Slavomolisano dialect

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Molise Slavic
Molise Croatian
Slavomolisano
Native to Italy
Region Molise
Ethnicity Italian (Molise Croats)
Native speakers
< 1,000  (2012)[1]
Indo-European
Official status
Recognised minority
language in
Language codes
ISO 639-3 svm
Glottolog slav1254[2]

Slavomolisano, also known as Molise Slavic or Molise Croatian, is a variety of Shtokavian Serbo-Croatian spoken by Italians in the province of Campobasso, in the Molise Region of southern Italy, in the villages of Montemitro (Mundimitar), Acquaviva Collecroce (Živavoda Kruč) and San Felice del Molise (Štifilić). There are fewer than 1,000 active speakers, and fewer than 2,000 passive speakers.[1]

The language has been preserved since a group of Croats emigrated from Dalmatia abreast of advancing Ottoman Turks. The residents of these villages speak a Shtokavian dialect with Ikavian accent, and a strong Southern Chakavian adstratum. The Molise Croats, however, consider themselves to be Italians who speak a Slavic language, rather than ethnic Slavs.[1] Some speakers call themselves Zlavi or Harvati and call their language simply na našo ("our language").

History[edit]

The inhabitants of these villages would say that their ancestors came Z onu banu mora ("From the other side of the sea"), and inhabited villages in Molise and Abruzzo, abandoned because of the plague. Originally the area inhabited by Slavs was much larger than today. Because these people have migrated away from the rest of their kinsmen so long ago, their diaspora language is somewhat distinct from the Ikavian-Shtokavian idioms spoken on the other side of the Adriatic.

The language was preserved until today only in the aforementioned three villages, although several villages in Molise and Abruzzo region are aware of their Slavic and Croat ancestry. The existence of this Croat colony was unknown outside Italy until 1855 when Medo Pucić, a linguist from Dubrovnik, during one of his journeys in Italy overheard a tailor in Naples speaking with his wife in a language very similar to Pucić's own. The tailor then told him that he came from the village of Kruč, then part of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Subsequently the Gajica, the modern Croatian alphabet, was adopted to the language.

The language is highly Italianized. As has been mentioned above, the literati generally borrow words from modern (Ijekavian – their dialect is Ikavian) Croatian, but the obligatory Italian translations are seen to follow these words in print.[clarification needed] It also retains many archaic features. Because the colony was established before the discovery of the Americas, all the names of animals and plants introduced from the Americas are borrowed from Italian or created from whole cloth.

The language is taught in primary schools and the signs in villages are bilingual.

Features[edit]

  • The analytic do + genitive replaces the synthetic independent genitive. In Italian it is del- + noun, since Italian has lost all its cases.
  • do replaced by od.
  • Slavic verb aspect is preserved, except in the past tense imperfective verbs are attested only in the Slavic imperfect (bihu, they were), and perfective verbs only in the perfect (je izaša, he has come out). There is no colloquial imperfect in the modern West South Slavic languages. Italian has aspect in the past tense that works in a similar fashion (impf. portava, "he was carrying", versus perf. ha portato, "he has carried").
  • Slavic conjunctions replaced by Italian or local ones: ke, "what" (Cr. što, also ke - Cr. da, "that", It. che); e, , "and" (Cr i, It. e); ma, "but" (Cr. ali, no, It. ma); se, "if" (Cr. ako, It. se).
  • An indefinite article is in regular use: na, often written 'na, possibly derived from earlier jedna, "one", via Italian una.
  • Structural changes in genders. Notably, njevog does not agree with the possessor's gender (Cr. njegov or njezin, his or her). Italian suo and its forms likewise does not, but with the object's gender instead.
  • As in Italian, the perfective enclitic is tightly bound to the verb and always stands before it: je izaša, "is let loose" (Cr. facul. je izašao or izašao je), Italian è rilasciato.

Samples[edit]

An anonymous poem (reprinted in Hrvatske Novine: Tajednik Gradišćanskih Hrvatov, winner of a competition in Molise):

SIN MOJ

    Mo prosič solite saki dan
    ma što činiš, ne govoreš maj
    je funia dan, je počela noča,
    maneštra se mrzli za te čeka.
    Letu vlase e tvoja mat
    gleda vane za te vit.
    Boli život za sta zgoro,
    ma samo mat te hoče dobro.
    Sin moj!
    Nimam već suze za još plaka
    nimam već riče za govorat.
    Srce se guli za te misli
    što ti prodava, oni ke sve te išće!
    Palako govoru, čelkadi saki dan,
    ke je dola droga na vi grad.
    Sin moj!
    Tvoje oč, bihu toko lipe,
    sada jesu mrtve,
    Boga ja molim, da ti živiš
    droga ja hočem da ti zabiš,
    doma te čekam, ke se vrniš,
    Solite ke mi prosiš,
    kupiš paradis, ma smrtu platiš.

A section of The Little Prince, as translated by Walter Breu and Nicola Gliosca:

A! Mali kraljič, ja sa razumija, na mala na votu, naka, tvoj mali život malingonik. Ti s'bi jima sa čuda vrima kana dištracijunu sama ono slako do sutanji. Ja sa znaja ovu malu aš novu stvaru, dòp četar dana jistru, kada ti s'mi reka: Su mi čuda drage sutanja.

