Module:Math

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This module provides a number of mathematical functions. These functions can be used from #invoke or from other Lua modules.

Use from other Lua modules

To use the module from normal wiki pages, no special preparation is needed. If you are using the module from another Lua module, first you need to load it, like this:

local mm = require('Module:Math')

(The mm variable stands for Module Math; you can choose something more descriptive if you prefer.)

Most functions in the module have a version for Lua and a version for #invoke. It is possible to use the #invoke functions from other Lua modules, but using the Lua functions has the advantage that you do not need to access a Lua frame object. Lua functions are preceded by _, whereas #invoke functions are not.

random

See also: Module:Random
{{#invoke:math|random}}
{{#invoke:math|random|max_value}}
{{#invoke:math|random|min_value|max_value}}
mm._random()
mm._random(max_value)
mm._random(min_value, max_value)

Generates a random number.

  • If no arguments are specified, the number produced is greater than or equal to 0 and less than 1.
  • If one argument is provided, the number produced is an integer between 1 and that argument. The argument must be a positive integer.
  • If two arguments are provided, the number produced is an integer between the first and second arguments. Both arguments must be integers, but can be negative.

This function will not work properly for numbers less than -2^32 and greater than 2^32 - 1 (although this may vary by hardware). If you need to use numbers outside of this range, it is recommended that you use Module:Random.

order

{{#invoke:math|order|n}}
mm._order(n)

Determines the order of magnitude of a number.

precision

{{#invoke:math|precision|n}}
{{#invoke:math|precision|x=n}}
mm._precision(number_string)

Detemines the precision of a number. For example, for "4" it will return "0", for "4.567" it will return "3", and for "100" it will return "-2".

The function attempts to parse the string representation of the number, and detects whether the number uses E notation. For this reason, when called from Lua, very large numbers or very precise numbers should be directly input as strings to get accurate results. If they are input as numbers, the Lua interpreter will change them to E notation and this function will return the precision of the E notation rather than that of the original number. This is not a problem when the number is called from #invoke, as all input from #invoke is in string format.

max

{{#invoke:math|max|v1|v2|v3|...}}
mm._max(v1, v2, v3, ...)

Returns the maximum value from the values specified. Values that cannot be converted to numbers are ignored.

min

{{#invoke:math|min|v1|v2|v3|...}}
mm._min(v1, v2, v3, ...)

Returns the minimum value from the values specified. Values that cannot be converted to numbers are ignored.

average

{{#invoke:math|average|v1|v2|v3|...}}
mm._average(v1, v2, v3, ...)

Returns the average of the values specified. (More precisely, the value returned is the arithmetic mean.) Values that cannot be converted to numbers are ignored.

round

{{#invoke:math|round|value|precision}}
{{#invoke:math|round|value=value|precision=precision}}
mm._round(value, precision)

Rounds a number to the specified precision.

mod

{{#invoke:math|mod|x|y}}
mm._mod(x, y)

Gets x modulo y, or the remainder after x has been divided by y. This is accurate for integers up to 2^53; for larger integers Lua's modulo operator may return an erroneous value. This function deals with this problem by returning 0 if the modulo given by Lua's modulo operator is less than 0 or greater than y.

gcd

{{#invoke:math|gcd|v1|v2|...}}
mm._gcd(v1, v2, ...)

Finds the greatest common divisor of the values specified. Values that cannot be converted to numbers are ignored.

precision_format

{{#invoke:math|precision_format|value_string|precision}}
mm._precision_format(value_string, precision)

Rounds a number to the specified precision and formats according to rules originally used for {{Rnd}}. Output is a string.

cleanNumber

local number, number_string = mm._cleanNumber(number_string)

A helper function that can be called from other Lua modules, but not from #invoke. This takes a string or a number value as input, and if the value can be converted to a number, cleanNumber returns the number and the number string. If the value cannot be converted to a number, cleanNumber returns nil, nil.

--[[
 
This module provides a number of basic mathematical operations.
 
]]
 
local yesno, getArgs -- lazily initialized
 
local p = {} -- Holds functions to be returned from #invoke, and functions to make available to other Lua modules.
local wrap = {} -- Holds wrapper functions that process arguments from #invoke. These act as intemediary between functions meant for #invoke and functions meant for Lua.
 
