Mohamed Morsi

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Mohammed Morsi)
Jump to: navigation, search
"Morsi" redirects here. For the American writer, see Pamela Morsi.


Mohamed Morsi
محمد مرسى
Mohamed Morsi-05-2013.jpg
5th President of Egypt
In office
30 June 2012 – 3 July 2013
Prime Minister Kamal Ganzouri
Hesham Qandil
Vice President Mahmoud Mekki
Preceded by Mohamed Hussein Tantawi (Acting)
Succeeded by Adly Mansour
(Acting)
Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement
In office
30 June 2012 – 30 August 2012
Preceded by Mohamed Hussein Tantawi
Succeeded by Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Chairman of the Freedom and Justice Party
In office
30 April 2011 – 24 June 2012
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Saad El-Katatni
Member of the People's Assembly
In office
1 December 2000 – 12 December 2005
Preceded by Numan Gumaa
Succeeded by Mahmoud Abaza
Personal details
Born (1951-08-08) 8 August 1951 (age 63)
El-Adwah, Sharqia Governorate, Egypt
Political party Freedom and Justice Party
Other political
affiliations
Muslim Brotherhood
Spouse(s) Naglaa Mahmoud (1979–present)
Children Ahmed
Shaima
Osama
Omar
Abdullah
Alma mater Cairo University
University of Southern California
Religion Sunni Islam
Signature

Mohamed Morsi[note 1] (Arabic: محمد محمد مرسى عيسى العياط‎, ALA-LC: Muḥammad Muḥammad Mursī ‘Īsá al-‘Ayyāṭ, IPA: [mæˈħæmmæd mæˈħæmmæd ˈmoɾsi ˈʕiːsæ (ʔe)l.ʕɑjˈjɑːtˤ]; born 8 August 1951) was the fifth[1] president of Egypt, from 30 June 2012 to 3 July 2013, when he was removed by Field Marshal Abdel Fattah el-Sisi after June 2013 Egyptian protests and 2013 Egyptian coup d'état. He was the first democratically elected head of state in Egyptian history.

Mohamed Morsi was educated in Egyptian public schools and universities; he was later granted a scholarship from the Egyptian government to prepare for a Ph.D. degree in the United States. Morsi was a Member of Parliament in the People's Assembly of Egypt from 2000 to 2005, and a leading member in the Muslim Brotherhood. He became Chairman of the Freedom and Justice Party (FJP) when it was founded by the Muslim Brotherhood in the wake of the 2011 Egyptian revolution after escaping from prison. He stood as the FJP's candidate for the May–June 2012 presidential election.

Morsi's victory in the presidential election was announced on 24 June 2012[2][3][4] after he won the run-off election, winning 51.7 percent of the vote against Ahmed Shafik,[5] deposed leader Hosni Mubarak's[6] last prime minister.[7]

As president, Morsi granted himself unlimited powers and the power to legislate without judicial oversight or review of his acts, claiming that he would "protect" the nation from the Mubarak-era power structure, which he called "remnants of the old regime" (Arabic: فلول‎, ALA-LC: fulūl) [8][9] In late November, he issued an Islamist-backed draft constitution and called for a referendum, an act that his opponents called an "Islamist coup".[10] These issues,[11] along with complaints of prosecutions of journalists and attacks on nonviolent demonstrators,[12] brought hundreds of thousands of protesters to the streets in the 2012 Egyptian protests.[13][14]

On 30 June 2013, protests erupted across Egypt which saw protesters calling for the president's resignation.[15][16][17] In response to the events, Morsi was given a 48-hour ultimatum by the military to meet their demands and to solve political differences, or else they would intervene by "implementing their own road map" for the country.[18] The military said that this should not be characterized as the threat of a coup, though.[19]

Morsi was declared unseated on 3 July 2013 by a military coup council consisting of Defense Minister Abdul Fatah al-Sisi, opposition leader Mohamed ElBaradei, the Grand Imam of Al Azhar Ahmed el-Tayeb, and Coptic Pope Tawadros II.[20][21] The military suspended the constitution, established a new administration headed by the chief justice,[22] and initiated a "brutal" crackdown on the Muslim Brotherhood.[23]

On 1 September 2013, prosecutors referred Morsi to trial on charges of inciting deadly violence.[24] The date was set for 4 November 2013;[25] he is being tried on charges of incitement of murder and violence.[26] He also will be tried on charges of espionage.[27]

Early life and education[edit]

Mohamed Morsi was born in the Sharqia Governorate, in northern Egypt, of modest provincial origin, in the village of El-Adwah, north of Cairo, on 8 August 1951.[28] His father was a farmer and his mother a housewife.[28] He is the eldest of five brothers, and told journalists that he remembers being taken to school on the back of a donkey.[29] He earned a bachelor's and master's degree in engineering from Cairo University in 1975 and 1978, respectively. Morsi then earned a government scholarship that enabled him to study in the United States. Morsi received a PhD in materials science from the University of Southern California in 1982 with his dissertation "High-Temperature Electrical Conductivity and Defect Structure of Donor-Doped Al2O3.". [30][31]

In 2013, Morsi was awarded an honorary PhD by the National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), in a ceremony held at the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering NUST in Islamabad, Pakistan, on 18 March 2013. The degree was awarded in recognition of his achievements and significant contribution toward the promotion of peace and harmony in the world and for strengthening bilateral relations with other Muslim countries, especially Pakistan.[32] Prime Minister Raja Pervaiz Ashraf, as Chancellor of the University, conferred the degree on Morsi together with the Rector of NUST, Muhammad Asghar.

Academic and engineering career[edit]

While living in the United States, Morsi became a lecturer at the California State University, Northridge, and was Assistant Professor from 1982 to 1985. Morsi, an expert on precision metal surfaces, also worked for NASA in the early 1980s, helping to develop Space Shuttle engines.[33][34]

In 1985, Morsi quit his job at CSUN and returned to Egypt, becoming a professor at Zagazig University, where he was appointed head of the engineering department. Morsi was a lecturer at Zagazig University's engineering department until 2010.[34]

Political career[edit]

Morsi was first elected to parliament in 2000.[35] He served as a Member of Parliament from 2000 to 2005, officially as an independent candidate because the Brotherhood was technically barred from running candidates for office under Mubarak.[36] He was a member of the Guidance Office of the Muslim Brotherhood until the founding of the Freedom and Justice Party in 2011, at which point he was elected by the MB's Guidance Office to be the first president of the new party.[citation needed] While serving in this capacity in 2010, Morsi stated that "the two-state solution is nothing but a delusion concocted by the brutal usurper of the Palestinian lands."[37]

Morsi made several controversial comments about the September 11 attacks that have drawn occasional criticism in the United States,[38] including stating that it is "insulting" to suggest that damage from an aircraft collision brought down the World Trade Center,[39] that no evidence has been presented that could identify the Al-Qaeda terrorists who were recorded on video as they boarded the planes they would fly into the World Trade Center towers, and that in order to address questions surrounding the events a "huge scientific conference" should be held to determine the real culprits.[40]

2011 Political prisoner[edit]

Morsi was arrested along with 24 other Muslim Brotherhood leaders on 28 January 2011.[41] He escaped from prison two days later. The break of Wadi el-Natroun Prison received widespread news coverage within hours of its occurrence. On 30 January 2011, EST, news were reported from Cairo as follows:

