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Molniya (Russian молния for lightning) may refer to:
- The Molniya (satellite), the Soviet military communications satellite.
- Molniya orbit, distinctive orbit associated with the satellite.
- The Molniya (rocket), a four-stage variation of the Soyuz launch vehicle
- The Molniya-L, a rare variant of the Molniya rocket
- The Molniya-M, a modernised derivative of the Molniya rocket.
- OKB-4 Molniya, experimental design bureau responsible for the Molniya R-60 and Vympel R-73 air-to-air missiles
- NPO Molniya, Soviet design bureau responsible for the Shuttle Buran programme
- Molniya (explosive trap), a KGB explosive device used to prevent cached materials from falling into enemy hands.
- Molnija, Russian watch and clockmaker
- Tarantul class corvette
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