He was against the constitution that was ratified during the reign of his father, Mozzafar-al-Din Shah. In 1907 Mohammad Ali dissolved the Persian parliament and declared the Constitution abolished because it was contrary to Islamic law. He bombarded the Majles with the military and political support of Russia and Britain. In July 1909, pro-Constitution forces marched from Persia's provinces to Tehran led by Sattar Khan, Bagher Khan and Yeprem Khan, deposed the Shah, and re-established the constitution. On 16 July 1909, the parliament voted to place Mohammad Ali Shah's 11 year old son, Ahmad Shah on the throne. However, he abdicated following a new Constitutional Revolution and he was remembered as a symbol of dictatorship.
Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar had eight children from two marriages. From his first wife he had one son. From his second marriage to Princess Malekeh Jahan daughter of Kamran Mirza Nayeb es-Saltaneh, he had seven children. The oldest child, Gholam Hossein Mirza, died in infancy.
^Soltan Ali Mirza Kadjar, 'Mohammad Ali Shah: The Man and the King', in: Qajar Studies. Travellers and Diplomats in the Qajar Era. Journal of the International Qajar Studies Association, volume VII, 2007.