Moment in Peking
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Moment in Peking (simplified Chinese: 京华烟云; traditional Chinese: 京華煙雲; pinyin: Jīnghuá Yānyún) (also translated as simplified Chinese: 瞬息京华; traditional Chinese: 瞬息京華; pinyin: Shùnxī Jīnghuá) is an historical novel originally written in English by the Chinese author Lin Yutang. The novel, Lin's first, covers the turbulent events in China from 1900 to 1938, including the Boxer Uprising, the Republican Revolution of 1911, the Warlord Era, the rise of nationalism and communism, and the start of the Sino-Japanese War of 1937-1945.
At the repeated invitation of Pearl S. Buck, who had sponsored the publication of Lin’s bestselling My Country and My People in 1935, Lin left China in August, 1936 to write The Importance of Living in New York, which was published in August 1937 to even greater success just as war broke out in China. In 1938, Lin left New York to spend a year in Paris, where he wrote Moment in Peking.
Lin wrote the book in English for a U.S. audience, yet he based it in Chinese literature and philosophy. As an exercise, before he started to compose Moment in Peking, Lin translated passages from the classic Chinese novel Dream of the Red Chamber, and followed its example in showing a spectrum of characters in their social settings through their clothing, jewelry, and footwear, but even more important by language (dialect), geography (region), and foodways. Lin's eldest daughter Lin Rusi also indicates in an introductory essay to a Chinese translation of Moment in Peking that the entire book was influenced by Zhuang Zi and its message was "Life is but a dream."
The author tries not to be overly judgmental of the characters because he recognizes that too many issues were involved in the chaotic years of the early twentieth century China. There are no absolutely right or wrong characters. Each character held a piece of truth and reality and a piece of irrationality. In the preface, Lin writes that "[This novel] is merely a story of... how certain habits of living and ways of thinking are formed and how, above all, [men and women] adjust themselves to the circumstances in this earthly life where men strive but gods rule."
While the author does not display hatred toward the Japanese, he does let events and situations affecting the novel characters to let the reader clearly see the reason the Chinese are still bitter about Japan's military past. The novel ends with a cliffhanger, letting the readers hope that the major characters who fled from the coastal regions to the inland of China would survive the horrible war. In the final pages of the book Lin observes: "What an epic story was being lived through by these people of China.... And it seemed to them that their own story was but a moment in old, ageless Peking, a story written by the finger of Time itself.... In this moving mass of refugees, there was now neither rich nor poor." The sequel, A Leaf in the Storm, published in 1941, does not follow the same characters, but takes up in 1937, at roughly the point in time when Moment in Peking leaves off.
Lin originally wanted the poet Yu Dafu to do the Chinese translation, but Yu had only completed the first section when he was killed by the Japanese in World War II. Lin did not particularly like the first complete Chinese translation, which was done by 1941.
In 1977 Zhang Zhenyu, a translator from Taiwan, created what is the most popular translation today. It was not available in mainland China until a publisher in Jilin issued a sanitized version in 1987. The current political climate permits Shaanxi Normal University Press to publish the full translation. Yu Dafu's son Yu Fei (郁飞) finished his own translation in 1991, but his version is not widely read.
Many characters in Moment in Peking are from three wealthy families: Yao, Tseng (Zeng), and New (Niu). However, there are additional characters not from these families that play an integral part in the story, such as Lifu,who came from a poor family:Kong family.
- Yao Mulan (姚木兰)
The protagonist of the story, Mulan, is from the wealthy Yao family. During the Boxer Rebellion she is kidnapped by bandits, and then rescued by the Tseng family; the two families thereafter become close friends. Mulan is lively, intelligent, and generous, as well as extremely responsible. Her father has always encouraged her interests, among them her intense interest in "oracle bones" (the study of ancient Chinese characters carved on bones) and the singing of Chinese opera. Her intelligence, along with her kindhearted nature, catch the interest of a young man named Kung Lifu. Mulan feels attracted to Lifu, but she honors her family's wish and advice that she marry Sunya. Her marriage to Sunya is mostly harmonious. Together they have three children: Aman, Atung and Amei.
- Tseng Sunya (Zeng Sunya, 曾荪亚)
Mulan's husband, Tseng Sunya, is affectionately called "Fatty" by Mulan. As the youngest son of his family, Sunya is arguably the least responsible one, but has what is called a "round character". He and Mulan had gotten to know each other well when Mulan was rescued from bandits by his parents when they were children. As the two families became increasingly close, their engagement was planned happily.
- Kung Lifu (Kong Lifu, 孔立夫)
A scholar and Yao Mochow's husband, he married Mochow but he admires Mulan. He was a biology professor at a school in Peking and also fight for democracy and law in China.He had the membership of KMT.