  • 6:12 A.M. – Reuters reported (according to a Muslim Brotherhood official): Thirty-four members of the opposition Muslim Brotherhood, including seven members of the leadership, walked out of prison on Sunday after relatives of prisoners overcame the guards.[42]
  • 12:29 P.M. – The Guardian reported: Armed gangs took advantage of the chaos in Cairo and other cities to free the prisoners, starting fires and engaging prison guards in gun battles, officials said. Several inmates were reportedly killed during the fighting and some were recaptured.[43]
  • 12:35 A.M. – Twitter: Also reports of new prison break at Wadi Natrun #Egypt 5000 escapees. Still confirming but had 2 similar reports. Prison guards fled #Jan 25[44]
  • 1:13 P.M. – Los Angeles Times reported: Egypt: Muslim Brotherhood members escape prison, rally in Tahrir Square.[45]
  • 2:04 P.M. – Israel News reported: Former minister reportedly evacuated from Interior Ministry building under heavy fire. Thousands of criminals, political prisoners flee local jails, join uprising against President Mubarak across country. Report: Dozens of bodies found near Cairo prison.[46]

Morsi's initial telephone call on behalf of freed prisoners[edit]

From Morsi's first contact with Al Jazeera at the moment of his release and before his decision to depart prison premises, the call reports:

 !هروب مساجين من سجن وادي النطرون من بينهم محمد مرسي

"Inmates escaped from Wadi al Natroun Prison, among them Mohamed Morsi.")

The 30 January 2011 historic call: Mohamed Morsi, a member of the Muslim Brothers, telephoned Al Jazeera to announce to state authorities that he and 34 of his prison inmates were released from the prison by a group of approximately 100 unknown people and that the prison guards and officials were nowhere to be found. Morsi described the situation of the released prisoners, identified the exact location of the prison and asked the host of Aljazeera to help them find the state official who could help them with their next move. Morsi shouted: we will not flee, we are present here and need someone to tell us what to do. He described their location as: Prison at Alexandria-Cairo desert highway, kilo[metre] 97, close to the town of Sadat. He described himself and his associates as: Mohammad Morsi, Esam ElAryan, Mohamed Saad AlKatatny, Mahmoud Abu Zead, Mustafi Al-Goneamy, Saad Al-Husseiny, Zayed Nuzeally, Dr. Ahmed Abdul Rahman, Maged Al-Zummer, Hassan abu Sheaashaa, Ali Izz, Morsi described their exact location as follows: The walls of the prison face the desert highway, named Wadi Al Natroun Prison. We were in ward number 3, prison 2, prison 2, ward 3, prison Wadi Al Natroun, kilo 97, north west Cairo, approximately 100 kilos. During the call, he went on to add more details: We do not know at all the people who broke in, some dressed in civil clothes, some in prison clothes, more than 100, did every thing to let us out, took more than 4 hours. We heard explosions of gas canisters fired by the guards outside, as the chaos ensued and the prison authority tried to restore order outside, we did not know what was happening, we did not see any injuries, we did not hear cries. After we exited at 12 o'clock, today, there was no one but us and the people who tried to let us out, are now in front of the gate of prison 2, negotiating what to do next.

2012 Egyptian presidential campaign[edit]

After Khairat El-Shater was disqualified from the 2012 presidential election, Morsi, who was initially nominated as a backup candidate, emerged as the new Muslim Brotherhood candidate.[47] His campaign was supported by well-known Egyptian cleric Safwat Hegazi at a rally in El-Mahalla El-Kubra,[48] the epicentre of Egyptian worker protests.[49]

Following the first round of Egypt's first post-Mubarak presidential elections where exit polls suggested a 25.5 percent share of the vote for Morsi, he was officially announced as the president on 24 June 2012, following a subsequent run-off vote. Morsi supporters in Cairo's Tahrir Square celebrated, and angry outbursts occurred at the Egypt Election Authorities press conference when the result was announced. He came in slightly ahead of former Mubarak-era prime minister Ahmed Shafik and has been noted for the Islamist character of his campaign events.[50] Since the initial round of voting on 23 May and 24 May 2012, Morsi has attempted to appeal to political liberals and minorities while portraying his rival Ahmed Shafik as a holdover from the Mubarak-era of secular moderation.[51]

On 30 May 2012, Morsi filed a lawsuit against Egyptian television presenter Tawfiq Okasha, accusing him of "intentional falsehoods and accusations that amount to defamation and slander". According to online newspaper Egypt Independent, an English-language subsidiary of Egyptian daily Al-Masry Al-Youm, Okasha spent three hours on 27 May 2012, criticizing the Muslim Brotherhood and Morsi on air.[52] After Okasha aired a video allegedly depicting Tunisian Islamist extremists executing a Christian while asking "how will such people govern?", some analysts suggested that this was in reference to Morsi's Muslim Brotherhood party.[53] The Tunisian government characterized the video as a farce in a harshly worded statement.[54]

On 24 June 2012, Morsi was announced as the winner of the election with 51.73 percent of the vote.[55] Almost immediately afterward, he resigned from the presidency of the Freedom and Justice Party.[56]

Beliefs[edit]

On changing the government[edit]

"I hope the people will choose me, an Islamist candidate from the Freedom & Justice party and Muslim Brotherhood, and God willing the system will move towards stability and development."[57] Morsi said "no entity will be above the constitution" but did not spell out his vision for the army's status. He said the army's budget should be overseen by parliament but there would be a need for secrecy in specific areas.[57] "The constitution represents the people, and the Freedom & Justice party is represented by its members. We will not impose what we believe on people. We cannot change the people's will."[58] "The Brotherhood seeks to restore the country's national identity and its stand in the Arab world after decades of failed policies and dictatorship."[59] "The revolutionary movement of the Egyptian people is in its final stages of the Islamic awakening and a new era of change in the Middle East."[60] "The feeling among the people now is that they are capable of expressing themselves and ensuring that they live with equal rights. I think that if it continues like this and is really applied in practice, it will guarantee a sort of balance in society."[61]

On Islamic society and non-Muslims in Egypt[edit]

"I believe Coptic Christians have inherent rights. I believe they are part and parcel of the fabric of the Egyptian society, and have been for more than 1400 years. They are certainly just as Egyptian as I am, and have as much a right to this homeland as I do."[62] "We are commanded, by God Almighty, to respect others' faiths, just as we respect our own. God Almighty granted all people the right and freedom to believe. People are free to believe in God or not to believe, not only Muslims or Christians. If God gave the people the right to freedom in such a tremendously important matter, what about less significant rights and freedoms?! They are obviously guaranteed."[62] "The free market system is similar to the Islamic system. Under Islam, you need to make sure that poor people are sharing in the wealth of society. So when we talk about having a free market system, this is OK, but it needs to be somehow reformed. Besides a free market system you need to have ethical values for the society. This is what we are concerned about."[63] "The majority of the people are Muslims and the non-Muslims, our brothers, are citizens with full responsibilities and rights and there is no difference between them. If any Muslim says anything other than this, he is not understanding Sharia."[64] "When people have accepted the notion of Islam as a framework, violations within it will be minimized. It cannot be imposed on the people and it cannot be done from the top. It has to be initiated, created, and agreed upon by the people."[65]

President of Egypt[edit]

Morsi was sworn in on 30 June 2012, as Egypt's first democratically elected president.[66] He succeeded Hosni Mubarak, who left the office of the President of Egypt vacant after being forced to resign on 11 February 2011.[67][68]

Domestic policy[edit]

According to Foreign Policy, the initial effect of a Morsi presidency on domestic policy was hazy, as Egypt's bureaucracy remained stocked with Mubarak loyalists and could block any changes that Morsi might try to push through. In a television interview with Yosri Fouda, he stated that his preference was an interim period with a mixed presidential-parliamentary system, which would pave the way for a system in which the legislature held complete sway.[69] Morsi reconvened Parliament in its original form on 10 July 2012; this was expected to cause friction between him and the military officials who dissolved the legislature.

