Molten salt is salt which is solid at standard temperature and pressure (STP) but enters the liquid phase due to elevated temperature. A salt that is normally liquid even at STP is usually called a room temperature ionic liquid, although technically molten salts are a class of ionic liquids.
Molten salts have a variety of uses. Molten chloride salt mixtures are commonly used as baths for various alloy heat treatments, such as annealing and martempering of steel. Cyanide and chloride salt mixtures are used for surface modification of alloys such as carburizing and nitrocarburizing of steel. Cryolite (a fluoride salt) is used as a solvent for aluminium oxide in the production of aluminium in the Hall-Héroult process. Fluoride, chloride, and hydroxide salts can be used as solvents in pyroprocessing of nuclear fuel. Molten salts (fluoride, chloride, and nitrate) can also be used as heat transfer fluids as well as for thermal storage. This thermal storage is used in solar thermal power plants.
Ambient temperature molten salts
Ambient temperature molten salts are present in the liquid phase at standard conditions for temperature and pressure. Examples of such salts include N-ethylpyridinium bromide and aluminium chloride mix, discovered in 1951 and ethylammonium nitrate discovered by Paul Walden.
- "Molten Salts systems other applications link to Solar Power Plants". National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Retrieved 2011-09-06.
- Hurley, F. H.; Wier, T. P. J. Electrochem. Soc. 1951, 98, 203.
C.F. Baes, The chemistry and thermodynamics of molten salt reactor fuels, Proc. AIME Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Symposium, Ames, Iowa, USA, 1969 (August 25)
- Electromagnetic pump
- Molten salt battery
- Molten salt reactor
- Parabolic trough
- Molten salt oxidation
- United States Department of Energy International Energy Storage Database
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