- Yao Mochow (Yao Mochou, 姚莫愁)
Yao Mulan's sister, she is also very clever and attractive. She married Lifu, when he was a poor scholar, engaged for their parents, so she accepted this happily. Mochow knows her sister's love for Lifu, but she is confident in their sisterly love.
- Yao Sze-an (Yao Si'an) (姚思安)
He was a playboy when he was young. However, he became a great Taoist monk later. He influenced Lifu very much. Sze-an was also interested in "oracle bones"
- Mrs. Yao (姚太太)
A traditional Chinese woman. She loved her oldest son, Tijen, best. She opposed Tijen and Yinpin's love, and caused their death. She was sad that made her unable to talk,and very unhealthy in the rest of her life.
- Cassia (Auntie Gui, 桂姨)
She was the concubine or maid at the Tseng household. She had two daughters Ailien and Lilien, who became modern ladies and married doctors. However, she was very interested in the Tseng family, but she's not an ambitious woman.
- Tseng Wenpo (曾文伯)
He was a typical old Manchuria officer, honest and kind, but he hated everything about foreign countries.
- Mrs. Tseng (曾太太)
The leader of the Tseng family. She held the family together, and she liked Mulan and Mannia, but Suyun's behavior disliked her. She had a very strong character trait.
- New Suyun (Niu Suyun, 牛素云)
Her parents thought Chinya was a man who had the right characters to be a successful officer, so Suyun married Chinya. During their marriage, she bossed and ordered him around like a busboy. Suyun later became a friend of Inging who was her second brother's concubine. She divorced Chinya, and became an officer's concubine and also the infamous Japanese-controlled heroin dealer known as the "White Powder Queen". Years later, she finally recognized her mistake. She was fusilled by the Japanese.
- Sun Mannia (孙曼娘)
Married to the Tseng's eldest son, Pingya. She became a widow the week after her wedding. She adopt a child, Asuan, and had to stay in the Tseng family forever. She committed suicide during the Japanese war, and remained virgin till death.
- New Huaiyu (牛怀瑜)
The second son of the New family. He left his wife and four children, and married a singsong girl(also a prostitute) named Niu Inging (牛莺莺). He became a betrayer of his country, and was nearly killed by his eldest son.
- Tseng Chinya (Zeng Jinya, 曾经亚)
The second son of the Tseng family. He was a weak character and ask just to have a peaceful life. He was kind to everybody. He fell in love with Dimfragrance
- Tseng Pingya (曾平亚)
The eldest son of the Tseng family. He loved Mannia very much, however, he died the week after his wedding.
- Anxiang (暗香)
She was kidnapped when she was a child, and met Mulan. When Mulan was saved by Mr. Tseng, Dimfragrance was sold to other family. She became a nursery maid of Mulan's child some years later. She finally found her family, and became Jinya's second wife.
- Tsao Lihua (Cao Lihua, 曹丽华)
A young art student. She met Sunya in Hangzhou, and fell in love with him. Sunya lied to her that his wife was an old and fat country woman. When she met Mulan, she was surprised, and eventually became her friend.
- Yao Tijen (Yao Tiren, 姚体仁)
Mulan's older brother. He was a typical foppish man. His father sent him to England to study, but he spent all of the money in Hong Kong. He fell in love with his servant girl Yinpin, and had a son with her. Their love was against by his mother. After Yinpin's suicide, he began working hard in his uncle's drug store and died in an accident.
- Afei (阿非，姚非)
Mulan's younger brother. He was taught well by his father.
- Tung Paofen (Dong Baofen, 董宝芬）
A Manchurian princess. Her family once owned the garden plains which became Yao's later. Her family believed that there were a great treasure buried in the garden, and sent her to Yao family to work as a servant girl and to find the treasure. She married Afei after Redjade's death.
- 'Hongyu (紅玉)
Mulan, Mochow, and Afei's cousin. She was madly in love with Afei, and admired Lin Daiyu from the classic Dream of the Red Chamber (紅楼梦). When she misunderstood a conversation and thought that Afei didn't love her, she committed suicide by drowning herself.
- Suoqiao Qian, Liberal Cosmopolitan : Lin Yutang and Middling Chinese Modernity (Leiden: Brill, 2011). ISBN 9004192131. p. 246-247
- George Gao, "Lin Yutang's Appreciation of the Red Chamber Dream," Renditions 2.Spring (1974).
- Airen Huang, "Hu Shi and Lin Yutang," Chinese Studies in History 37.4 (Summer2004): 37-69.
- Moment in Peking, pp. 813-15.
- Martinsen, Joel. "Beijing Bestsellers: Moment in Peking and other TV hits". Retrieved 2006-12-23.