Morsi sought to influence the drafting of a new constitution of Egypt. Morsi favored a constitution that protects civil rights and enshrined Islamic law.[70]

In a speech to supporters in Cairo's Tahrir Square on 30 June 2012, Morsi briefly mentioned that he would work to free Omar Abdel-Rahman, convicted in the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center in New York City, along with the many Egyptians who were arrested during the revolution.[71] A Brotherhood spokesperson later said that the extradition was for humanitarian reasons and that Morsi did not intend to overturn Abdel-Rahman's criminal convictions.[72]

On 10 July 2012, Morsi reinstated the Islamist-dominated parliament that was disbanded by the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt on 14 June 2012. According to Egypt's official news agency, Morsi ordered the immediate return of legislators elected in 2011, a majority of whom are members of Morsi's Freedom and Justice Party and other Islamist groups.[73][74] A Morsi spokesman announced that the president-elect would appoint a Christian and a woman as vice-presidents,[75] but eventually appointed Mahmoud Mekki, a Muslim man. On 22 December 2012, Mekki resigned.[76]

After Kamal Ganzouri's resignation, Morsi tasked Hesham Qandil with forming the new government.[77] On 2 August 2012, Qandil was sworn in as Prime Minister.[78] Morsi also objected to a constitutional provision limiting presidential power.[79]

Then President Mohamed Morsi (right) and General al-Sisi (left) listen to visiting U.S. Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel (center), during a meeting with U.S. officials on April 24, 2013. Al-Sisi, chosen by Morsi to be the first post-Mubarak era Defense Minister,[80] would later sanction the removal of Morsi.

On 12 August 2012, Morsi asked Mohamad Hussein Tantawi, head of the country's armed forces, and Sami Hafez Anan, the Army chief of staff, to resign.[81] He also announced that the constitutional amendments passed by the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) restricting the president's powers would be annulled.[82] Morsi's spokesman, Yasser Ali, announced that both Tantawi and Anan would remain advisers to the president. Morsi named Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, who was then serving as chief of military intelligence, as Egypt's new defense minister.[83] The New York Times described the move as an "upheaval" and a "stunning purge", given the power that SCAF had taken after the fall of Mubarak.[83] Al Jazeera described it as "escalating the power struggle" between the president and military.[82] On 14 August 2012, Mohamed Salem, an Egyptian lawyer, filed a legal challenge over Morsi's removal of Tantawi and Anan, arguing that Morsi planned to bring back the totalitarian regime.[84]

Morsi fired two more high-rank security officials on 16 August 2012: intelligence chief Murad Muwafi the Director of the Intelligence Directorate and the commander of his presidential guards.[85]

On 27 August 2012, Morsi named 21 advisers and aides that included three women and two Christians and a large number of Islamist-leaning figures.[86] He also appointed new governors to the 27 regions of the country.[87]

In October 2012, Morsi's government unveiled plans for the development of a major economic and industrial hub adjoining the Suez Canal. Funding commitments had been received including $8 billion from Qatar.[88] The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development committed €1 billion. On 19 March 2014 on a visit to India, Morsi sought support from India's Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.[89] Although the project did not proceed under Morsi, his successor Abdel Fattah el-Sisi revived and launched a streamlined version of the corridor in conjunction with an expansion of the Suez Canal in August 2014.[90]

On 19 October 2012, Morsi traveled to Egypt's northwestern Matrouh in his first official visit to deliver a speech on Egyptian unity at el-Tenaim Mosque. Immediately prior to his speech he participated in prayers there where he openly mouthed "Amen" as cleric Futouh Abd Al-Nabi Mansour, the local head of religious endowment, declared, "Deal with the Jews and their supporters. Oh Allah, disperse them, rend them asunder. Oh Allah, demonstrate Your might and greatness upon them. Show us Your omnipotence, oh Lord." The prayers were broadcast on Egyptian state television and translated by MEMRI. Originally MEMRI translated the broadcast as "Destroy the Jews and their supporters. Oh Allah, disperse them, rend them asunder," but later revised their translation.[91][92]

Morsi did not attend the enthronement of Coptic Pope Tawadros II on 18 November 2012 at Abbasiya Cathedral, though Prime Minister Hesham Qandil did attend.[93]

November 2012 declaration[edit]

On 22 November 2012, Morsi issued a declaration purporting to protect the work of the Constituent Assembly drafting the new constitution from judicial interference. In effect, this declaration immunises his actions from any legal challenge. The decree states that it only applies until a new constitution is ratified.[94] The declaration also requires a retrial of those accused in the Mubarak-era killings of protesters, who had been acquitted, and extends the mandate of the Constituent Assembly by two months. Additionally, the declaration authorizes Morsi to take any measures necessary to protect the revolution. Liberal and secular groups walked out of the constitutional Constituent Assembly because they believed that it would impose strict Islamic practices, while members of the Muslim Brotherhood supported Morsi.[95]

The move was criticized by Mohamed ElBaradei who said Morsi had "usurped all state powers and appointed himself Egypt's new pharaoh".[96][97] The move led to massive protests and violent action throughout Egypt,[98] with protesters erecting tents in Tahrir Square, the site of the protests that preceded the resignation of Hosni Mubarak. The protesters demanded a reversal of the declaration and the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly. Those gathered in the square called for a "huge protest" on 27 November.[99] Clashes were reported between protesters and police.[100] The declaration was also condemned by human rights groups such as Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch and Freedom House.[101][102][103][104] Egypt's highest body of judges decried the ruling as an "unprecedented assault on the independence of the judiciary and its rulings".[105] Abdel Meguid Mahmoud, a prosecutor appointed by Hosni Mubarak, declared the decree "null and void".[94] Morsi further emphasized his argument that the decree is temporary, and said he wanted dialog with the opposition.[106] Morsi's statement failed to appease either the judges or citizenry dissatisfied with his decision and sparked days of protests in Tahrir Square.[107]

Though the declarations's language had not been altered, Morsi agreed to limit the scope of the decree to "sovereign matters" following four days of opposition protests and the resignation of several senior advisers. Morsi's spokesman said an agreement, reached with top judicial authorities, would leave most of the president's actions subject to review by the courts, but preserve his power to protect the Constituent Assembly from being dissolved by the courts before it had finished its work. President Morsi also agreed there would be no further retrials of former officials under Hosni Mubarak, unless new evidence was presented.[108]

On 1 December 2012, the Constituent Assembly handed the draft constitution to Morsi, who announced that a constitutional referendum would be held on 15 December 2012.[109][110]

On 4 December 2012, Morsi left his presidential palace after a number of protesters broke through police cordons around the palace, with some climbing atop an armored police vehicle and waving flags.[111]

On 8 December 2012, Morsi annulled his decree which had expanded his presidential authority and removed judicial review of his decrees, an Islamist official said, but added that the effects of that declaration would stand.[11][110][112][113][114][115] A constitutional referendum was still planned for 15 December. George Isaac of the Constitution Party said that Morsi's declaration did not offer anything new, the National Salvation Front rejected it as an attempt save face, and the 6 April Movement and Gamal Fahmi of the Egyptian Journalists Syndicate said the new declaration failed to address the "fundamental" problem of the nature of the Assembly that was tasked with drafting the constitution.[11]

Foreign policy[edit]

Mohamed Morsi meets with U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in Cairo, Egypt, July 2012
Morsi and the Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff in Brasília, Brazil, May 2013

Personnel[edit]

Khaled al-Qazzaz was the secretary on foreign relations from 2012 to 2013 in the Morsi government.[116]

Arab world[edit]

