Molecular marker

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A molecular marker is a molecule contained within a sample taken from an organism (biological markers) or other matter. It can be used to reveal certain characteristics about the respective source. DNA, for example, is a molecular marker containing information about genetic disorders, genealogy and the evolutionary history of life. Specific regions of the DNA (genetic markers) are used to diagnose the autosomal recessive genetic disorder cystic fibrosis,[1] taxonomic affinity (phylogenetics) and identity (DNA Barcoding). Further, life forms are known to shed unique chemicals, including DNA, into the environment as evidence of their presence in a particular location.[2] Other biological markers, like proteins, are used in diagnostic tests for complex neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease.[3] Non-biological molecular markers are also used, for example, in environmental studies.[4]

Genetic Markers[edit]

In genetics, a molecular marker (identified as genetic marker) is a fragment of DNA that is associated with a certain location within the genome. Molecular markers are used in molecular biology and biotechnology to identify a particular sequence of DNA in a pool of unknown DNA.

Application[edit]

It has 5 applications in fisheries and aquaculture:

  1. Species Identification
  2. Genetic variation and population structure study in natural populations
  3. Comparison between wild and hatchery populations
  4. Assessment of demographic bottleneck in natural population
  5. Propagation assisted rehabilitation programmes.However,there still exists some limitations.[5]

Biochemical Markers[edit]

Non-Biological Markers[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bradley, Linda A.; Johnson, Dorene A.; Chaparro, Carlos A.; Robertson, Nancy H.; Ferrie, Richard M. (January 1998). "A Multiplex ARMS Test for 10 Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Mutations: Evaluation in a Prenatal CF Screening Program". Genetic Testing 2 (4): 337–341. doi:10.1089/gte.1998.2.337. 
  2. ^ Zimmer, Carl (January 22, 2015). "Even Elusive Animals Leave DNA, and Clues, Behind". New York Times. Retrieved January 23, 2015. 
  3. ^ Choe, Leila H.; Dutt, Michael J.; Relkin, Norman; Lee, Kelvin H. (July 23, 2002). "Studies of potential cerebrospinal fluid molecular markers for Alzheimer's disease". Electrophoresis 23 (14): 2247–2251. doi:10.1002/1522-2683(200207)23:14<2247::aid-elps2247>3.0.co;2-m. PMID 12210229. 
  4. ^ Fraser, M.P.; Yue, Z.W.; Buzcu, B. (May 2003). "Source apportionment of fine particulate matter in Houston, TX, using organic molecular markers". Atmospheric Environment 37 (15): 2117–2123. doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(03)00075-X. 
  5. ^ "Molecular markers and their applications in fisheries and aquaculture". Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (Scientific Research) 1 (4): 281–291. doi:10.4236/abb.2010.14037. ISSN 2156-8456. Retrieved 5 Dec 2012. 

External links[edit]