Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar (Persian: محمدعلی شاه قاجار) (21 June 1872 – 5 April 1925, San-Remo) was the Shah of Persia from 8 January 1907 to 16 July 1909.
He was against the constitution that was ratified during the reign of his father, Mozzafar-al-Din Shah. In 1907 Mohammad Ali dissolved Majles (Iranian parliament/National assembly) and declared the Constitution abolished because it was contrary to Islamic law. He bombarded the Majles with the military and political support of Russia and Britain. In July 1909, pro-Constitution forces marched from Iran's province of Azerbaijan to Tehran led by Sattar Khan, Bagher Khan and Yeprem Khan, deposed the Shah, and re-established the constitution. On 16 July 1909, the Majles voted to place Mohammad Ali Shah's 11 year old son, Ahmad Shah on the throne. However, he abdicated following a new Constitutional Revolution and he was remembered as a symbol of dictatorship.
He fled to Odessa, Russia (present day Ukraine). Mohammad Ali plotted his return to power from Odessa. In 1911 he landed at Astarabad, Iran, but his forces were defeated. Mohammad Ali Shah fled to Russia, then in 1920 to Constantinople and later to San Remo, Italy, where he died 5 April 1925 (bur. Shrine of Imam Husain, Karbala, Iraq). Every shah of Iran since Mohammad Ali Shah has died in exile.
His son and successor, Ahmad Shah Qajar was the last ruler in the Qajar dynasty.
Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar with Mirza Mohammad Ebrahim Khan, the Moavin al-Dowleh, and Company
A 2000 Dinar
/2 Qiran coin of Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar era
Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar had eight children from two marriages. From his first wife he had one son. From his second marriage to Princess Malekeh Jahan daughter of Kamran Mirza Nayeb es-Saltaneh, he had seven children. The oldest child, Gholam Hossein Mirza, died in infancy.
- From Robabeh Khanoum Malih-e Saltaneh
- Prince Hossein Ali Mirza E'tezad Saltaneh
- From Malakeh Jahan daughter of Kamran Mirza
- Prince Gholam Hossein Mirza, died in infancy]
- Prince Soltan Ahmad Shah (21 January 1898, Tabriz-27 February 1930, Neuilly-sur-Seine, Paris, France)
- Prince Mohammad Hassan Mirza (20 February 1899, Tabriz −7 January 1943, Maidenhead, England)
- Prince Soltan Mahmoud Mirza (15 October 1905, Tehran-2 July 1988, Évian-les-Bains, France)
- Prince Soltan Majid Mirza (7 January 1907, Tehran-24 May 1986, Paris, France)
- Princess Khadijeh (1900, Tabriz-1956, Tehran, Iran)
- Princess Assieh (1908, Tehran-1953, Isfahan, Iran)
See also 
- ^ a b Donzel, Emeri “van” (1994). Islamic Desk Reference. ISBN 90-04-09738-4. p. 285-286
- ^ BBC Persian
- ^ Soltan Ali Mirza Kadjar, 'Mohammad Ali Shah: The Man and the King', in: Qajar Studies. Travellers and Diplomats in the Qajar Era. Journal of the International Qajar Studies Association, volume VII, 2007.
External links