Morsi's first official foreign visit was to Saudi Arabia on 11 July 2012.[117] During this visit, Morsi stated that he intends to strengthen ties with the oil-rich monarchy, which also maintained close ties with the Mubarak government.[118]

Morsi has seen strong support from Qatar which has maintained long-held ties with the Muslim Brotherhood,[119] of which Morsi was a member until his election. Qatar has declared that it would provide Egypt with US$2 billion just as Morsi announced the reshuffle in the cabinet on 12 August 2012.[120] Meanwhile investors from Qatar have pledged to invest 10 billion in Egyptian infrastructure.[119]

Syria[edit]

As a staunch supporter of the opposition forces in the Syrian civil war, Morsi attended an Islamist rally on 15 June 2013, where salafi clerics called for "holy war" in Syria and denounced supporters of Bashar al-Assad as "infidels".[121] Morsi, who announced at the rally that his government had expelled Syria's ambassador and closed the Syrian embassy in Cairo, called for international intervention on behalf of the opposition forces in the effect of an establishment of a no-fly zone.[122]

Although he did not explicitly call for Egyptians to join the opposition armed forces in the Syrian conflict, President Morsi's attendance at 15 June rally was seen by many to be an implicit nod-of-approval for the Islamist clerics' calls for holy war in Syria.[121][123] Morsi was criticized by Egyptian analysts for attending and speaking at the rally, while the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) released a statement the day after the rally saying that its only role is to protect Egypt's borders, in an apparent ruling out of support for intervention in Syria.[121] Morsi's attendance at the rally was later revealed to be a major factor in the largely secular SCAF's decision to side with anti-Morsi protesters over the Morsi government during the widespread July 2013 anti-Morsi protests.[121]

Iran[edit]

During his tenure, Morsi strengthened ties with Iran following pre-revolutionary years of animosity between the two countries. However, his actions were met with Sunni Muslim opposition both inside and outside Egypt.[124]

Israel and Palestine[edit]

In October 2012, Morsi wrote a friendly letter to Israeli President Shimon Peres. The letter largely followed standard diplomatic language. Morsi called Peres "a great and good friend" and went on to call for "maintaining and strengthening the cordial relations which so happily exist between our two countries". Morsi closed the letter by expressing "highest esteem and consideration". Gamal Muhammad Heshmat asserted that the letter was "fabricated" saying that "Zionist media have leaked baseless statements by Morsi in the past." However, Morsi spokesman Yasser Ali told Egyptian state-run newspaper Ahram that the letter was "100 percent correct".[125] Previously, in July 2012, Morsi had refuted a fabricated letter.[126]

Morsi said in his victory speech that he would honor all of Egypt's international treaties, which was thought to be a reference to Egypt's treaty with Israel.[127]

On 14 November 2012, when Israel launched Operation Pillar of Defense in the Gaza Strip in response to Hamas rocket fire, Morsi's government condemned the operation and called for a halt to airstrikes.[128] Morsi sent Prime Minister Hesham Qandil to Gaza to express solidarity with Gaza and Hamas,[129][130] a stark contrast to Hosni Mubarak's treatment of Hamas as an enemy in the 2008–09 Gaza War.[131] Egypt, along with the United States mediated the ceasefire with Hamas and Israel.[132]

Statements on Israel and Israelis[edit]

In January 2013, statements made by Morsi in 2010 gained wide attention in the Western media, following a report in Forbes magazine on 11 January that criticized big media outlets for having ignored it.[133] In videos posted by MEMRI, Morsi had declared "The Zionists have no right to the land of Palestine. There is no place for them on the land of Palestine. What they took before 1947–48 constitutes plunder, and what they are doing now is a continuation of this plundering. By no means do we recognize their Green Line. The land of Palestine belongs to the Palestinians, not to the Zionists."[134] In September 2010, calling the Israelis "blood-suckers", "warmongers" and "descendants of apes and pigs", Morsi said "These futile [Israeli-Palestinian] negotiations are a waste of time and opportunities. The Zionists buy time and gain more opportunities, as the Palestinians, the Arabs, and the Muslims lose time and opportunities, and they get nothing out of it. We can see how this dream has dissipated. This dream has always been an illusion... This [Palestinian] Authority was created by the Zionist and American enemies for the sole purpose of opposing the will of the Palestinian people and its interests."[135][136][137][138][139][140][141] White House spokesman Jay Carney tried to downplay Morsi's remarks, saying that U.S. policy is focused on actions, not words. Morsi later contended that his remarks were "taken out of context", and his exchange with a delegation headed by John McCain was made public:

Morsi told the delegation he was committed to freedom of religion and belief, his spokesman said, adding: "his Excellency [Morsi] pointed out the need to distinguish between the Jewish religion, and those who belong to it, and violent actions against defenseless Palestinians."[140][141]

During a visit to Germany in January 2013, Morsi again stated that his remarks were taken out of context, insisting that they were intended as a criticism of Israel's policies toward the Palestinians. Addressing reporters, Morsi stated that "[I am] not against the Jewish faith or the Jewish people. My comments were about conduct that sheds blood and kills innocent people – things neither I... nor anyone condones... My comments were about the conduct and manners, the killings and the aggression by tanks and warplanes and cluster bombs and internationally banned weapons against innocent people." Morsi also stated that "[I] cannot be against the Jewish faith or Jews or Christianity and Christians," pointing out that the Quran requires Muslims "to tolerate all religions(Islam,Judaism,Christiantity)".[142]

International summits[edit]

African Union[edit]

Morsi attended the African Union Summit in Addis Ababa from 15 to 16 July 2012; this was the first visit to Ethiopia by Egypt's president in 17 years since the attempted assassination of Hosni Mubarak in June 1995.[143]

Later, in June 2013, politicians called by Morsi were overheard suggesting attacking Ethiopia to stop it from building a dam on a Nile tributary.[144]

Pro-Morsi protest staged in Marine Drive in Cochin, India by the Jamaat-e-Islami
Non-Aligned Movement[edit]

Morsi attended the 16th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement in Tehran at the end of August 2012, in a visit that could resume normal relations for the countries. Their diplomatic relationship has been strained since Egypt signed a peace treaty with Israel in 1979.[145]

Morsi made a speech against the Syrian government and called on the Syrian opposition to unite during the Syrian civil war. His comments about Syria, however, were not covered by Iranian media clearly.[146] He sparked controversy saying that it is an "ethical duty" to support the Syrian people against the "oppressive regime" in Damascus.[147]

Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) summit[edit]

Morsi hosted the Islamic summit in Cairo with the presence of 57 Leaders of Muslim nations. The summit declared support for the unity and territorial integrity of Mali and condemned terrorism in the west African state but said nothing of French military intervention to drive out Islamist fighters. The summit called for a "serious dialogue" between Syria's government and an opposition coalition on a political transition to put an end to the devastating civil war.[148][149]

Morsi awarded Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu the Secretary-General of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), Order of the Nile, which is Egypt's highest state honor.[150]

Overthrow and criminal trial[edit]

Anti-Morsi demonstrators marching in Cairo during Egyptian Revolution of 2013
Rabaa al-Adawiya during the dispersal of the pro-Morsi sit-in, 14 August 2013
Protesters hold a poster of ousted President Morsi, Cairo, 20 September 2013

On 30 June 2013, millions of people rallied across Egypt calling for President Morsi's resignation from office.[151] Concurrently with these anti-Morsi demonstrations, his supporters held a sit-in in Rabaa Al-Adawiya square.[152]

On 1 July, the Egyptian Armed Forces issued a 48-hour ultimatum which gave the country's political parties until 3 July to meet the demands of the Egyptian people. The Egyptian military also threatened to intervene if the dispute was not resolved by then.[153] Four Ministers also resigned on the same day, including tourism minister Hisham Zazou, communication and IT minister Atef Helmi, state minister for legal and parliamentary affairs Hatem Bagato and state minister for environmental affairs Khaled Abdel Aal,[154] leaving the government with members of the Muslim Brotherhood only.

On 2 July, President Morsi publicly rejected the Egyptian Army's 48-hour ultimatum and vowed to pursue his own plans for national reconciliation and resolving the political crisis.[155]

In mid-November Morsi claimed that he was kidnapped and held in a Republican Guard house on 2 July. He claimed to be kept there until 5 July and forcibly moved again to a naval base where he spent the next four months.[156][157][158] The spokesperson of the Egyptian Armed Forces, Colonel Ahmed Ali later denied the rumors saying that Morsi is badly treated saying that they have nothing to hide.[159] The Egyptian Army later gave Catherine Ashton the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy for the European Union the permission to meet Morsi. Ashton later stated that Morsi is doing well, saying "Morsi was keeping up with the latest developments in the country through television and newspapers. So we were able to talk about the situation, and we were able to talk about the need to move forward. The people around him do care for him. I looked at the facilities."[160][161][162] Morsi could later meet an African Union delegation too.[159]

On 3 July at 21:00 (GMT+2), Abdul Fatah al-Sisi announced a road map for the future, stating that Morsi was removed and that Adly Mansour, the head of the Constitutional Court, had been appointed the Interim President of Egypt.[163]

Trial[edit]

After his overthrow, Morsi faced several charges including inciting the killing of opponents protesting outside his palace, espionage for foreign militant groups including Hezbollah and Hamas responsible for breaking Wadi el-Natroun Prison, espionage for Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution, deception of Egyptians with Nahda Project, and Treason, in addition to "Insulting the judiciary" charge still under investigation.[164][165]

In 1 September 2013, prosecutors referred Morsi to trial on charges of inciting deadly violence.[166] The date was set for 4 November 2013.[167] Morsi will be tried in a criminal court for inciting his supporters to kill at least 10 opponents, use violence and torture protesters. The prosecutors' investigation revealed that Morsi had asked the Republican Guard and the minister of interior to break up his opponents' sit-in, but they refused fearing a bloody result before Morsi's aides asked his supporters to break up the sit-in with force.[166]

In 18 December 2013, Prosecutor General ordered the referral of Morsi to criminal court for charges of espionage in a statement under the title "The Biggest Case of Espionage in the History of Egypt". According to the prosecutor general's investigations, the international organisation of the Muslim Brotherhood, aided by Hezbollah and Hamas, is the reason behind violence inside Egypt; members intend to create a state of ultimate chaos after receiving media and military training in the Gaza and aim to implement jihadists in Sinai.[168]

On 29 January 2014, Morsi faced trial for the second time for the charge of breaking out of jail during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 after conspiring with foreign militant groups, including Hamas, to spread violent chaos throughout Egypt. The trial was postponed for a month.[169] On 1 February 2014, Morsi's trial resumed on charges of inciting deadly violence. The trial was adjourned to the next day to hear witnesses for the prosecution,[170] when it was postponed to 1 March.[171] On 7 May, the trial had not yet taken place, and a date of 17 May was set,[172] and was then further postponed to 7 June.[173]

Personal life[edit]

Morsi is married to his cousin, Naglaa Ali Mahmoud.[174] She reportedly stated that she did not want to be referred to as, "First Lady" but rather as, "First Servant [of the Egyptian public]".[175]

Morsi has five children:[176] Ahmed Mohammed Morsi, who is a physician in Saudi Arabia; Shaima, a graduate of Zagazig University; Osama, an attorney; Omar has a bachelor in commerce from Zagazig University; and Abdullah, a high-school student.[177] Two of Morsi's five children were born in California and are U.S. citizens by birth.[178] Morsi has three grandchildren.[177] His third son, Omar, was appointed to the Holding Company for Airports, a state-owned company, six months after his graduation.[179] However, he declined the job offer due to many rumors and attacks in the media and press.[180][181]

On his first state visit to Pakistan, Morsi was awarded an honorary Doctorate of Philosophy (PhD) by NUST in Islamabad on 18 March 2013 in recognition of his achievements and significant contributions towards the promotion of peace and harmony in the world and strengthening of relations with the Muslim countries, especially Pakistan.[182][183]

See also[edit]


Citations[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The spellings of his first and last names vary. A survey of 14 news organizations plus Wikipedia in July 2013 found that 11 used "Mohamed" and four used "Mohammed"; nine used "Morsi", five used "Mursi", and one used "Morsy". The official Egypt State Information Service uses both "Morsi" and "Morsy".
  1. ^ Barakat, Dana; Sullivan, Thomas (26 August 2013). "Jordan Bolstered by Egyptian, Syrian Chaos". Sharnoff's Global Views. Retrieved 30 August 2013. 
  2. ^ Abigail Hauslohner, "Egypt protests: President Morsi removed by army, reportedly put under house arrest", Toronto Star, 3 July 2013.
  3. ^ Ashraf Khalil, "[1]", Time, 3 July 2013.
  4. ^ Josh Lederman and Matthew Lee",Obama urges return of civilian government in Egypt, orders review of US aid to Cairo", Edmonton Journal, 3 July 2013.
  5. ^ "Muslim Brotherhood candidate Morsi wins Egyptian presidential election". Fox News. 24 June 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2012. 
  6. ^ El-Hewie, Mohamed (2011). Chain Reaction: Egypt's Revolt 2011 Illustrated. Shaymaa. pp. 3–5. ISBN 1461093953. 
  7. ^ David D. Kirkpatrick (24 June 2012). "Named Egypt's Winner, Islamist Makes History". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 August 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  8. ^ Hendawi, Hamza (28 November 2012). "Egyptian courts suspend work to protest Morsi decrees". Salon. Retrieved 8 December 2012. 
  9. ^ Dina Bishara (28 November 2012). "Egyptian Labor between Morsi and Mubarak". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 8 December 2012. 
  10. ^ El Rashidi, Yasmine (7 February 2013). "Egypt: The Rule of the Brotherhood". New York Review. Retrieved 24 September 2013. The Islamists' TV channels and press called the completion of the draft constitution an "achievement", "historic", "an occasion", "another step toward achieving the goals of the revolution". The independent and opposition press described it as "an Islamist coup". 
  11. ^ a b c "Egypt's Mursi annuls controversial decree, opposition says not enough". Al Arabiya. 9 December 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2012. The two issues – the decree and the referendum – were at the heart of anti-Mursi protests that have rocked Egypt in the past two weeks. 
  12. ^ Williams,, Daniel (15 August 2013). "Muslim Brotherhood abuses continue under Egypt's military". The Washington Post. Retrieved 22 August 2013. 
  13. ^ David D. Kirkpatrick (26 April 2012). "President Mohamed Morsi of Egypt Said to Prepare Martial Law Decree". The New York Times (Egypt). Retrieved 8 December 2012. 
  14. ^ McCrumen, Stephanie; Hauslohner, Abigail (5 December 2012). "Egyptians take anti-Morsi protests to presidential palace". The Independent (London). Retrieved 5 December 2012. 
  15. ^ Alsharif, Asma (30 June 2013). "Millions flood Egypt's streets to demand Mursi quit". Reuters. 
  16. ^ Kelley, Michael (30 June 2013). "Sunday Saw 'The Biggest Protest In Egypt's History'". San Francisco Chronicle. 
  17. ^ "Millions March in Egyptian Protests". The Atlantic. 1 July 2013. 
  18. ^ Abdelaziz, Salma (1 July 2013). "Egyptian military issues warning over protests". CNN. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  19. ^ Egyptian army issues new statement, denies warning of coup - Times Of India. Timesofindia.indiatimes.com (2013-07-02). Retrieved on 2013-08-14.
  20. ^ "Morsi told he is no longer the president". The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 July 2013. [dead link]
  21. ^ Weaver, Matthew; McCarthy, Tom (3 July 2013). "Egyptian army suspends constitution and removes President Morsi – as it happened". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 July 2013. 
  22. ^ Hendawi, Hamza; Michael, Maggie (2 July 2013). "Outlines of Egypt army's post-Morsi plan emerge". Associated Press. Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  23. ^ McCrummen, Stephanie (24 September 2013). "Egyptian minister postpones dissolution of the Muslim Brotherhood". The Washington Post. Retrieved 24 September 2013. 
  24. ^ "Egypt's Morsi to be tried for inciting violence". USA Today. 1 September 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2013. 
  25. ^ "Egypt sets November trial date for Morsi". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  26. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions about Egypt's Morsi trial". Ahram Online. Retrieved 2 November 2013. 
  27. ^ "Prosecutor general orders Morsi tried for espionage along with Brotherhood leaders". Daily News Egypt. 18 December 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 
  28. ^ a b "Profile: Egyptian presidential frontrunner Mohamed Mursi". Asharq Alawsat. 25 May 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2013. 
  29. ^ "Muhammad Morsi: An ordinary man". The Economist. 30 June 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2012. 
  30. ^ David Matthews (19 July 2012). "Academic-turned-politician aims to fix engine of state". The Times of Higher Education. Archived from the original on 12 August 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  31. ^ Driggs, Alexis (26 June 2012). "Egyptians elect USC alumnus". Daily Trojan. Retrieved 22 September 2012. 
  32. ^ "NUST awards honourary [sic] doctorate to Morsi". Radio Pakistan. 18 March 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2013. 
  33. ^ Mertz, Ed (2012-06-25). "Egyptian President-Elect Has Ties To USC, CSUN". KNX (CBS News). Retrieved 27 July 2013. 
  34. ^ a b Katherine Jane O'Neill (12-4-2013). "How Morsi's English 'destroyed' his US students". Saudi Gazette.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  35. ^ El Sheikh, Mayy; Kirkpatrick, David D (27 June 2012). "Egypt's Everywoman Finds Her Place is in the Presidential Palace". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 August 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  36. ^ Knell, Yolande (24 June 2012). "Egypt president: Muslim Brotherhood's Mohammed Mursi". BBC News. Archived from the original on 12 August 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  37. ^ "Morsy calls for a national uprising to save Al-Aqsa Mosque". Ikhwan Web. 
  38. ^ Satloff, Robert; Trager, Eric (11 September 2012). "Getting Egypt's Morsi to give up his 9/11 'truther' talk". The Washington Post. Retrieved 27 September 2012. 
  39. ^ Hamid, Shadi (7 June 2012). "Brother Number One". Foreign Policy. 
  40. ^ Birmbaum, Ben (31 May 2012). "Top Egyptian presidential candidate doubts al Qaeda role in 9/11". The Washington Times. 
  41. ^ Mohamed Morsi - Meet the candidates
  42. ^ Reuters (30 January 2011). "Egypt Muslim Brotherhood says 34 key members escape prison". Reuters. 
  43. ^ Tisdall, Simon (30 January 2011). "Egypt protests: Cairo prison break prompts fear of fundamentalism". The Guardian (London). 
  44. ^ Nolan, Dan. "Also reports of new prison break at Wadi Natrun #Egypt 5000 escapees. Still confirming but had 2 similar reports. Prison guards fled #Jan 25". Retrieved 30 January 11.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  45. ^ Los Angeles Times (30 January 2011). "Egypt: Muslim Brotherhood members escape prison, rally in Tahrir Square". Los Angeles Times. 
  46. ^ Nahmias, Roee (30 January 2011). "Tens of thousands return to Cairo square". Ynetnews. 
  47. ^ "Egypt Brotherhood candidate: army wants to retain power". Al Akhbar. Agence France-Presse. 18 April 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  48. ^ Perry, Tom. Newsmaker: Egypt's Morsy goes from prisoner to president. MSNBC. Original published by Reuters. 24 June 2012.
  49. ^ "Dr. Morsi Presidential Campaign Kickoff in Mahalla Al-Kubra on May Day" (full coverage). Ikhwanweb. 1 May 2012. 
  50. ^ Hiel, Betsy (20 May 2012). "Muslim Brotherhood's rhetoric reveals intent in Egypt". TribLive. Retrieved 30 May 2012. 
  51. ^ Atulenaja, Atul (30 May 2012). "Egypt's Islamists seek 'grand coalition' with liberals, minorities". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 30 May 2012. 
  52. ^ "Morsy demands Okasha be banned from TV". Egypt Independent. 30 May 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2012. 
  53. ^ Sterling, Harry (10 June 2012). "Sterling: Gauging Muslims' ability to leave their faith". The Calgary Herald. Archived from the original on 12 August 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  54. ^ "Awards". Alwafd. Retrieved 24 March 2013. 
  55. ^ "Muslim Brotherhood's Mursi declared Egypt president". BBC News. 24 June 2012. Archived from the original on 12 August 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  56. ^ Fathi, Yasmine (24 June 2012). "Brotherhood campaigners elated as Mursi is named Egypt's next president". Al Ahram. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  57. ^ a b New Brotherhood candidate pitched in to Egypt race. Reuters, April 2012
  58. ^ An interview with the MB's Mohamed Morsi by Issandr El Amrani. The Arabist, May 2011
  59. ^ Morsi: Egypt's ruling regime to compensate its legitimacy to rule by using violence against its own citizens. IkwanWeb, February 2010
  60. ^ Egyptian presidency denies Morsi gave interview on stronger ties with Iran. Al Arabiya, June 2012
  61. ^ An interview with the MB's Mohamed Morsi by Issandr El Amrani. The Arabist, May 2011
  62. ^ a b Full English Translation of Dr. Mohamed Morsi's Interview on Dream TV with Wael Ibrashi. Dream TV, 2 December 2011
  63. ^ Interview with Dr. Mohammed Morsy, leading member of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood and chairman of the Freedom and Justice Party. Written by Alastair Beachon. Majallah Magazine, 15 November 2011
  64. ^ with Dr. Mohammed Morsy, president of Egypt's 'Freedom and Justice' party. France 24. Retrieved May 2011.
  65. ^ An interview with the MB's Mohamed Morsy with Issandr El Amrani. The Arabist, May 2011
  66. ^ "Mohamed Morsi sworn in as Egypt's first popularly-elected president". CNN. 30 June 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2012. 
  67. ^ Conal Urquhart (30 June 2012). "Mohamed Morsi sworn in as Egyptian president". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 1 July 2012. 
  68. ^ Hamza Hendawi (16 June 2012). "Egypt votes for president to succeed Mubarak". Google. Associated Press. Retrieved 1 July 2012. 
  69. ^ Hamid, Shadi (7 June 2012). "Brother Number One". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 26 June 2012. 
  70. ^ Fleishman, Jeffrey (25 January 2012). "Egypt's Mohammed Morsi moves into Mubarak's presidential office, meets with military". Toronto Star. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  71. ^ "Egypt's Morsi at Tahrir Square: Power of the people is above all". Haaretz. Reuters and Associated Press. 29 June 2012. Archived from the original on 12 August 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  72. ^ David D. Kirkpatrich (29 June 2012). "Egypt's New Leader Takes Oath, Promising to Work for Release of Jailed Terrorist". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 August 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  73. ^ Hendrix, Steve; Londoño, Ernesto (8 July 2012). "Egypt's Morsi makes bid to reinstate Islamist parliament". The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 July 2012. 
  74. ^ Watson, Ivan (10 July 2012). "Egyptian parliament to convene in defiance of generals". CNN. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  75. ^ Mourad, Sarah (28 June 2012). "Egypt to see first female, Coptic vice-presidents: Morsi team". Al Ahram. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  76. ^ "Vice president quits as Egypt votes on constitution". Reuters. 22 December 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  77. ^ "Egypt's Morsi names new prime minister". Al Jazeera. 24 July 2012. Archived from the original on 12 August 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  78. ^ Wahba, Abdel Latif; El-Tablawy, Tarek (2 August 2012). "Egypt's New Government Prepares to Take Helm of Nation". Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on 12 August 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  79. ^ "Egyptian President Morsi Rejects Previous Limits on Presidential Power". PBS. 13 August 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  80. ^ "Profile: Egypt armed forces chief Abdul Fattah al-Sisi". BBC News. 2013-07-03. Retrieved 2013-07-05. 
  81. ^ "Egypt leader Mursi orders army chief Tantawi to resign". BBC News. 12 August 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  82. ^ a b "Egypt's president asserts authority over army". Al Jazeera. 12 August 2012. Archived from the original on 12 August 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  83. ^ a b Kareem Fahim (12 August 2012). "Egyptian Leader Ousts Military Chief". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  84. ^ Elyan, Tamim (14 August 2012). "Egypt's Mursi faces lawsuit over removal of power curbs". Reuters. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  85. ^ Iqbal, Farhan (16 August 2012). "President Morsi fires Egypt's Intelligence Chief over Sinai unrest". Al Arabiya (Cairo). Retrieved 17 August 2012. 
  86. ^ Michael, Maggie. "Egypt President names mainly Islamist adviser team". Associated Press. Retrieved 28 August 2012. 
  87. ^ Mazel, Zvi (23 August 2012). "Analysis: Brotherhood taking total control of Egypt". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 13 December 2012. 
  88. ^ "Egypt sees revenue in Suez Canal corridor project". Reuters. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  89. ^ "Egypt President Morsi wants India to join Suez Canal corridor project". India TV. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  90. ^ "New Suez Canal project proposed by Egypt to boost trade". Cairo News.Net. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  91. ^ "In Public Prayer Morsi Appeals to Allah to 'Deal with the Jews' (Video)". Jewish Press. 22 October 2012. Retrieved 13 December 2012. 
  92. ^ "Al-Ahram: The Jews Caught a Fat Fish with Morsi's Hate Video". Jewish Press. 25 October 2012. Retrieved 13 December 2012. 
  93. ^ Kumar, Anugrah (19 November 2012). "Egypt's New Coptic Pope Enthroned in President Morsi's Absence". CP World. Retrieved 26 January 2013. 
  94. ^ a b Kirkpatrick, David (24 November 2012). "Morsi Urged to Retract Edict to Bypass Judges". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 25 November 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012. 
  95. ^ "Rallies for, against Egypt president's new powers". ABC News. Associated Press. 23 November 2012. Archived from the original on 25 November 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2012. 
  96. ^ El Baradei, Mohamed (22 November 2012). "Twitter". Retrieved 23 November 2012. 
  97. ^ Birnbaum, Michael (22 November 2012). "Egypt's President Morsi takes sweeping new powers". The Washington Post. Retrieved 23 November 2012. 
  98. ^ Spencer, Richard (23 November 2012). "Violence breaks out across Egypt as protesters decry Mohammed Morsi's constitutional 'coup'". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 23 November 2012. 
  99. ^ "Egypt unrest: Anti-Mursi protests intensify". BBC News. 24 November. Retrieved 23 November 2012.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  100. ^ "Clashes Break Out After Morsi Seizes New Power in Egypt". The New York Times. 24 November 2012. Retrieved 23 November 2012. 
  101. ^ "Tea and tear gas in Tahrir Square". Amnesty International. 2012-11-19. 
  102. ^ "Egypt: President Morsi changes to the constitution trample rule of law". UK: Amnesty International. 
  103. ^ "Denounces Morsi Power-Grab in Egypt". Freedom House. 
  104. ^ "Egypt: Morsy Decree Undermines Rule of Law". Human Rights Watch. 2012-11-26. 
  105. ^ Batrawy, Aya (24 November 2012). "Egypt's top judges slam president's new powers". Google News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 25 November 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012. 
  106. ^ "Egyptian president says decree granting new powers 'temporary,' calls for dialog". RT. 25 November 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2012. 
  107. ^ Bradley, Matt; Dagher, Sam (28 November 2012). "Cairo Impasse Raises Economic Alarms". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 28 November 2012. 
  108. ^ "Egypt: Who holds the power?". BBC News. 27 November 2012. Retrieved 1 December 2012. 
  109. ^ "Egypt to hold December referendum on new constitution". BBC News. 1 December 2012. Retrieved 1 December 2012. 
  110. ^ a b "Morsi's decree cancelled, constitution referendum to take place on time". Ahram Online. 9 December 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2012. 
  111. ^ Saleh, Yasmine; Awad, Marwa (4 December 2012). "Egypt's Mursi leaves palace as police battle protesters". Reuters. Retrieved 4 December 2102.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  112. ^ McCrummen, Stephanie (8 December 2012). "Egypt's Morsi annuls most of contested decree, stays firm on Dec. 15 referendum". The Washington Post. Retrieved 30 December 2012. 
  113. ^ Kirkpatrick, David D. (28 December 2012). "Backing Off Added Powers, Egypt's Leader Presses Vote". The New York Times (Egypt). Retrieved 30 December 2012. 
  114. ^ "Egypt's Morsi rescinds controversial decree". Al Jazeera. 9 December 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2012. 
  115. ^ "Egypt crisis: Morsi offers concession in decree annulment". BBC News. 9 December 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2012. 
  116. ^ al-Qazzaz, Khaled, "Why Is the World Silent?", op-ed, New York Times, 27 June 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-28.
