Moulting

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A cicada moulting

In biology, moulting or molting (/ˈmltɪŋ/; see spelling differences), also known as sloughing, shedding, or for some species, ecdysis, is the manner in which an animal routinely casts off a part of its body (often, but not always, an outer layer or covering), either at specific times of the year, or at specific points in its life cycle.

Moulting can involve shedding the epidermis (skin), pelage (hair, feathers, fur, wool), or other external layer. In some species, other body parts may be shed, for example, wings in some insects or the entire exoskeleton in arthropods.

Examples[edit]

Species Item shed Timing Known as Notes
Cats Fur Usually around spring-summer time Moulting Cats moult fur around spring-summer time to get rid of their "winter coat", cats have thicker fur during the colder winter months to keep them warm, around spring and the beginning of summer cats shed some of their fur to get a thinner coat for the warmer summer months. Some cats need brushing during moulting, since dead hairs can get trapped in the cat's fur.
Chickens Feathers Usually autumn (non-commercial hens). Moulting Chickens generally stop laying eggs when their moulting begins and recommence laying when their new feathers have re-grown.[1][2]
Dogs and other canids Hair (Fur) Semi-annually, spring and fall (autumn). Shedding
Moulting
Moulting in canids, as in all mammals,[3] is due to fluctuations in the amount of melatonin secreted by their pineal gland in response to seasonal sunlight variations rather than temperature variations. This seasonality in moulting is most preserved in Arctic breeds of dogs which shed twice each year whereas most other breeds moult once each year.
Snakes Skin Regularly, when old skin is outgrown. Moulting Snakes rub against rough surfaces to assist removal of their shed skin.[citation needed]
Lizards Skin Regularly, when old skin is outgrown. Moulting Lizards, like snakes, rub against objects to help remove their shed skin and then consume the shed skin for calcium and other nutrients.
Hermit crabs Exoskeleton Regularly, when the carapace is outgrown. Moulting Land hermit crabs bury themselves for many weeks while they moult and then consume their exoskeleton.[citation needed]
Amphibians Skin Regularly. Moulting Salamanders and frogs shed their skins regularly, then often eat it.
Arachnids Exoskeleton Regularly, when the exoskeleton is outgrown. Moulting Arachnids moult regularly to grow, often becoming reclusive and fasting for long periods prior to a moult.[citation needed]

In birds[edit]

See also: Plumage
Loggerhead Shrike moulting Loggerhead Shrike with normal plumage
A loggerhead shrike in mid-moult (left) and with regular plumage (right).

In birds, moulting is the periodic replacement of feathers by shedding old feathers while producing new ones. Feathers are dead structures at maturity which are gradually abraded and need to be replaced. Adult birds moult at least once a year, although many moult twice and a few three times each year.[4] It is generally a slow process as birds rarely shed all their feathers at any one time; the bird must retain sufficient feathers to regulate its body temperature and repel moisture. The number and area of feathers that are shed varies. In some moulting periods, a bird may renew only the feathers on the head and body, shedding the wing and tail feathers during a later moulting period.[4] Some species of bird become flightless during an annual "wing moult" and must seek a protected habitat with a reliable food supply during that time. While the plumage may appear thin or uneven during the moult, the bird's general shape is maintained despite the loss of apparently many feathers; bald spots are typically signs of unrelated illnesses, such as gross injuries, parasites, feather pecking (especially in commercial poultry), or (in pet birds) feather plucking.

The process of moulting in birds is as follows: First, the bird begins to shed some old feathers, then pin feathers grow in to replace the old feathers. As the pin feathers become full feathers, other feathers are shed. This is a cyclical process that occurs in many phases. It is usually symmetrical, with feather loss equal on each side of the body.[4] Because feathers make up 4–12% of a bird's body weight, it takes a large amount of energy to replace them. For this reason, moults often occur immediately after the breeding season, but while food is still abundant. The plumage produced during this time is called postnuptial plumage.[4] Prenuptial moulting occurs in red-collared widowbirds where the males replace their nonbreeding plumage with breeding plumage.

Forced moulting[edit]

Main article: Forced molting

In some countries, flocks of commercial layer hens are force moulted to reinvigorate egg-laying. This usually involves complete withdrawal of their food and sometimes water for 7–14 days or up to 28 days under experimental conditions,[5] which presumably reflect standard farming practice in some countries. This causes a body weight loss of 25 to 35%,[6] which stimulates the hen to lose her feathers, but also reinvigorates egg-production. Some flocks may be force moulted several times. In 2003, more than 75% of all flocks were force-moulted in the US.[7] Other methods of inducing a moult include low-density diets (e.g. grape pomace, cotton seed meal, alfalfa meal)[8] or dietary manipulation to create an imbalance of a particular nutrient(s).The most important among these include manipulation of minerals including sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), iodine (I) and zinc (Zn), with full or partially reduced dietary intakes.[9]

In reptiles[edit]

Close up view of snake's moulted skin

The most familiar example of moulting in reptiles is when snakes "shed their skin". This is usually achieved by the snake rubbing its head against a hard object, such as a rock (or between two rocks) or piece of wood, causing the already stretched skin to split. At this point, the snake continues to rub its skin on objects, causing the end nearest the head to peel back on itself, until the snake is able to crawl out of its skin, effectively turning the moulted skin inside-out. This is similar to how one might remove a sock from one's foot by grabbing the open end and pulling it over itself. The snake's skin is often left in one piece after the moulting process, including the discarded brille (ocular scale), so that the moult is vital for maintaining the animal's quality of vision. Conversely, the skins of lizards generally fall off in pieces.

In arthropods[edit]

Main article: Ecdysis

In arthropods, such as insects, arachnids and crustaceans, moulting is the shedding of the exoskeleton (which is often called its shell), typically to let the organism grow. This process is called ecdysis. It is commonly said that ecdysis is necessary because the exoskeleton is rigid and cannot grow like skin, but this is simplistic, ignoring the fact most Arthropoda with soft, flexible skins also undergo ecdysis. The subject is far more complex than a matter of skin rigidity; it includes considerations such as nature of metamorphosis, the differences between the morphology of successive instars, and the fact that a new skin includes new external lenses for eyes etc. (compare this with the replacement of a snake's brille in sloughing). The new exoskeleton is initially soft but hardens after the moulting of the old exoskeleton. The old exoskeleton is referred to as "exuviae". While molting, insects can't breathe.[10]

Moulting phase of a Southern Hawker

In dogs[edit]

Main article: Coat (dog)

Most dogs moult twice each year, in the spring and autumn, depending on the breed, environment and temperature. The shedding of dogs is never called "moulting" in North America,[citation needed] but in other English-speaking countries, "moulting" is the exclusive term for this physiological reaction and "shedding" (hair) means losing hair throughout the year in a non-periodic pattern, not seasonally.

In amphibians[edit]

Both frogs and salamanders moult regularly and consume the skin, with some species moulting in pieces and others in one piece.[11]

In humans[edit]

While humans do not strictly moult, an important part of the skin's defense against fungi is stratum corneum turnover that removes the microbes by shedding the old skin surface. This is increased by the immune system detection of dermatophytes (skin-living fungi) such as Trichophyton rubrum.[12]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Harold Alvah Nourse. A Book Of Complete And Reliable Information On The More Profitable Production Of Eggs On The City Lot, The Village Acre And The Farm. ed. 11. Webb Publishing Company, 1908. pp. 95–97.
  2. ^ Deliberate Life: The Ultimate Homesteading Guide. Lulu.com. pp. 116–. ISBN 978-0-9782042-0-4. Retrieved 10 December 2011. 
  3. ^ Lincoln, G. A.; Clarke, I. J.; Hut, R. A.; Hazlerigg, D. G. (2006). "Characterizing a mammalian circannual pacemaker". Science 314 (5807): 1941–4. doi:10.1126/science.1132009. PMID 17185605. 
  4. ^ a b c d Terres, J. K. (1980). The Audubon Society Encyclopedia of North American Birds. New York, NY: Knopf. pp. 616–617. ISBN 0-394-46651-9. 
  5. ^ Molino, A.B., Garcia, E.A., Berto, D.A., Pelícia, K., Silva, A.P. and Vercese F. (2009). "The effects of alternative forced-molting methods on the performance and egg quality of commercial layers". Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola 11 (2): 109–113. doi:10.1590/S1516-635X2009000200006. 
  6. ^ Webster, A.B. (2003). "Physiology and behavior of the hen during induced moult". Poultry Science 82 (6): 992–1002. doi:10.1093/ps/82.6.992. PMID 12817455. 
  7. ^ Yousaf, M. and Chaudhry, A.S. (2008). "History, changing scenarios and future strategies to induce moulting in laying hens". World's Poultry Science Journal 64: 65–75. doi:10.1017/S0043933907001729. 
  8. ^ Patwardhan, D. and King, A. (2011). "Review: feed withdrawal and non feed withdrawal moult". World's Poultry Science Journal 67 (2): 253–268. doi:10.1017/S0043933911000286. 
  9. ^ Khan, R.U., Nikousefat, Z., Javdani, M., Tufarelli, V. and Laudadio, V. (2011). "Zinc-induced moulting: production and physiology". World's Poultry Science Journal 67 (3): 497. doi:10.1017/S0043933911000547. 
  10. ^ Stokstad, Erik (29 August 2014). "Insect molting is 'like having your lungs ripped out'". sciencemag.org. Retrieved 1 September 2014. 
  11. ^ Frost, S. W. (1932). "Notes on feeding and molting in frogs". The American Naturalist 66 (707): 530–540. doi:10.1086/280458. JSTOR 2456779. 
  12. ^ Dahl MV (1993). "Suppression of immunity and inflammation by products produced by dermatophytes". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 28 (5 Pt 1): S19–S23. doi:10.1016/s0190-9622(09)80303-4. PMID 8496406. 

External links[edit]