Dhaka Mohammedan Sporting Club was formed in 1933. According to some people, however, the year of establishment of Dhaka Mohammedan is 1938. Although apparently, Dhaka Mohammedan was a branch of the Calcutta Mohammedan, the former was a club created through reorganisation of the Muslim Sporting Club formed at Hazaribag, Dhaka in 1927. After the Partition of Bengal in 1947, a vacuum was created in the sports arena of Dhaka. At that time, Mohammad Shahjahan, a famous football player of Calcutta Mohammedan came to Dhaka and took charge of the Dhaka Mohammedan. He reorganised it and also developed its football team as a very strong one. The achievements of the team, however, were not significant until 1955. Dhaka's football was dominated at the time by Dhaka Wanderers' Club. Some star players and an official of the Wanderers had joined Dhaka Mohammedan in 1956. Later, the players themselves took initiatives of organising the team for increasingly better performance. In 1961, Dhaka Mohammedan played in the final match of the first division football league and in the next year, it became its champion. The club became champion also in the Independence Day Football Tournament of that year. Later, Dhaka Mohammedan Club extended their participation in other games and sports including hockey, swimming, athletics, volleyball, table tennis and badminton.
The club clinched the football league championship title 15 times between 1957 and 1999 and during the same period, it was runners up 12 times. It was champion in the Dhaka Metropolitan Football League (in 1993) and in the Independence Cup Football Tournament (5 times, between 1957 and 1966). The club is five times champion in the Federation Cup Football. It became champion in the Ashis-Jabbar Shield Tournament held in Durgapur of West Bengal in 1982. In the international football tournaments, Aga Khan Gold Cup (unofficial Asian Champions' Cup) held in Dhaka, it was record champions in 1959, 1964 and 1968 and runner up in 1966, 1967 and 1976. They were once coached by Iranian superstar Nasser Hejazi.
The club won the national volleyball tournaments in three consecutive years between 1967 and 1969. Kamrunnahar Dana of Dhaka Mohammedan Club won the triple crown in Sputnik Badminton in 1981 and also in Biman Badminton in 1982, 1983, 1984 and 1985. The Mohammedan team was champion in national badminton tournaments in 1982, 1983 and 1985. Mohammedan Sporting Club also hat trick Champions in Hockey since 1993 to 1996 in Premier Division Hockey League and also in 1997 they were Champions in the Premier Division.