--[[
Helper functions used to avoid redundant code.
]]
 
local function err(msg)
	-- Generates wikitext error messages.
	return mw.ustring.format('<strong class="error">Formatting error: %s</strong>', msg)
end
 
local function unpackNumberArgs(args)
	-- Returns an unpacked list of arguments specified with numerical keys.
	local ret = {}
	for k, v in pairs(args) do
		if type(k) == 'number' then
			table.insert(ret, v)
		end
	end
	return unpack(ret)
end
 
local function makeArgArray(...)
	-- Makes an array of arguments from a list of arguments that might include nils.
	local args = {...} -- Table of arguments. It might contain nils or non-number values, so we can't use ipairs.
	local nums = {} -- Stores the numbers of valid numerical arguments.
	local ret = {}
	for k, v in pairs(args) do
		v = p._cleanNumber(v)
		if v then
			nums[#nums + 1] = k
			args[k] = v
		end
	end
	table.sort(nums)
	for i, num in ipairs(nums) do
		ret[#ret + 1] = args[num]
	end
	return ret
end
 
local function applyFuncToArgs(func, ...)
	-- Use a function on all supplied arguments, and return the result. The function must accept two numbers as parameters,
	-- and must return a number as an output. This number is then supplied as input to the next function call.
	local vals = makeArgArray(...)	
	local count = #vals -- The number of valid arguments
	if count == 0 then return
		-- Exit if we have no valid args, otherwise removing the first arg would cause an error.
		nil, 0
	end 
	local ret = table.remove(vals, 1)
	for _, val in ipairs(vals) do
		ret = func(ret, val)
	end
	return ret, count
end
 
--[[
random
 
Generate a random number
 
Usage:
{{#invoke: Math | random }}
{{#invoke: Math | random | maximum value }}
{{#invoke: Math | random | minimum value | maximum value }}
]]
 
function wrap.random(args)
	local first = p._cleanNumber(args[1])
	local second = p._cleanNumber(args[2])
	return p._random(first, second)
end
 
function p._random(first, second)
	math.randomseed(mw.site.stats.edits + mw.site.stats.pages + os.time() + math.floor(os.clock() * 1000000000))
	-- math.random will throw an error if given an explicit nil parameter, so we need to use if statements to check the params.
	if first and second then
		if first <= second then -- math.random doesn't allow the first number to be greater than the second.
			return math.random(first, second)
		end
	elseif first then
		return math.random(first)
	else
		return math.random()
	end
end
 
--[[
order
 
Determine order of magnitude of a number
 
Usage:
{{#invoke: Math | order | value }}
]]
 
function wrap.order(args)
	local input_string = (args[1] or args.x or '0');
	local input_number = p._cleanNumber(input_string);
	if input_number == nil then
		return err('order of magnitude input appears non-numeric')
	else
		return p._order(input_number)
	end    
end
 
function p._order(x)
	if x == 0 then return 0 end
	return math.floor(math.log10(math.abs(x)))
end
 
--[[
precision
 
Detemines the precision of a number using the string representation
 
Usage:
{{ #invoke: Math | precision | value }}
]]
 
function wrap.precision(args)
	local input_string = (args[1] or args.x or '0');
	local trap_fraction = args.check_fraction;
	local input_number;
 
	if not yesno then
		yesno = require('Module:Yesno')
	end
	if yesno(trap_fraction, true) then -- Returns true for all input except nil, false, "no", "n", "0" and a few others. See [[Module:Yesno]].
		local pos = string.find(input_string, '/', 1, true);
		if pos ~= nil then
			if string.find(input_string, '/', pos + 1, true) == nil then
				local denominator = string.sub(input_string, pos+1, -1);
				local denom_value = tonumber(denominator);
				if denom_value ~= nil then
					return math.log10(denom_value);
				end
			end                        
		end
	end    
 
	input_number, input_string = p._cleanNumber(input_string);
	if input_string == nil then
		return err('precision input appears non-numeric')
	else
		return p._precision(input_string)
	end    
end
 
function p._precision(x)
	if type(x) == 'number' then
		x = tostring(x)
	end
	x = string.upper(x)
 
	local decimal = x:find('%.')
	local exponent_pos = x:find('E')
	local result = 0;
 
	if exponent_pos ~= nil then
		local exponent = string.sub(x, exponent_pos + 1)
		x = string.sub(x, 1, exponent_pos - 1)
		result = result - tonumber(exponent)
	end    
 
	if decimal ~= nil then
		result = result + string.len(x) - decimal
		return result
	end
 
	local pos = string.len(x);
	while x:byte(pos) == string.byte('0') do
		pos = pos - 1
		result = result - 1
		if pos <= 0 then
			return 0
		end
	end
 
	return result
end
 
--[[
max
 
Finds the maximum argument
 
Usage:
{{#invoke:Math| max | value1 | value2 | ... }}
 
Note, any values that do not evaluate to numbers are ignored.
]]
 
function wrap.max(args)
	return p._max(unpackNumberArgs(args))
end
 
function p._max(...)
	local function maxOfTwo(a, b)
		if a > b then
			return a
		else
			return b
		end
	end
	local max_value = applyFuncToArgs(maxOfTwo, ...)
	if max_value then
		return max_value
	end
end
 
--[[
min 
 
Finds the minimum argument
 
Usage:
{{#invoke:Math| min | value1 | value2 | ... }}
OR
{{#invoke:Math| min }}
 
When used with no arguments, it takes its input from the parent
frame.  Note, any values that do not evaluate to numbers are ignored.
]]
 
function wrap.min(args)
	return p._min(unpackNumberArgs(args))
end
 
function p._min(...)
	local function minOfTwo(a, b)
		if a < b then
			return a
		else
			return b
		end
	end
	local min_value = applyFuncToArgs(minOfTwo, ...)
	if min_value then
		return min_value
	end
end
 
--[[
average 
 
Finds the average
 
Usage:
{{#invoke:Math| average | value1 | value2 | ... }}
OR
{{#invoke:Math| average }}
 
Note, any values that do not evaluate to numbers are ignored.
]]
 
function wrap.average(args)
	return p._average(unpackNumberArgs(args))
end
 
function p._average(...)
	local function getSum(a, b)
		return a + b
	end
	local sum, count = applyFuncToArgs(getSum, ...)
	if not sum then
		return 0
	else
		return sum / count
	end
end
 
--[[
round
 
Rounds a number to specified precision
 
Usage:
{{#invoke:Math | round | value | precision }}
 
--]]
 
function wrap.round(args)
	local value = p._cleanNumber(args[1] or args.value or 0)
	local precision = p._cleanNumber(args[2] or args.precision or 0)
	if value == nil or precision == nil then
		return err('round input appears non-numeric')
	else
		return p._round(value, precision)
	end    
end
 
function p._round(value, precision)
	local rescale = math.pow(10, precision or 0);
	return math.floor(value * rescale + 0.5) / rescale;
end
 
--[[
mod
 
Implements the modulo operator
 
Usage:
{{#invoke:Math | mod | x | y }}
 
--]]
 
function wrap.mod(args)
	local x = p._cleanNumber(args[1])
	local y = p._cleanNumber(args[2])
	if not x then
		return err('first argument to mod appears non-numeric')
	elseif not y then
		return err('second argument to mod appears non-numeric')
	else
		return p._mod(x, y)
	end    
end
 
function p._mod(x, y)
	local ret = x % y
	if not (0 <= ret and ret < y) then
		ret = 0
	end
	return ret
end
 
--[[
gcd
 
Calculates the greatest common divisor of multiple numbers
 
Usage:
{{#invoke:Math | gcd | value 1 | value 2 | value 3 | ... }}
--]]
 
function wrap.gcd(args)
	return p._gcd(unpackNumberArgs(args))
end
 
function p._gcd(...)
	local function findGcd(a, b)
		local r = b
		local oldr = a
		while r ~= 0 do
			local quotient = math.floor(oldr / r)
			oldr, r = r, oldr - quotient * r
		end
		if oldr < 0 then
			oldr = oldr * -1
		end
		return oldr
	end
	local result, count = applyFuncToArgs(findGcd, ...)
	return result
end
 
--[[
precision_format
 
Rounds a number to the specified precision and formats according to rules 
originally used for {{template:Rnd}}.  Output is a string.
 
Usage:
{{#invoke: Math | precision_format | number | precision }}
]]
 
function wrap.precision_format(args)
	local value_string = args[1] or 0
	local precision = args[2] or 0
	return p._precision_format(value_string, precision)
end
 
function p._precision_format(value_string, precision)
	-- For access to Mediawiki built-in formatter.
	local lang = mw.getContentLanguage();
 
	local value
	value, value_string = p._cleanNumber(value_string)
	precision = p._cleanNumber(precision)
 
	-- Check for non-numeric input
	if value == nil or precision == nil then
		return err('invalid input when rounding')
	end
 
	local current_precision = p._precision(value)
	local order = p._order(value)
 
	-- Due to round-off effects it is neccesary to limit the returned precision under
	-- some circumstances because the terminal digits will be inaccurately reported.
	if order + precision >= 14 then
		orig_precision = p._precision(value_string)
		if order + orig_precision >= 14 then
			precision = 13 - order;        
		end        
	end
 
	-- If rounding off, truncate extra digits
	if precision < current_precision then
		value = p._round(value, precision)
		current_precision = p._precision(value)
	end    
 
	local formatted_num = lang:formatNum(math.abs(value))
	local sign
 
	-- Use proper unary minus sign rather than ASCII default
	if value < 0 then
		sign = '−'
	else
		sign = ''
	end    
 
	-- Handle cases requiring scientific notation
	if string.find(formatted_num, 'E', 1, true) ~= nil or math.abs(order) >= 9 then
		value = value * math.pow(10, -order)
		current_precision = current_precision + order
		precision = precision + order
		formatted_num = lang:formatNum(math.abs(value))
	else
		order = 0;        
	end
	formatted_num = sign .. formatted_num
 
	-- Pad with zeros, if needed    
	if current_precision < precision then
		local padding
		if current_precision <= 0 then
			if precision > 0 then
				local zero_sep = lang:formatNum(1.1)
				formatted_num = formatted_num .. zero_sep:sub(2,2)
 
				padding = precision
				if padding > 20 then
					padding = 20
				end
 
				formatted_num = formatted_num .. string.rep('0', padding)
			end            
		else                   
			padding = precision - current_precision
			if padding > 20 then
				padding = 20
			end
			formatted_num = formatted_num .. string.rep('0', padding)
		end
	end
 
	-- Add exponential notation, if necessary.
	if order ~= 0 then
		-- Use proper unary minus sign rather than ASCII default
		if order < 0 then
			order = '−' .. lang:formatNum(math.abs(order))
		else
			order = lang:formatNum(order)
		end    
 
		formatted_num = formatted_num .. '<span style="margin:0 .15em 0 .25em">×</span>10<sup>' .. order .. '</sup>'
	end
 
	return formatted_num
end
 
--[[
Helper function that interprets the input numerically.  If the 
input does not appear to be a number, attempts evaluating it as
a parser functions expression.
]]
 
function p._cleanNumber(number_string)
	if type(number_string) == 'number' then
		-- We were passed a number, so we don't need to do any processing.
		return number_string, tostring(number_string)
	elseif type(number_string) ~= 'string' or not number_string:find('%S') then
		-- We were passed a non-string or a blank string, so exit.
		return nil, nil;
	end
 
	-- Attempt basic conversion
	local number = tonumber(number_string)
 
	-- If failed, attempt to evaluate input as an expression
	if number == nil then
		local success, result = pcall(mw.ext.ParserFunctions.expr, number_string)
		if success then
			number = tonumber(result)
			number_string = tostring(number)
		else
			number = nil
			number_string = nil
		end
	else
		number_string = number_string:match("^%s*(.-)%s*$") -- String is valid but may contain padding, clean it.
		number_string = number_string:match("^%+(.*)$") or number_string -- Trim any leading + signs.
		if number_string:find('^%-?0[xX]') then
			-- Number is using 0xnnn notation to indicate base 16; use the number that Lua detected instead.
			number_string = tostring(number)
		end
	end
 
	return number, number_string
end
 
--[[
Wrapper function that does basic argument processing. This ensures that all functions from #invoke can use either the current
frame or the parent frame, and it also trims whitespace for all arguments and removes blank arguments.
]]
 
local mt = { __index = function(t, k)
	return function(frame)
		if not getArgs then
			getArgs = require('Module:Arguments').getArgs
		end
		return wrap[k](getArgs(frame))  -- Argument processing is left to Module:Arguments. Whitespace is trimmed and blank arguments are removed.
	end
end }
 
return setmetatable(p, mt)