Mohmand

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The Mohmand (Pashto: مومند‎ - also spelled as Momand) are a Pashtun tribe, inhabiting primarily Mohmand Agency in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of northwest Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan.[1]

Demographics[edit]

In Afghanistan, the Mohmands are found nearly everywhere, but mainly concentrated in Nangarhar, Kunduz, Ghazni and Kunar. In Pakistan, they inhabit the Mohmand Agency in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, and they are also a significant minority in Peshawar District.

History[edit]

The Mohmands originally lived between the basins of the Tarnak and Oxus rivers for centuries along the present Pak-Afghan border. After the Mongols invaded the region in the 13th century the Mohamands were driven out from their home, and between 13th and 15th centuries, the Mohmands migrated to their present settlements, subduing the other tribes settled there formerly.

When Peshawar was annexed formally by the British, the area that comprises the present Mohmand agency was ruled by the local tribesmen and was under the influence of Khan of Lalpura. The Safis were under the control of Khans of Bajaur and the Utmankhels were independent of any Khanate.[2]

The Mohmands fought many times against the British India and other foreign invasion. The area of the Mohmands may be defined roughly as bounded on the East by Charsadda Dist. On the North by Bajour Agency; on the West by Nangarhar(Afghanistan) and on the South by the Khyber Agency; The area of Mohmand is about 1200 sq. m. The Durand line boundary line now runs through the Mohmand area. The Emir of Afghanistan in 1893 has given assurances to the Burhan Khel, Dawezai, Halimzai, Isa Khel, Tarangzai and Utmanzai sections of the Mohmands that they will not suffer by the severance of their ancient connection with Afghanistan; and these are known as the Assured Clans.Majority of Mohmand live in Pakistan.Some tribes of Mohmand also live in North Eastern Afghanistan primarily in Nangarhar & Kunar province. Likewise, Mohmands live in Logar Province of Afghanistan. Most of them live in Mohmands village of Pul-e-Jogi of Braki Brak District. Pul-e-Jogi is 10 minutes drive from Wardak Province. Dr. Waheedullah Mohmand and Dr. Mohammad Habib Mohmand are famous people known by many people from Wardak Province.

The great Sanskrit grammarian and historian Pāṇini, mentioned the names of tribes such as the Aprits (identified with the modern Afridis) and the Madhumants (identified with the modern Mohmand) who inhabited the northwestern areas, in his Ashtadhyayi in the 5th century BC.[3]

Principal clans of Mohmands[edit]

Race and Tribes The major tribes in Mohmand agency are: • Mohmand •mosa kheil .Malikyar • Shalizi • Tarak zai • Halim zai • Khwae zai • Bai zai • Safi • Qandhari • Gur baz • Masood • Shinwari • Utman Khel • Ambar Utman Khel • Laman Utman khe

The Safis, because of their association with the Mohmand, are also called Safi Mohmands but actually they are not Mohmand in Legacy. The tribe has been divided in upper Mohmand and lower Mohmand. The central bazaar of Mohmand is Gandhab and locally known as Ghandao Bazaar. The Tarakzai are concentrated in the lower Mohmand from Ekka Ghund to Michanai up to Daudzai. They are a well educated tribe settled at the gate of the Mohmand Agency. The sub-tribes of the Tarak Zai are Dado Khel, Qasim Khel, Bran Khel and Issa Khel. [4]

Rivers The Kabul River and Swat River are the two rivers that pass through the area of the Lower Mohmand. Kabul River forms the boundary between the Khyber and Mohmand agencies after entry into Pakistan territory. The flow of the water is from the west towards the east. On entry into Pakistan territory, the course of the Kabul River is through high mountains gorges till after it passes through the Warsak Dam, where after it starts running through the Peshawar valley area. Swat river flows from the north towards south after entering the agency limits from the Malakand and passes through the area of Prang Ghar/Pindiali Tehsil. The course of this river is also through mountainous territory till it reaches the Munda Headworks wherefrom it starts running through the plains.

Climate The climate in Mohmand agency is hot in summer season while cool in winter. The summer season commences from May and continues for 4 months till 31 August. The winter season starts from November and continue till February. The rainfall is scanty. Most of the rainfall is during winter season.

Occupations The sources of income are very limited in general except agriculture and some trade/business. Most of the locals are earning their livelihood in the Gulf States.

Places of Interest Warsak Dam Warsak Hydel Power station is situated on the river Kabul about 32.2 km from Peshawar. The construction of the project was started in 1955 and the power station was commissioned in 1960. Before commissioning of Mangla Power station, it was one of the major sources of power. Munda Dam Munda dam is being constructed on Swat River to the east of the agency which is an ideal site for a hydro power station. Gandab valley This historic valley is situated in the Mohmand agency and shoots forth in the north- west direction from Pir Killa, a village on the main Michni Shabqadar road, and 32 km to the north of Peshawar. It runs parallel to a dry bed of a nullah; it is inhabited by the Halim zai section of the Mohmand tribe.

Notable Mohmands[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Talebi, Abdul Latif Yaad. Pashtanay Qabeelay. 2nd ed. Peshawar: Danish, 2007. Print. p.260-266
  2. ^ http://waziristanhills.com/FATA/AgenciesFRs/MohmandAgency/tabid/78/language/en-GB/Default.as
  3. ^ page 64 India and Central Asia By J. N. Roy, J.N. Roy And B.B. Kumar, Astha Bharati (Organization), Indian Council for Cultural Relations
  4. ^ [1]

External links[edit]