Mohammadzai (Pashto: محمد زی) (meaning sons of Muhammad in Pashto language) is a branch of the Pashtun Barakzai tribe (of Afghanistans Durrani confederacy). Primarily centered around Kandahar, Kabul and Ghazni, the Mohammadzai ruled Afghanistan from 1826 to 1973 when the monarchy finally ended under Mohammad Zahir Shah. The Mohammadzai ruling house of the Barakzai dynasty was established by Dost Mohammad Khan after the Durrani dynasty of Ahmad Shah Durrani was removed from power. Mohammadzai is also a name of Baloch Tribe in Balochistan 
Mohammadzai are the most prominent & powerful sub-tribe of Barakzai, they belong to the Zirak branch of the Durrani confederacy, and are primarily centered around Kandahar. They can also be found in other provinces throughout Afghanistan as well as across the border in Balochistan Province.
The Tarzi family is a branch of the Mohammadzai of Afghanistan. Although a smaller branch of the Barakzai ruling dynasty, the Tarzi family has produced some of the most famous and affluent members. The founder of Tarzi family was Ghulam Muhammad Tarzi.
Barakzai Mohammadzai's usually have the southern dialect of Pashto. The elites of this tribe usually speak the northern Pashto dialect found in Nangarhar province, however there are many Mohammadzai's who speak Dari as a first (or second language), especially those whom live around Persian speaking non-Pashtun Afghans. The Baloch Mohammadzai Tribe speak Balochi, Brahvi in Balochistan.
- Emir Dost Muhammad Khan Barakzai - (First Mohammadzai Ruler)
- Emir Sher Ali Khan - Emir of Afghanistan
- Emir Yaqub Khan - Emir of Afghanistan, Signed treaty of Gandamak.
- Emir Abdur Rahman Khan - Emir of Afghanistan (October 1879/July 22, 1880 – October 3, 1901)
- Emir Habibullah Khan - Emir of Afghanistan (October 3, 1901 - February 20, 1919)
- Emir Amanullah Khan - Emir of Afghanistan (February 28, 1919 - 1926)
- King Amanullah Khan - King of Afghanistan (1926 - January 14, 1929)
- Queen Soraya Tarzi (w. of King Amanullah Khan) (November 29, 1899 - April 20, 1968).
- King Inayatullah Khan (January 14, 1929 - January 17, 1929).
- Mahmud Tarzi - Poet, Author and Diplomat. Credited for the modernization of Afghanistan.
- Sardar Ghulam Muhammad Tarzi - Poet, Ruler of Kandahar & Baluchistan.
- Sardar Rahmdil Khan - Ruler of Kandahar & Baluchistan.
- Sardar Payinda Khan - Ruler of Kandahar & Baluchistan. Father of All Mohammadzai's
- King Mohammed Nadir Shah (October 17, 1929 - November 8, 1933).
- King Mohammed Zahir Shah (November 8, 1933 - July 17, 1973.)
- President Mohammed Daoud Khan (First Afghan President) (July 18, 1973 - April 28, 1978)
- Pashtun tribes
- Barakzai dynasty
- Bani Israel
- Ten Lost Tribes
- Tribe of Benjamin
- "Afghanistan". CIA. The World Factbook. Retrieved 2010-08-25.
- Afghanistan - Ethnic Groups