseph Norman (1997). Handbook of the American Frontier: Four Centuries of Indian-White Relationships. Native American Resources series IV. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810832831. OCLC 498503287.
- Michno, Gregory F.; Michno, Susan J. (2009). Circle the Wagons!: Attacks on Wagon Trains in History and Hollywood Films. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-7864-3997-3. OCLC 231671302.
- Murray, Keith A. (1959). The Modocs and Their War. The Civilization of the American Indian Series. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 9780806113319.
- Pease, Robert W. (1965). "Modoc County". University of California Publications in Geography (Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press) 17. ISSN 0068-6441. OCLC 3714154.
- Neiderheiser, Leta Lovelace (2010). Jesse Applegate: A Dialogue With Destiny. Mustang, Oklahoma: Tate Publishing & Enterprises. ISBN 978-1-61739-229-0. OCLC 701809610.
- Philip, Neil (2006). The Great Circle: A History of the First Nations. New York, New York: Clarion Books. ISBN 978-0-618-15941-3. OCLC 62330691.
- Thrapp, Dan L. (1988). Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography III. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 9780803294202. OCLC 23583099.
- U.S. Department of Agriculture (2004). Soil Survey of Douglas County Area, Oregon: Part I. Washington, D.C.: Natural Resources Conservation Service. OCLC 58436713.
- U.S. Office of Indian Affairs (1865). Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs: for the Year 1865. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. OCLC 10495312.
- Waldman, Carl (2006). Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes (Third ed.). New York, New York: Checkmark Books. ISBN 978-0-8160-6273-7. OCLC 67361229.
- Walling, Albert G. (1884). Illustrated History of Lane County, Oregon. Portland, Oregon: Printing house of A.G. Walling. OCLC 16696100.
- Mooney, James. 1928. The Aboriginal Population of America North of Mexico. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections No. 80(7). Washington, D.C.
- Rebecca Solnit: River of Shadows. Eadweard Muybridge and the Technological Wild West, here Lost River, pages 101 to 124. Viking Penguin, New York City 2003, ISBN 0-670-03176-3.
- Stern, Theodore. 1998. "Klamath and Modoc". In Plateau, edited by Deward E. Walker, Jr. Handbook of North American Indians, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, vol. 12. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Modoc|
- Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma, official website
- Klamath Tribes: Klamath, Modoc, Yahooskin, official website
- Southern Oregon Digital Archives
- Modoc, Four Directions Institute
- Texts on Wikisource: