Mohelnice (Šumperk District)
- See other places named Mohelnice.
|Elevation||267 m (876 ft)|
|Area||46.21 km2 (17.84 sq mi)|
|Density||213 / km2 (552 / sq mi)|
|- summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Postal code||789 53 - 789 85|
|Wikimedia Commons: Mohelnice|
The region has been inhabited since the Stone Age. Mohelnice is mentioned in a written document from 1131 (as a village owned by the bishopric of Olomouc). Castle Mírov is mentioned in 1266 and was completed some time after 1320. In 1273 Mohelnice was granted city status. In 1307 and 1312 the city was devastated by plague and in 1424 it was conquered by the Hussites (700 people died). During the first half of the 16th century the city was rebuilt. The Thirty Years' War devastated Mohelnice – in 1623 it was plundered by Swedish troops and over 30% of the inhabitants died either from enemy attacks or plague which returned in 1642, 1643, 1644 and 1647. In 1662 half of the city was destroyed by fire. 1685 saw the notorious witchcraft trials during which a local priest was burned at the stake. The city's textile industry began in 1713 and in 1714 the city suffered another plague. There was another significant fire in 1739. During the Silesian Wars the city was plundered several times.
In 1772 Mohelnice had 1867 inhabitants, barely half of the number it had in the 16th century but the population began to recover. In 1792 it was 3887. There were cholera epidemics in 1832, 1849, 1851 and 1866. The city suffered from fire in 1841 and few smaller fires later. In 1863 Mohelnice built its first sanitation system
The 19th and 20th century saw the growth of manufacturing and industry including sugar processing, engineering, electrotechnics.
The city was colonized by German speaking citizens who comprised around 95% of the population. After World War II all citizens over the age of 18 who had German nationality were ordered to leave Czechoslovakia. This caused the city to become almost deserted. Within a few months, however, the city was repopulated as immigrants arrived from other parts of Czechoslovakia.
In the second half of the 20th century the city went through major urban changes, including the narrowing of the Mírovka river and the demolition of the old houses in the northern part of the suburb. These were replaced with the large high rise apartment buildings which are part of today's city skyline.
Mohelnice is famous for the folk and country music festival Mohelnický dostavník . The city is predominantly industrial with significant electrotechnical, engineering and construction industries. The city also boasts a new industrial zone.
Mohelnice is the centre of the microregion Mohelnicko .
- Bishop Antonín Brus (German: Anton Brus von Müglitz, 1561–80), born
- Martin Horák, foot,baller
- Bishop Martin Medek (German: Martin Medek von Müglitz, 1581–90), born (de)
- Edmund Reitter, entomologist, writer, merchant, acted in Germany
- Richard Schmitz
- Writer Antal Stašek, worked here (1913–14)
- Painter J(udas). T(haddäus). Supper (1712–1771), born
- The remains of the 14th-century city walls can be seen and the 1540 city gate has been preserved
- There is a 14th-century church dedicated to St. Thomas a Becket
- There is a church of St. Stanislaus built in 1584
- The Bishop's Castle is now a museum dedicated to Mohelnice's history.
- Several castles are close to Mohelnice - Bouzov, Mírov (now a prison), Sovinec and Velké Losiny