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Molokan (Russian: молокане for "milk-drinkers") is a Slavonic exonym for members of a Christian sect that evolved from "Spiritual Christian" Russian peasants whose traditions (especially surrounding Lent) did not conform to those of the Russian Orthodox Church. Since they are regarded as neither Orthodox, nor Catholic nor Protestant, they tend to call themselves "true Spiritual Christians", or "Spiritual Israel" rather than just simply "milk-drinkers".

Unlike the conformist Protestant "reformists" of Western Europe, Molokans rejected conformity. They rejected the institutionalized formalism of Orthodoxy and those with similar doctrines in favor of more Primitive Christianity. They are comparable to Presbyterians in that they have a council of dominant elders who preserve an albeit controversial sort of apostolic succession. Though Molokans are somewhat similar to the European Quakers and Mennonites —for their pacifism, communal organization, spiritual meetings, and sub-groupings— their genesis is tied to that of the Doukhobors and Sabbatarians (Subbotniks) having evolved alongside Russia's similar Spiritual Christian movements of Duhovnye Kristyanye and Ikonobortsy (icon-wrestlers), migrating at around the same time.



There are approximately 200 fasting days —especially the Great Fast (Lent)— when drinking milk was prohibited by Orthodox ecclesiastical authorities. Milk-drinking practice during these fasts was first sanctioned by the Nestorian Church in the 11th century in order to accommodate the conversion of some 200,000 Kerait-Tatar pastoralists, who lived on meat and milk, to Nestorian Christianity.[1] The practice was adopted by unaffiliated Armenian Christians, also pastoralizing the Eurasian plains (particularly from the Moldau to Mordova and the Kuban-Dagestan-Baku regions), out of whom the Paulicians and subsequent "Bogomils" of Thrace, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Serbia had already developed. Turkic Molokan Pastors still use the term for an Armenian Catholic Priest (Russian: Гахан, Ukrainian: Каган). Arriving in the Rus' lands with the 13th century Tatar invasion[2] of Batu and Möngke, Kerait-Tatar practices had reached as far as Lithuania by the end of the 1300s.[3]

15th to 16th Centuries[edit]

Bible-based Hebraic tradition, promoted by Zacharias de Ghisolfi, captivated the court of Ivan the Terrible's Grandfather Ivan III but was soon labelled heretical and its supporters suppressed as Judaizers by the Russian Orthodox Church. Nevertheless, a sola scriptura tendency survived. Under the reign of Ivan the Terrible (1547–1584), Matvei Simyonich Dalmatov (Матвей Семенович Далматов), the first recorded martyr of Russia's Molokans, split with the Orthodox Church and began to evangelize his family, his master, and local village members in and around the city of Tambov. Dalmatov carried this sectarian belief into Moscow, where a group of Mordvins heard his message and embraced it. Dalmatov was later martyred by Orthodox priests in a monastery prison by wheeling.

17th to 18th Centuries[edit]

Molokans were ostracized from Russian society in the 17th century for their refusal to bear arms and for their refusal to assist in any form of military service. The first recorded use of the term "Molokan" appears in the 1670s, in reference to the people who differed concerning the 200 fasting days by drinking milk (moloko means "milk" in Russian). Molokans themselves did not completely reject the name—even adding words like "drinking of the spiritual milk of God" (according to I Peter 2:2, "Like newborn babies, crave pure spiritual milk, so that by it you may grow up in your salvation").

19th to 20th Centuries[edit]

Heretics were punished in Tsarist Russia. Imprisonment, banishment and other forms of punishment were inflicted upon those called "Spiritual Christians", as Molokan's called themselves. In the 19th century, the government's policy was to send the heretics away from the center of the country into Caucasus, especially Armenia, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, central Asia, and Siberia. In 1833, there was a reported outpouring of the Holy Spirit upon a number of Molokans in the Transcaucasus region. This created a schism between Constants (Postoyaniye) and the newly evolved Molokan Jumpers and Leapers. With what the Molokan Jumpers believed to be a manifestation of the Holy Spirit, this new smaller sect began a revival with intense zeal and reported miracles that purportedly rivaled those of Christ's Apostles. Condemnation from the Constant Molokan sect led to betrayals and imprisonment for many of the Jumpers and Leapers, now called "New Israelites" by their anointed leader Maxim Rudometkin witnessed by Efim G. Klubnikin, a divinely inspired 12-year-old boy prophet, which prophesied about a "coming time that would be unbearable and that the time to leave Russia was now". He wrote that "soon the doors will close and leaving Russia would be impossible" which he later wrote in his memoirs in his elder years. During the early 20th century under his fellowship, about 2,000 Molokans (mostly of the Jumpers and Leapers Sect) left for the United States and settled in the Los Angeles area near the area of Boyle Heights, and some other parts of the West Coast and Canada. It is there that they influenced in practice and doctrine a later American Revival called "the Pentecostal Azusa Street Revival" near the beginning of the 20th century. The founder of The Full Gospel Business Men's Association associates this Pentecostal Revival to the child prophet of the Molokan Jumpers. When they arrived in Los Angeles, they were befriended by local settlement house director Dana W. Bartlett.[4] The Klubnikins continued to be involved in cattle and groceries, as they probably had done in the area of Tambov prior to exile. Others received a land grant from the Mexican government and settled in the Guadalupe Valley in Baja California, Mexico. An even smaller number of Constant Molokans fled Russia and settled mainly in the San Francisco, California and Sacramento, California areas.