Dictionaries[edit]

  • From: Josip Lisac: Dva moliškohrvatska rječnika, Mogućnosti 10/12, 2000.
  • Walter Breu-Giovanni Piccoli (con aiuto di Snježana Marčec), Dizionario croatomolisano di Acquaviva-Collecroce, 2000, Campobasso 2000
  • Ag. Piccoli-Antonio Samartino, Dizionario dell' idioma croato-molisano di Montemitro/Rječnik moliškohrvatskih govora Mundimitra, Matica hrvatska Mundimitar-Zagreb, 2000.
  • Giovanni Piccoli: Lessico del dialetto di Acquaviva-Collecroce, Roma, 1967
  • Božidar Vidov: Rječnik ikavsko-štokavskih govora molizanskih Hrvata u srednjoj Italiji, Mundimitar, Štifilić, Kruč, Toronto, 1972.
  • Tatjana Crisman: Dall' altra parte del mare. Le colonie croate del Molise, Roma, 1980
  • Angelo Genova: Ko jesmo bolje: Ko bihmo, Vasto, 1990.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Breu, Walter (2012-03-06). "Request for New Language Code Element in ISO 639-3". ISO 639-3 Registration Authority. Retrieved 2013-06-30. 
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Slavomolisano". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 

Sources[edit]

  • Aranza, Josip (1892), Woher die südslavischen Colonien in Süditalien (Archiv für slavische Philologie, XIV, pp. 78–82, Berlin 1892)
  • Badurina, Teodoro (1950), Rotas Opera Tenet Arepo Sator (Roma, 1950)
  • Barone, Charles, La parlata croata di Acquaviva Collecroce. Studio fonetico e fonologico, Firenze, Leo S. Olschki Editore, MCMXCV, p. 206 (Accademia toscana di scienze e lettere »La Colombaria«. »Studi CXLVI)
  • Breu, W. (1990), Sprache und Sprachverhalten in den slavischen Dörfern des Molise (Süditalien). In: W. BREU (a cura di), Slavistische Linguistik 1989. München, 35 65
  • Breu, W. (1998), Romanisches Adstrat im Moliseslavischen. In: Die Welt der Slaven 43, 339-354
  • Breu, W. / Piccoli, G. con la collaborazione di Snježana Marčec (2000), Dizionario croato molisano di Acquaviva Collecroce. Dizionario plurilingue della lingua slava della minoranza di provenienza dalmata di Acquaviva Collecroce in Provincia di Campobasso. Dizionario, registri, grammatica, testi. Campobasso
  • Breu, W. (2003a), Bilingualism and linguistic interference in the Slavic-Romance contact area of Molise (Southern Italy). In: R. ECKARDT et al. (a cura di), Words in Time. Diacronic Semantics from Different Points of View. Berlin/New York, 351-373
  • Breu, W. a cura di (2005), L'influsso dell'italiano sulla grammatica delle lingue minoritarie. Università della Calabria. In questo volume: W. Breu, Il sistema degli articoli nello slavo molisano: eccezione a un universale tipologico, 111-139; A. Marra, Mutamenti e persistenze nelle forme di futuro dello slavo molisano, 141-166; G. Piccoli, L'influsso dell'italiano nella sintassi del periodo del croato (slavo) molisano, 167-175.
  • Gliosca, N. (2004). Poesie di un vecchio quaderno (a cura di G. Piscicelli). In: Komoštre/Kamastra. Rivista bilingue di cultura e attualità delle minoranze linguistiche degli Arbëreshë e Croati del Molise 8/3, 8-9.
  • Heršak, Emil (1982), Hrvati u talijanskoj pokrajini Molise", Teme o iseljeništvu. br. 11, Zagreb: Centar za istraživanje migracija, 1982, 49 str. lit 16.
  • Hraste, Mate (1964), Govori jugozapadne Istre (Zagreb, 1964)
  • Muljačić, Žarko (1996), Charles Barone, La parlata croata di Acquaviva Collecroce (189-190), »Čakavska rič« XXIV (1996) • br. 1-2 • Split • siječanj - prosinac 1996.
  • Piccoli A. / Sammartino A. (2000), Dizionario croato-molisano di Montemitro, Fondazione “Agostina Piccoli”, Montemitro – Matica hrvatska, Zagreb
  • Reissmüller, Johann Georg (1969) Slavenske riječi u Apeninima (Frankfurter Allgemeine, n. 212 del 13.11.1969
  • Rešetar, M. (1997), Le colonie serbocroate nell'Italia meridionale. A cura di W. Breu e M. Gardenghi (traduzione italiana dell'originale tedesco Die Serbokroatischen Kolonien Süditaliens, Wien 1911 con prefazione, note e bibliografia aggiornata). Campobasso
  • Sammartino A. (2004), Grammatica della lingua croatomolisana, Fondazione “Agostina Piccoli”, Montemitro – Profil international, Zagreb
  • Žanić, Ivo, Nemojte zabit naš lipi jezik!, Nedjeljna Dalmacija, Split, 18. ožujka 1984. (18. marzo 1984)

See also[edit]

External links[edit]