Moment of silence
||The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (December 2010)|
A moment of silence is the expression for a period of silent contemplation, prayer, reflection, or meditation. Similar to flying a flag at half-mast, a moment of silence is often a gesture of respect, particularly in mourning for those who have died recently or as part of a tragic historical event.
Silent prayer and worship, including moments of silence practiced during other group activities have been practiced by Quakers for more than 300 years. Since silence contains no statements or assumptions concerning beliefs and requires no understanding of language to interpret, it is more easily accepted and used than a spoken prayer or observance when persons of different religious and cultural backgrounds participate together. In the colonial period Pennsylvania Quakers and Lenape Native Americans worshiped silently together on several occasions, yet neither group thought that this implied that they had altered their traditional belief system in doing so. Over time, the effectiveness of Quaker-style silence for non-sectarian and non-controversial public observances has led to its almost universal use in the English-speaking world as well as other plural societies. This is also the case within many institutions where diverse groups are expected to participate but not necessarily share beliefs such as in government, schools, businesses and the military.
Many people in the Commonwealth observe a moment of silence, often two minutes, at 11:00 am on 11 November each year (Remembrance Day) to remember sacrifices of members of the armed forces and of civilians in times of war. The period of silence is essentially a ritualized night vigil bracketed by the traditional bugle call "The Last Post"" and "The Rouse", which is also called "Reveille" in the United States. The Last Post was the traditional bugle call at the end of the day, and the Rouse started the military day. For military purposes, the traditional night vigil over the slain was not just to ensure they were indeed dead and not unconscious or in a coma, but also to guard them from being mutilated or despoiled, or dragged off by scavengers. This makes the ceremony not so much an act of remembrance but a pledge to guard the honour of war dead. The act is enhanced by the use of dedicated cenotaphs (literally Greek for "empty tomb") and the laying of wreaths—the traditional means of bestowing high honours in Ancient Greece and Rome.
One minute is a common length of time for the commemoration, though other periods of time may be chosen, normally connected in some way with the event being commemorated (there might be a minute given for every death commemorated, for example). During the moment of silence, participants may typically bow their heads, remove hats, and refrain from speaking or moving places for the duration. A person officiating or presiding over the gathering will be responsible for the declaring and timing of the period of silence.
In Israel, moments of silence are held on Yom HaShoah in memory of the victims of the Holocaust, and Yom Hazikaron in memory of fallen soldiers and terror victims. The moments of silence are marked by the nationwide sounding of a steady siren. During this time, most Israelis stand at attention, and most of the country comes to a standstill as people pay silent tribute to the dead.
Moments of silence are often observed prior to sports matches with reasons for silences range from national and international tragedies, to the death of individuals connected to the sport or specific clubs. The silence is usually ended by the Referee blowing his whistle.
In recent years a trend has developed (particularly with Association football fans) to fill the traditional minute of silence with a minute's applause. Psychologically this is seen by some[by whom?] to convey a fond celebration of the deceased rather than the traditional solemnity. Recent recipients of the minute's applause include deceased footballers Jock Stein, George Best, Ernie Cooksey, and Alan Ball. It is frequently alleged that the predominant reason for the minute's applause tending to replace the minute's silence is out of fear that opposition fans will not respect the silence, and spend their time booing, jeering, or otherwise attempting to disrupt it; many silences have been cut short from the usual minute to thirty seconds or less for this reason.
The idea for a Remembrance Day silence was first suggested by Australian journalist Edward George Honey in a letter to The Times in May 1919. He was thinking of a five-minute silence, but that was thought too long. One minute was deemed too short.
Controversy relating to school prayer in the United States
The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in 1962, in Engel v. Vitale, that official organization, sponsorship, or endorsement of school prayer is forbidden by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution in public school. Teachers and school officials may not lead classes in prayer, but prayer is permitted at voluntary religious clubs, and students are not prohibited from praying themselves. Other rulings have forbidden public, organized prayer at school assemblies, sporting events, and similar school-sponsored activities.
Public moments of silence in the United States both arise from and contribute to this debate over prayer and the separation of church and state. A moment of silence lacks any specific religious formulation, and therefore it has been presented as a way of creating reflection and respect without endorsing any particular sect. Colin Powell, a longtime advocate, has recommended a simple moment of silence at the start of each school day. Further, he states that students could use this interval to pray, meditate, contemplate or study.
However, critics often view the moment of silence as publicly endorsing prayer "in disguise". This issue has been especially raised by atheists groups and advocates, who argue that no non-religious purpose is served by designating an official moment of silence. They point out, for example, that many schools have entire class periods dedicated to silent study, which can equally be used for silent prayer or meditation. Moments of silence point to the tension in the U.S. Constitution and society between accommodation and endorsement. Accommodation of religion is to ensure an environment where a person or student can practice their religion. A question with "moments of silence" laws is whether accommodation was already achieved by the fact that a student can pray or meditate on his/her own without an official moment of silence. Barry Lynn of Americans United for Separation said, on a "moment of silence" case, "Students were already allowed to pray, meditate, or reflect under the statute before it was amended. The addition of the word ‘pray’ where it wasn’t needed clearly shows that legislators intended to promote religion, and that’s not their job." Courts have stated on these moments of silence cases that a secular purpose is necessary and according to Wallace v. Jaffree, a "statute must be invalidated if it is entirely motivated by a purpose to advance religion."
Although since 1976 the state Virginia law permitted school districts to implement 60 seconds of silence at the start of each school day, in 1985, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that an Alabama "moment of silence or voluntary prayer" law was unconstitutional, in the case Wallace v. Jaffree. In April 2000, a new law came into being; requiring all Virginian public school students to observe a moment of silence. Also, in 2005, a law was passed in Indiana requiring all public schools to give students a chance to say the pledge of allegiance and observe a moment of silence every day. In October 2007, Illinois enacted legislation to require public schools to provide students with a moment of silence at the start of the school day, a statute that is currently being challenged in Illinois state courts. According to the National Conference of State Legislatures, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Nevada, New Hampshire, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia also require such moments of quiet in the classroom. In more than 20 other states, teachers are allowed to decide whether they want such a classroom time-out.
In October 2000, the U.S. District Judge Claude M. Hilton ruled that the "moment of silence" law was constitutional. Judge Hilton stated, "The court finds that the Commonwealth's daily observance of one minute of silence act is constitutional. The act was enacted for a secular purpose, does not advance or inhibit religion, nor is there excessive entanglement with religion... Students may think as they wish -- and this thinking can be purely religious in nature or purely secular in nature. All that is required is that they sit silently." His ruling was upheld in the 4th circuit. There is disagreement though with the law being enacted though for a secular purpose because of statements made by supporters of the legislation. State Senator Charles R. Hawkins (R-Pennsylvania) stated the moment of silence is "a very small measure to address a very large problem." He also said, "Prayer is not a bad word in my vocabulary." Kent Willis, Executive Director of the ACLU of Virginia, stated lawmakers are "at the very least placing Virginia law right on the line of separation of church and state or they are crossing it . . . the state is playing with fire here."
The American Civil Liberties Union was opposed to a proposed constitutional amendment by Newt Gingrich in the early 1990s which would have set aside a voluntary moment of prayer during the school day, which was later independently described by President Bill Clinton as a "moment of silence". They considered this stealth endorsement of prayer in school.
- "Everton lead Alan Ball tributes". Current Events. April 28, 2007.
- "New celebration of Armistice Day proposed". History.com. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
- "Moment Of Litigation: Mandatory Moment Of Silence In Texas Schools Faces Court Test". Blog.au.org. Retrieved 2012-07-15.
- "Wallace V. Jaffree". Caselaw.lp.findlaw.com. Retrieved 2012-07-15.
- "Code of Virginia § 22.1-203". Leg1.state.va.us. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
- "Court upholds Virginia's 'moment of silence'". Christian Century. November 15, 2000.[dead link]
- "Court upholds constitutionality of 'silence' law", Baptist Joint Committee. Report from the Capital, 2000-NOV-7, Page 3.
- Brooke A. Masters (July 25, 2001). "Va. Minute Of Silence In Schools Is Upheld: Federal Judges Rule Law Is Not Unconstitutional". The Washington Post. pp. B01.
- "U.S. 4th Circuit Court of Appeals: Brown v. Gilmore" (PDF). Pacer.ca4.iscourts.gov. July 24, 2001.
- "Virginia Senate OKs Schools' Moment of Silence". Aclu.org. 2000-02-01. Retrieved 2012-07-15.
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