Molecular marker refers to a molecule contained within a sample taken from an organism (biological markers) or other matter. It can be used to reveal certain characteristics about the respective source. DNA for example is a molecular marker containing information about genetic disorders, genealogy and the evolutionary history of life. Specific regions of the DNA (genetic markers) are used to diagnose the autosomal recessive genetic disorder Cystic fibrosis , taxonomic affinity (phylogenetics) and identity (DNA Barcoding). Other biological markers like proteins are used in diagnostic tests for complex neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease . Non-biological molecular markers are used for example in environmental studies .
In genetics, a molecular marker (identified as genetic marker) is a fragment of DNA that is associated with a certain location within the genome. Molecular markers are used in molecular biology and biotechnology to identify a particular sequence of DNA in a pool of unknown DNA.
It has 5 applications in fisheries and aquaculture:
- Species Identification
- Genetic variation and population structure study in natural populations
- Comparison between wild and hatchery populations
- Assessment of demographic bottleneck in natural population
- Propagation assisted rehabilitation programmes.However,there still exists some limitations.
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- Choe, Leila H.; Dutt, Michael J.; Relkin, Norman; Lee, Kelvin H. (July 2002). "Studies of potential cerebrospinal fluid molecular markers for Alzheimer's disease". ELECTROPHORESIS 23 (14): 2247. doi:10.1002/1522-2683(200207)23:14<2247::AID-ELPS2247>3.0.CO;2-M.
- Fraser, M.P.; Yue, Z.W.; Buzcu, B. (May 2003). "Source apportionment of fine particulate matter in Houston, TX, using organic molecular markers". Atmospheric Environment 37 (15): 2117–2123. doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(03)00075-X.
- "Molecular markers and their applications in fisheries and aquaculture". Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (Scientific Research) 1 (4): 281–291. doi:10.4236/abb.2010.14037. ISSN 2156-8456. Retrieved 5 Dec 2012.
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