  117. ^ Ezzat, Dina (12–18 July 2012). "Destination Riyadh". Al Ahram Weekly 1106. Retrieved 22 April 2013. 
  118. ^ "Morsy to seek closer ties with Saudi Arabia". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 11 July 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  119. ^ a b Theodoulou, Michael. Islamists' jubilant but some are wary of Morsi The National. 12 June 2012.
  120. ^ Viktor Kotsev (14 August 2012). "A Brotherhood coup in Egypt". Asia Times. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  121. ^ a b c d "Morsi role at Syria rally seen as tipping point for Egypt army". The Irish Times. 2013-07-02. Retrieved 2013-07-03. 
  122. ^ "Mursi cuts Egypt's Syria ties, backs no-fly zone". The Times of India. 2013-06-16. Retrieved 2013-07-03. 
  123. ^ "Egypt seen to give nod toward jihadis on Syria". Salon. 2013-06-17. Retrieved 2013-07-03. 
  124. ^ Egypt and Iran: Pious politics
  125. ^ "Morsi's office confirms warm letter to Peres is authentic". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 27 October 2012. 
  126. ^ "Morsi denies sending friendly letter to Peres". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 27 October 2012. 
  127. ^ Tzvi Ben Gedalyahu (25 June 2012). "Cairo Gov't Conceived in Violence, Bred in Chaos". Arutz Sheva. Archived from the original on 12 August 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  128. ^ Peter Beaumont (14 November 2012). "Egypt condemns Israeli air strikes in Gaza and demands ceasefire". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  129. ^ "Israel Hits Hamas PM's Office, Readies Troops". The Wall Street Journal. 17 November 2012. Retrieved 21 November 2012. 
  130. ^ "Egypt PM to visit Gaza on Friday". Agence France-Presse. 17 November 2012. Retrieved 21 November 2012. 
  131. ^ Nisman, Daniel (19 November 2012). "Why Morsi Could Be the Gaza Conflict's Biggest Loser". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 21 November 2012. 
  132. ^ "Cease-fire reached in Gaza conflict". CNN. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 21 November 2012. 
  133. ^ Behar, Richard (11 January 2013). "News Flash: Jews Are 'Apes And Pigs.' So Why Is Egypt's Morsi The Elephant In America's Newsrooms?". Forbes. Retrieved 1 February 2013. 
  134. ^ "Egypt's Morsi, in 2010 interviews posted online, called Zionists 'bloodsuckers' and descendants of pigs, urged to sever all ties with Israel". The Times of Israel. 4 January 2013. 
  135. ^ "Morsi in 2010: No to Negotiations with the Blood-Sucking, Warmongering "Descendants of Apes and Pigs"; Calls to Boycott U.S. Products". Memri TV. 
  136. ^ "Zionists are bloodsuckers and warmongers: Morsi in 2010 video". IR: Press TV. 6 January 2013. 
  137. ^ "Morsi called Israelis 'descendants of apes and pigs' in 2010 video". Haaretz. JTA. 4 January 2013. 
  138. ^ "Morsi: No peace with descendants of apes and pigs". The Jerusalem Post. 4 January 2013. 
  139. ^ Kirkpatrick, David D. (2013-01-15). "Morsi's Slurs Against Jews Stir Concern". The New York Times. 
  140. ^ a b "McCain chides Egypt's Morsi over remarks on Jews". 
  141. ^ a b "Mohamed Morsi Comments On Jews 'Taken Out Of Context', Says Egypt Spokesman". The Huffington Post. 2013-01-16. 
  142. ^ "Offensive remarks about Jews were taken out of context, Egypt's president insists during Germany visit". National Post. Associated Press. 30 January 2013. 
  143. ^ Hamza Hendawi (15 July 2012). "Egypt's Morsi in Ethiopia for AU summit". Yahoo News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 12 August 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  144. ^ Egyptian politicians caught in on-air Ethiopia dam gaffe Retrieved 4 June 2013
  145. ^ "Egypt President to Visit Iran". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  146. ^ "Morsi Claims against Syrian Government". Parsine (in Persian). Retrieved 30 August 2012. 
  147. ^ "Morsi criticises Syria at Tehran Meeting". 30 August 2012. 
  148. ^ "Islamic summit backs Mali government, omits France". Ahram Online. Reuters. 8 February 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2013. 
  149. ^ Saleh, Yasmine (7 February 2013). "Islamic summit urges dialogue on Syria transition". Reuters. Retrieved 24 March 2013. 
  150. ^ "وزير الإعلام السعودي السابق إياد مدني أمينا لمنظمة التعاون الإسلامي - روسيا اليوم". RT. Retrieved 24 March 2013. 
  151. ^ "Egypt crisis: Mass protests over Morsi grip cities". BBC News. 1 July 2013. 
  152. ^ Umar Farooq (30 June 2013). "Seeking New Leadership, Millions of Egyptians Take to the Streets". The Atlantic. 
  153. ^ Abdelaziz, Salma (1 July 2013). "Egyptian military issues warning over protests". CNN. Retrieved 1 July 2013. 
  154. ^ Patrick Werr (1 July 2013). "Four Egyptian ministers resign after protests: cabinet official". Reuters. Retrieved 1 July 2013. 
  155. ^ "Egypt crisis: President Morsi rejects army ultimatum". BBC News. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  156. ^ "Profile: Morsi Kidnapped". The Jerusalem Post. 13 November 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2013. 
  157. ^ "Profile: Morsi Kidnapped". Press TV. 14 November 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2013. 
  158. ^ Goyette, Braden (13 November 2013). "Morsi Claims He Was Kidnapped Before Ousting". Huffington Post. 
  159. ^ a b "Egypt Army Hiding Morsi In Secret Location, Extreme Measures Taken To Keep Detention Site Hidden". Huffington Post. 31 July 2013. 
  160. ^ "Catherine Ashton Meets With Mohammed Morsi, Says Egypt's Ex-President Doing Well". Huffington Post. 30 July 2013. 
  161. ^ "Ousted Egypt leader Morsi in good health, says EU's Ashton". BBC News. 30 July 2013. 
  162. ^ "EU's Catherine Ashton meets with Mohammed Morsi: 'He is well'". 
  163. ^ Coup topples Egypt's Morsy; supporters reportedly rounded up - CNN.com. Edition.cnn.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-14.
  164. ^ "Morsi Charges (Arabic)". 
  165. ^ Egypt: Pending Charges against Mohammed Morsi Law Library of Congress
  166. ^ a b "Egypt's Morsi to be tried for inciting violence". USA Today. 1 September 2013. 
  167. ^ "Morsi Egypt sets November trial date for Morsi". 
  168. ^ "Prosecutor general orders Morsi tried for espionage along with Brotherhood leaders". 
  169. ^ "ohamed Morsi defiant in face of jailbreak and conspiracy charges". 
  170. ^ Loveluck, Louisa (4 February 2014). "Egypt's interim leader says end to 'pharoah presidents' as Morsi trial resumes". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  171. ^ "http://en-maktoob.news.yahoo.com/egypts-morsi-trial-adjourned-march-1-105229032.html". 
  172. ^ "Egypt's Morsi trial adjourned to May 17". APA. 7 May 2014. 
  173. ^ Rose, Aaron (19 May 2014). "Morsi prison break trial resumes". 
  174. ^ Mayy El Sheikh (27 June 2012). "Egypt's Everywoman Finds Her Place is In The Presidential Palace". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 November 2012. 
  175. ^ Aya Batrawy (28 June 2012). "Morsi's wife prefers 'first servant' to first lady". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). Retrieved 2 July 2012. 
  176. ^ "Egyptian president's son is Saudi-based urologist". Asharq Alawsat. 26 June 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2013. 
  177. ^ a b "Son of Egypt's President-elect Mursi to resume medical career in Saudi Arabia". Al Arabiya. 27 June 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  178. ^ Tom Perry (24 June 2012). "Newsmaker: Egypt's Morsy goes from prisoner to president". Reuters. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  179. ^ "No competition". Al Ahram. 20 February 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013. 
  180. ^ "Omar Morsi criticised for rejecting job". The Voice of Russia. 7 April 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2013. 
  181. ^ "Omar Morsi rejects the job". Boswtol. 7 April 2013. Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  182. ^ "NUST awards honourary doctorate degree to Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi". 18 March 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013. 
  183. ^ "Morsi gets an honourary doctorate". 18 March 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013. 

External links[edit]

Assembly seats
Preceded by
Numan Gumaa
Member of the People's Assembly
2000–2005
Succeeded by
Mahmoud Abaza
Party political offices
New office Leader of the Freedom and Justice Party
2011–2012
Succeeded by
Saad El-Katatni
New political party Freedom and Justice Party nominee for President of Egypt
2012
Most recent
Political offices
Preceded by
Mohamed Hussein Tantawi
Acting
President of Egypt
2012–2013
Succeeded by
Adly Mansour
Acting
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Mohamed Hussein Tantawi
Acting
Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement
2012
Succeeded by
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad