Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar

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For other people named Muhammad Ali, see Muhammad Ali (disambiguation).
Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar
Shir & Khorshid1.svg Shahanshah of Persia
Mohammad Ali Shah.jpg
Reign 1907–1909
Predecessor Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar
Successor Ahmad Shah Qajar
Spouse Malekeh Jahan
Full name
Mohmmad Ali Shah
Dynasty Qajar dynasty
Father Mozzafar-al-Din Shah
Mother Taj-ol-molouk(Om-e-Khaghan)
Born (1872-06-21)21 June 1872
Amol, Persia
Died 5 April 1925(1925-04-05) (aged 52)
Sanremo, Italy
Religion Shia Islam

Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar (Persian: محمدعلی شاه قاجار‎) (21 June 1872 – 5 April 1925, Sanremo, Italy) was the Shah of Persia (Today's Iran) from 8 January 1907 to 16 July 1909.

Biography[edit]

Mozaffar al-Din Shah Qajar Enthroned, One of 274 Vintage Photographs - Antoin Sevruguin. Brooklyn Museum.

He was against the constitution that was ratified during the reign of his father, Mozzafar-al-Din Shah. In 1907 Mohammad Ali dissolved the parliament and declared the Constitution abolished because it was contrary to Islamic law.[1] He bombarded the Majles (Persian parliament) with the military and political support of Russia and Britain.[2] In July 1909, pro-Constitution forces marched from Persia's provinces to Tehran led by Sardar As'ad, Sepehdar A'zam, Sattar Khan, Bagher Khan and Yeprem Khan, deposed the Shah, and re-established the constitution. On 16 July 1909, the parliament voted to place Mohammad Ali Shah's 11 year old son, Ahmad Shah on the throne. Mohammad Ali Shah abdicated following the new Constitutional Revolution and he has since been remembered as a symbol of dictatorship.

Having fled to Odessa, Russia (present day Ukraine), Mohammad Ali plotted his return to power. In 1911 he landed at Astarabad, Persia, but his forces were defeated.[1] Mohammad Ali Shah returned to Russia, then in 1920 to Constantinople and later to San Remo, Italy, where he died on 5 April 1925 (bur. Shrine of Imam Husain, Karbala, Iraq). Every Shah of Persia since Mohammad Ali has died in exile.

His son and successor, Ahmad Shah Qajar was the last sovereign of the Qajar dynasty.[3]

Honours[edit]

Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar with Mirza Mohammad Ebrahim Khan, the Moavin al-Dowleh, and Company
A 2000 Dinar/2 Qiran coin of Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar era

Children[edit]

Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar had eight children from two marriages. From his first wife he had one son. From his second marriage to Princess Malekeh Jahan daughter of Prince Kamran Mirza Nayeb os-Saltaneh, he had seven children. The oldest child, Gholam Hossein Mirza, died in infancy.

  • From Robabeh Khanoum Malihe Saltaneh
    • Prince Hossein-Ali Mirza E'tezad os-Saltaneh

List of Prime Ministers[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Donzel, Emeri “van” (1994). Islamic Desk Reference. ISBN 90-04-09738-4.  p. 285-286
  2. ^ "BBC Persian". bbc.co.uk. 
  3. ^ Soltan Ali Mirza Kadjar, 'Mohammad Ali Shah: The Man and the King', in: Qajar Studies. Travellers and Diplomats in the Qajar Era. Journal of the International Qajar Studies Association, volume VII, 2007.

External links[edit]

Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar
Born: 21 June 1872 Died: 5 April 1925
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Mozaffar al-Din Shah Qajar
Shah of Persia
1907–1909
Succeeded by
Ahmad Shah Qajar