A Molokan villager in Fioletovo, Armenia

At the end of the 19th century, there were about 500,000 Molokans within the Russia empire. Around 1825, there was a well-known colony of Molokans that had been exiled to the Caucasus (an area long within Russian hegemony), mainly to what is now Georgia,[5] Armenia, Azerbaijan, and eastern Turkey (Kars plain). By the end of the 19th century, many had resettled in remote areas of the Caucasus, Siberia, and Central Asia, while others remained in southern Ukraine and Russia, or migrated to Romania's Danube Delta region or the western United States.[6]

Being prohibited from winning converts under the laws of the Russian Empire they were forced to adopt endogamy and subsequently able to survive only as ethnic group under the Boplsheviks resulting in higher infant mortality.

Molokans were conscientious objectors to U.S. military service during World War I.[7]

Present condition[edit]

Presently there are about 20,000 people who, at least "ethnically", identify themselves as Molokans. There are also approximately 200 Molokan churches, 150 of them in Russia and Azerbaijan. Approximately 25,000 Molokans reside in the United States, of which only about 5,000 "ethnically" identify themselves as Molokans; most of whom reside in California, Arizona, Oregon, Washington, Montana and Wyoming. Settlement of Molokans in southern Alaska and Australia during the 1960s are well documented. Molokans are said to be numerous in Australia. The majority in South Australia, a number families in Western Australia and a small group residing in Queensland. Over 1,000 reside in Canada in the province of British Columbia and hundreds more in Alberta with their traditional communal lifestyle remaining intact. A group of Molokan families are also living in South America in the country of Uruguay. Significant numbers of Molokans live throughout Russia (most in the North Caucasus), Southern Ukraine, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Central Asia, and in Northern California, U.S.A. The oldest active congregation meets in a prayer hall built in 1929 on Potrero Hill, San Francisco, California. In 1995, the Smithsonian Folklife Festival featured Molokans as one of their peoples.[citation needed]


Molokans adhere to the Old Testament laws but in the spirit of the new covenant. They do not eat pork, shellfish, or other "unclean" foods on holy days. Some keep Sabbaths and some refuse to serve on juries or file lawsuits against fellow church members. Church services are conducted predominantly in the local language, but most commonly Russian, men and women sit apart, and services are usually quite active. Proselytism is encouraged, as children in Molokan families are encouraged not to marry outside of the faith.

Naming in the United States[edit]

Molokans are known for having different spellings of last names within the same immediate family.

Molokans are also known for having "first names" that aren't their legal names. Many common "first names" are actually based on nicknames from childhood within the church that stuck. These are not legal names, and as such become names that make tracing family history very difficult. For example "Hazel Valov" became known as "Percy Valov", for being very "persistent".

This naming process can help with family trees, but because so many relatives have similar names, and many nicknames aren't legal names, it can be complex.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Borbone, Pier Giorgio. "Some Aspects of Turco-Mongol Christianity in the Light of Literary and Epigraphic Syriac Sources (Pier Giorgio Borbone) -". Retrieved 2012-09-20. 
  2. ^
  3. ^ "The Karaits of East Asia", in 'Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies', University of London, 1944. Douglas Morton Dunlop
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ [2]
  6. ^ "Among Armenia's Molokans". Radio Free Europe. 2015-03-24. 
  7. ^ Christopher Capozzola, Uncle Sam Wants You: World War I and the Making of the Modern American Citizen (NY: Oxford University Press, 2008), 55ff.

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