Monarchy of Ireland
A monarchical polity has existed in Ireland during three periods of its history, finally ending in 1801. The first period was from ancient times (ante 900BC) until the Norman invasion of Ireland when the title effectively fell into abeyance. Following this period, the kingdom became a fief of the Holy See under the Lordship of the King of England. This lesser title lasted until the Parliament of Ireland conferred the crown of Ireland upon King Henry VIII of England during the English Reformation. The monarch of England held the crowns of England and Ireland in a personal union. The Union of the Crowns in 1603 saw the accession of James VI, King of Scots, to the thrones of England and Ireland. The personal union consisted thereafter of the three realms of Scotland, England and Ireland. The personal union between England and Scotland became a political union with the enactments of the Acts of Union 1707 by the parliaments of both these countries; the entity thereby created was called the Kingdom of Great Britain. The third period of the monarchy of Ireland was ended by the Act of Union. In 1800, the Parliament of Ireland approved the political union of the monarchy of Ireland with the monarchy of Great Britain and incidentally voted itself out of existence. The united entity thereby created was known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. With this union, the independent existence of the crown of Ireland was ended. From January 1801 until December 1922, Ireland remained in this political union. After that date, most of Ireland left to become the Irish Free State with the remaining part, Northern Ireland, electing to remain in the United Kingdom. In 1927, the name of the state was updated to reflect the fact that most of the island of Ireland had left the United Kingdom; it was changed to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The style of King George V was altered by replacing the words "the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of" by "Great Britain, Ireland and". In April 1949, by the repeal of the 1936 External Relations Act, most of Ireland was declared to be a republic, popularly known as the Republic of Ireland.
The designation King of Ireland (Irish: Rí na hÉireann) and Queen (regnant) of Ireland was used during these periods until 1801 when the Kingdom of Ireland was merged with and into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Since April 1949, the only part of Ireland that retains a monarchical system is Northern Ireland (as part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland).
- 1 Gaelic kings and kingdoms
- 2 The Lordship of Ireland:1198–1542
- 3 The Kingdom of Ireland: 1542–1801
- 3.1 Re-creation of title
- 3.2 Union with Great Britain
- 3.3 Partition: Irish Free State and Northern Ireland (1922–1936)
- 3.4 Abdication crisis, President of Ireland and Republic of Ireland Act (1936–1949)
- 3.5 List of monarchs of Ireland
- 4 References
- 5 See also
Gaelic kings and kingdoms
Gaelic Ireland consisted of as few as five and as many as nine main kingdoms, subdivided into dozens of smaller kingdoms. The primary kingdoms were Connacht, Ailech, Airgíalla, Ulster, Mide, Leinster, Osraige, Munster and Thomond. Until the end of Gaelic Ireland they continued to fluctuate, expand and contract in size, as well as dissolving entirely or being amalgamated into new entities. The role of High King of Ireland was primarily titular and rarely (if ever) absolute. Gaelic Ireland was not ruled as a unitary state.
The names of Connacht, Ulster, Leinster and Munster are still in use, now applied to the four modern provinces of Ireland. The following is a list of the main Irish kingdoms and their kings.
- Kings of Ailech – divided into Tír Eóghain and Tír Conaill in twelfth century
- Kings of Connacht – all the land west of the Shannon except Thomond.
- Kings of Leinster – Its last de facto king died in 1632.
- Kings of Mide – Ireland's central kingdom, annexed by Connacht in the 11th century.
- Kings of Munster – an overkingdom of late prehistoric origins
- Kings of Ulster – properly, Ulster east of the lower and upper Bann.
Ard Ri co febressa: High Kings with opposition
Maire Herbert has noted that Annal evidence from the late eighth century in Ireland suggests that the larger provincial kingships were already accruing power at the expense of smaller political units. Leading kings appear in public roles at church-state proclamations ... and at royal conferences with their peers. (2000,p. 62). Responding to the assumption of the title ri hErenn uile (king of all Ireland) by Mael Sechlainn I in 862, she furthermore states that
... the ninth-century assumption of the title of "ri Erenn" was a first step towards the definition of a national kingship and a territorially-based Irish realm. Yet change only gained ground after the stranglehold of Ui Neill power-structures was broken in the eleventh century. ...The renaming of a kingship ... engendered a new self-perception which shaped the future definition of a kingdom and of its subjects.
(Herbert, 2000, p. 72)
Nevertheless, the achievements of Mael Sechlainn and his successors were purely personal, and open to destruction upon their deaths. Between 846–1022, and again from 1042–1166, kings from the leading Irish kingdoms made greater attempts to compel the rest of the island's polity to their rule, with varying degrees of success, until the inauguration of Ruaidri Ua Conchobair (Rory O'Connor) in 1166,
High Kings of Ireland 846–1198
- Mael Sechnaill mac Maele Ruanaid, 846–860
- Aed Findliath, 861–876
- Flann Sinna, 877–914
- Niall Glundub, 915–917
- Donnchad Donn, 918–942
- Congalach Cnogba, 943–954
- Domnall ua Neill, 955–978
- Mael Sechnaill mac Domnaill, 979–1002; 1014–1022
- Brian Boruma, 1002–1014
- Donnchad mac Briain, died 1064
- Diarmait mac Mail na mBo, died 1072
- Toirdelbach Ua Briain, died 1086
- Muirchertach Ua Briain, died 1119
- Domnall Ua Lochlainn, died 1121
- Toirdelbach Ua Conchobair, died 1156
- Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn, died 1166
- Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, died 1198
Ruaidhrí, King of Ireland
Upon the death of Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in early 1166, Ruaidhrí, King of Connacht, proceeded to Dublin where he was inaugurated King of Ireland without opposition. He was arguably the first undisputed full king of Ireland. He was also the only Gaelic one, as the events of the Norman invasion of 1169–1171 brought about the destruction of the high-kingship, and the direct involvement of the Kings of England in Irish politics.
One of Ruaidrí's first acts as King was the conquest of Leinster, which resulted in the exile of its king, Dermot MacMurrough. Ruaidrí then obtained terms and hostages from all the notable kings and lords. He then celebrated the Oneach Tailtann, a recognised prerogative of the High Kings, and made a number of notable charitable gifts and donations. However, his caput remained in his home territory in central Connacht (County Galway). Ireland's recognised capital, Dublin, was ruled by Ascall mac Ragnaill, who had submitted to Ruaidri.
Only with the arrival of MacMurrough's Anglo-Norman allies in May 1169 did Ruaidrí's position begin to weaken. A series of disastrous defeats and ill-judged treaties lost him much of Leinster, and encouraged uprisings by rebel lords. By the time of the arrival of Henry II in 1171, Ruaidrí's position as king of Ireland was increasingly untenable.
Ruaidrí at first remained aloof from engagement with King Henry, though many of the lesser kings and lords welcomed his arrival as they wished to see him curb the territorial gains made by his vassals. Through the intercession of Dr Lorcán Ua Tuathail (Lawrence O'Toole), the Lord Archbishop of Dublin, Ruaidrí and Henry came to terms with the Treaty of Windsor in 1175. Ruaidrí agreed to recognise Henry as his lord; in return, Ruaidrí was allowed to keep all Ireland as his personal kingdom outside the petty kingdoms of Laigin (Leinster) and Mide as well as the city of Waterford.
Henry was unwilling or unable to enforce the terms of the treaty on his barons in Ireland, who continued to gain territory in Ireland. A low point came in 1177 with a successful raid into the heart of Connacht by a party of Anglo-Normans, led by one of Ruaidrí's sons, Prince Muirchertach. They were expelled, Ruaidhrí ordering the blinding of Muirchertach, but over the next six years his rule was increasingly diminished by internal dynastic conflict and external attacks. Finally, in 1183, he abdicated.
He was twice briefly returned to power in 1185 and 1189, but even within his home kingdom of Connacht he had become politically marginalised. He lived quietly on his estates, and died at the monastery of Cong in 1198. With the possible exception of Brian Ua Néill (Brian O'Neill; died 1260), no other Gaelic king was ever again recognised as king or high king of Ireland.
The Lordship of Ireland:1198–1542
By the time of Ruairi's death in 1198, King Henry II of England had invaded Ireland and given the part of it he controlled to his son John as a Lordship when John was just 10. When John succeeded to the English throne, he remained Lord of Ireland thereby bringing the kingdom of England and the lordship of Ireland into personal union. By the mid-13th century, while the island was nominally ruled by the king of England, from c.1260 the effective area of control began to recede. As various Cambro-Norman noble families died out in the male line, the Gaelic nobility began to reclaim lost territory. The problem was recognised as significant at the parliament of 1297, yet successive English kings did little to stem the tide, instead using Ireland to draw upon men and supplies in the wars in Scotland and France.
By the 1390s the Lordship had effectively shrunk to the Pale with the rest of the island under the control of independent Gaelic-Irish or rebel Cambro-Norman noble families. King Richard II of England made two journeys to Ireland during his reign to rectify the situation; as a direct result of his second visit in 1399 he lost his throne to Henry Bolingbroke. This was the last time that a medieval king of England visited Ireland.
For the duration of the 15th century, royal power in Ireland was weak, the country being dominated by the various clans and dynasties of Gaelic (O'Neill, O'Brien, MacCarthy) or Cambro-Norman (Burke, FitzGerald, Butler) origin. Affairs closer to London ensured, well into the 1530s, that Irish affairs remained at best a secondary concern.
Lords of Ireland 1177–1541
- Prince (later King) John of England, (1177–1216)
- Henry III of England, (1216–1272)
- opposed by: Brian O'Neill, 1258–1260
- Edward I of England, (1272–1307)
- Edward II of England, (1307–1327)
- opposed by: Edward Bruce, (1315–1318)
- Edward III of England, (1327–1377)
- Richard II of England, (1377–1399)
- Henry IV of England, (1399–1413)
- Henry V of England, (1413–1422)
- Henry VI of England, (1422–1461 and 1470–1471)
- Edward IV of England, (1461–1470 and 1471–1483)
- Edward V of England, (1483)
- Richard III of England, (1483–1485)
- Henry VII of England, (1485–1509)
- Henry VIII of England, (1509–1542)
The Kingdom of Ireland: 1542–1801
Re-creation of title
The title "King of Ireland" was created by an act of the Irish Parliament in 1541, replacing the Lordship of Ireland, which had existed since 1171, with the Kingdom of Ireland. The Crown of Ireland Act 1542 established a personal union between the English and Irish crowns, providing that whoever was King of England was to be King of Ireland as well, and so its first holder was King Henry VIII of England. Henry's sixth and last wife, Katherine Parr, was the first Queen consort of Ireland following her marriage to King Henry in 1543. This followed the failure of the plan to make The 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset (1519–1536) the King of Ireland. Although Richmond was made Lord Lieutenant, the King's counsellors feared that creating a separate Kingdom of Ireland, with a ruler other than that of England, would create another threat like the King of Scotland.
The title of King of Ireland was created after Henry VIII had been excommunicated in 1538, so it was not recognised by European Catholic monarchs. Following the accession of the Catholic Mary I in 1553 and her marriage to Felipe, Prince of Asturias, in 1554, Pope Paul IV issued the papal bull "Ilius" in 1555, recognising them as Queen and King of Ireland together with her heirs and successors.
For a brief period in the 17th century, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms from the impeachment and execution of Charles I in 1649 to the Irish Restoration in May 1660, there was no 'King of Ireland'. After the Irish Rebellion of 1641, Irish Catholics, organised in Confederate Ireland, still recognised Charles I, and later Charles II, as legitimate monarchs, in opposition to the claims of the English Parliament, and signed a formal treaty with Charles I in 1648. But in 1649, the Rump Parliament, victorious in the English Civil War, executed Charles I, and made England a republic, or "Commonwealth". The Parliamentarian general Oliver Cromwell came across the Irish Sea to crush the Irish royalists, temporarily uniting England, Scotland, and Ireland under one government, and styling himself "Lord Protector" of the three kingdoms. (See also Cromwellian conquest of Ireland.) After Cromwell's death in 1658, his son Richard emerged as the leader of this pan-British Isles republic, but he was not competent to maintain it. The Parliament of England at Westminster voted to restore the monarchy, and in 1660 King Charles II returned from exile in France to become King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland.
Union with Great Britain
The Acts of Union 1707 merged the kingdoms of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain, under the sovereignty of the British Crown. The effect was to create a personal union between the Crown of Ireland and the British Crown, instead of the English Crown. Later, on 1 January 1801, an additional merger took place between the two Kingdoms. By the terms of the Act of Union 1800, the Kingdom of Ireland merged with the Kingdom of Great Britain, thus creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the separation of most of Ireland from that kingdom in 1922, the remaining constituent parts were renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in 1927, five years after the establishment of the Irish Free State.
Partition: Irish Free State and Northern Ireland (1922–1936)
In early December 1922, most of Ireland (twenty-six of the country's thirty-two counties) left the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. These 'Twenty-Six Counties' now became the Irish Free State, a self-governing Dominion within the British Empire. Six of Ireland's north-eastern counties, all within the Province of Ulster, remained within the United Kingdom as Northern Ireland. This left the new Free State with only 26 counties. As a Dominion, the Free State was a constitutional monarchy with the British monarch as its head of state. The monarch was officially represented in the new Free State by the Governor-General of the Irish Free State.
The King's title in the Irish Free State was exactly the same as it was elsewhere in the British Empire, being from 1922 to 1927: "By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India" and, from 1927 to 1937: "By the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India". The change in the King's title was effected under an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom called the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act, 1927, intended to update the name of the United Kingdom as well as the King's title to reflect the fact that most of the island of Ireland had left the United Kingdom. The Act therefore provided that "Parliament shall hereafter be known as and styled the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland [instead of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland]" and "In every Act passed and public document issued after the passing of this Act the expression 'United Kingdom' shall, unless the context otherwise requires, mean Great Britain and Northern Ireland."
According to The Times, the "Imperial Conference proposed that, as a result of the establishment of the Irish Free State, the title of the King should be changed to 'George V, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland, and the British Dominions beyond the seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India.'" The change did not mean that the King had now assumed different styles in the different parts of his Empire. That development did not formally occur until 1953, four years after the new Republic of Ireland had left the Commonwealth.
When the Statute of Westminster was passed in 1931, the Irish Free State became legislatively independent from the United Kingdom and, despite a lack of change in his title, George V's position as king of that country became separated from his place as King of the United Kingdom (as occurred with all the other British Dominions at the time). The Government of the Irish Free State was confident that the relationship of these independent countries under the Crown would function as a personal union.
Abdication crisis, President of Ireland and Republic of Ireland Act (1936–1949)
The constitutional crisis resulting from the abdication of King Edward VIII on 11 December 1936 was used by de Valera's government as a catalyst to amend the Constitution of the Irish Free State by eliminating all but one of the King's official duties. This was achieved with the enactment on the same day of the Constitution (Amendment No. 27) Act and, on 12 December, the External Relations Act, which provided that the Irish monarch would represent Ireland "for the purposes of external representation". The following year, all references to the monarch and the governor-general were eliminated when the majority of Irish people ratified the Constitution of Ireland. This left only a purely external role for the King, meaning that, from 1936 to 1949, the King's role in the Irish Free State/Éire was greatly reduced and ambiguous. This ambiguitity was eliminated with the enactment of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948, which came into force in April 1949, and by the repeal of the 1936 External Relations Act, which also declared the State to be a republic. The position of the King in the Irish state was finally and formally ended by the Oireachtas with the repeal of the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 by the Statute Law Revision (Pre-Union Irish Statutes) Act 1962.
The British monarchy, specifically, continued and continues in Northern Ireland, which remains a part of the sovereign state that is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. From 1921 until 1973, the British monarch was officially represented in Northern Ireland by the Governor of Northern Ireland.
List of monarchs of Ireland
Monarchs of Ireland
- Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair (Inaugurated at Dublin, spring 1166. Died 1198. He was the last native to be widely recognised as monarch of Ireland.)
- Henry VIII (1542–1547); Lord of Ireland (1509–1542)
- Edward VI (1547–1553)
- Lady Jane Grey (1553) (Disputed claimant.)
- Mary I (1553–1558)
- Elizabeth I (1558–1603)
- James I (1603–1625) (James VI of Scotland, I of England and of Ireland; he held all three crowns in a personal but not a political union.)
- Charles I (1625–1649)
- Charles II (1660–1685)
- James II (1685–1688)
- William II (1689–1702) & Mary II (1689–1694)
- Anne (1702–1714) (Following the Act of Union with Scotland, Anne's personal union of the Scottish and English crowns was replaced by a political union. The united entity was known as the "United Kingdom of Great Britain". The personal union with the Crown of Ireland was still in place.)
- George I (1714–1727) (As a consequence of the parliament of Great Britain's Act of Settlement 1701, the Crowns of both Great Britain and Ireland came, upon the death of Queen Anne, into personal union with Hanover.)
- George II (1727–1760)
- George III (1760–1801)
Monarchs of the Irish Free State and Ireland
- George V (1922–1936) (The Irish Free State became a self-governing Dominion of the British Empire and subsequently, in 1931, a legislatively independent country)
- Edward VIII (1936)
- George VI (1936–1949) whose status was diminished
Monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
- George VI (1949–1952) (Following the Ireland Act 1949, only that part of Ireland known as Northern Ireland remained part of a monarchy.)
- Elizabeth II (1952–)
King's title, George I – George VI
Kings George I, II, and III had reigned as "King of Ireland"; after a constitutional change Georges III & IV had reigned as "King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland."
The king's title in the Irish Free State, when it became a self-governing Dominion of the British Empire, and its constitutional successor from December 1936 to April 1949, was the same as elsewhere in the British Commonwealth, but it was unclear whether the President of Ireland was Irish head of state from 1936 to 1949 or the King, George VI, and differences affecting the description or Names of the Irish state persisted until resolved following the Belfast/ Good Friday Agreement 1998.
The changes in the royal style in 20c. took into account the emergence of independence for the dominions from the Imperial Parliament of the United Kingdom. The kings successively and their advisers and governments in the United Kingdom were fully aware that the republican intent of the representatives of the Irish Free State was in marked contrast to the intent of the governments of certain other dominions, such as Canada. and such differences were manifested in this period in the design and use of flags and other national symbols for the Irish Free State and other dominions.
- Katherine Parr, editor, Janel Mueller. Katherine Parr: Complete Works and Correspondence, University of Chicago Press, 2011. pg 178. Last Will and Testament of Dowager Queen Katherine Parr
- J.J. Scarisbrick, English Monarchs: Henry VIII, University of California Press
- The papal bull "ILIUS" of 1555 conferring the title of King of Ireland upon Philip, Prince of Asturias (later Philip II of Spain)
- The Times, 4 March 1927
- "Black v Chrétien: Suing a Minister of the Crown for Abuse of Power, Misfeasance in Public Office and Negligence". Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law 9 (3). September 2002. Retrieved 2 October 2008.
- Edward VIII (12 December 1936). Executive Authority (External Relations) Act, 1936. Dublin: King's Printer for the Irish Free State. 3.2. Retrieved 6 May 2009.
- Section 1 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948.
- Proclamation altering the Style and Titles appertaining to the Crown, London, 13 May 1927.
- Heads of government attending the 1926 Imperial Conference included W. T. Cosgrave, then serving as President of the Executive Council (prime minister) from 1922 to 1932. It was recorded that the distinct characteristices and histories of each was recognised by the parties attending the Conference,
- See "The Flags of Canada", Alistair B. Fraser, 1998,  1_For the chronology of Canadian flags from 1870, at the time of the Irish republican movement, see Appendix III . 2_For explanation of the distinction between national flags and monarchical badges or blazons of arms see Chapter I: ___"...a nation needs emblems and symbols to preserve traditions and inspire love of country. Of these symbols, the coat of arms and the flag are the chief." Charles Frederick Hamilton, Assistant Comptroller, R.C.M.P (1921) ___"The function of a flag is to send the simple message of identity. The function of arms is to dignify an individual, or institution, or country by special identifying symbolism and by appropriate reference to ancestry." John Ross Matheson, Canada's Flag: A Search for a Country (Boston G.K. Hall, 1980), p. 7. ___"Canada's flag serves to identify something Canadian. More specialized in its use, Canada's arms identify national authority and jurisdiction. Leaving aside strictly decorative uses of either, the flag is used wherever one wishes to make the simple statement: Canada or Canadian; the arms only where the authority of the nation is asserted." Alistair B. Fraser, 1998, op.cit.
- Synchronismen der irischen Konige, Rudolf Thurneysen, ZCP 19, 1933, pp. 81–99
- The Ui Brian Kingship in Telach Oc, James Hogan, in Feil-Sgrighinn Eoin Mhic Neill, pp. 406–444, ed. John Ryan, Dublin, 1938
- Early Irish History and Mythology, T.F. O'Rahilly, 1946
- The heir-designate in early medieval Ireland, Gearoid mac Niocaill, Irish Jurist 3 (1968), pp. 326–29.
- The rise of the Ui Neill and the high-kingship of Ireland, Francis John Byrne, O'Donnell Lecture, 1969; published Dublin, 1970
- Irish regnal succession – a reappraisal, Donnchadh O Corrain, Studia Hibernica 11, 1971, pp7–39
- Gaelic and Gaelicised Ireland, Kenneth Nicholls, 1972
- Ri Eirenn, Ri Alban, kingship and identity in the night and tenth centuries, Maire Herbert, in Kings clerics and chronicles in Scotland, pp. 62–72, ed. S. Taylor, Dublin, 2000
- Irish Kings and High Kings, Francis John Byrne, 1973; 3rd reprint, Dublin, 2001
- Dal Cais, church and dynasty, Donnachadh O Corrain, Eiru 24, 1973, pp. 1–69
- Nationality and kingship in pre-Norman Ireland, Donnchadh O Corrain, in Nationality and the pursuit of national independence, pp. 1–35, Historical Studies 11, ed. T.W. Moody, Belfast, 1978
- The Irish royal sites in history and archaeology, B. Wailes, CMCS 3, 1982, pp. 1–29
- A New History of Ireland vol. ix:maps, genealogies, lists:a companion to Irish history part II., edited T.W. Moody, F.X. Martin, F.J.Byrne, Oxford, 1984
- The archaeology of early Irish kingship, Richard B. Warner, in Power and Politics in Early Medieval Britain and Ireland, pp. 47–68, ed. S.T. Driscoll and M.R. Nieke, Edinburgh, 1988
- From Kings to Warlords:The Changing Political Structure of Gaelic Ireland in the Later Middle Ages, Katharine Simms, Dublin, 1987
- The King as Judge in early Ireland, Marilyn Gerriets, CMCS 13 (1987), pp. 39–72.
- High Kingship and Tiberius Claudius Cogidubnus, A.T. Fear, in EtC 30 (1994), pp. 165–68.
- Kingship, society and sacrality:rank, power and ideology in early medieval Ireland, N.B. Aitchison, in Traditio 49 (1994) pp. 45–47
- Kings and kingship in Early Medieval Ireland, pp. 63–84, Daibhi O Croinin, 1995
- The Kingship of Tara in Early Christian Ireland, Thomas Charles-Edwards, 1995
- Kings over overkings. Propaganda for pre-eminence in early medieval Ireland, Bart Jaski, in The Propagation of Power in the Medieval West, ed. M. Gosman, A. Vanderjagt, J. Veenstra, pp. 163–76, Groningen, 1996
- An inaugural ode to Hugh O'Connor (King of Connacht 1293–1309, Seam Mac Mathuna, ZCP 49–50, 1997, pp. 26–62.
- The inauguration of Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair at Ath an Termoinn, Elizabeth FitzPatrick, Peritia 12 (1998), pp. 351–8
- Kings, the kingship of Leinster and the regnal poems of "laidshenchas Laigen:a reflection of dynastic politics in leinster, 650–1150, Edel Bhreathnach, in Seanchas:Studies in Early and Medieval Irish Archaeology, History and Literature in Honour of Francis John Byrne, Four Courts Press, Dublin, 2000
- The Conntinuation of Bede, s.a. 750; high-kings, kings of Tara and Bretwaldas, T.M. Charles-Edwards, pp. 137–145, op.cit.
- Early Irish Kingship and Succession, Bart Jaski, Dublin, 2000
- Leinster states and kings in Christian times pp. 33–52, The Ua Maelechlainn kings of Meath, pp. 90–107, Christian kings of Connacht, pp. 177–194, Paul Walsh, in Irish Leaders and Learning Through the Ages, ed. Nollaig O Muraile, 2003
- Finghin MacCarthaigh, king of Desmond, and the mystery of the second nunnery at Clonmacnoise, Conleth Manning, in Regions and Rulers in Ireland 1100–1650, ed. David Edwards, pp. 20–26, Four Courts Press, Dublin, 2004
- Kingship in Early Ireland, Charles Doherty, in The Kingship and Landscape of Tara, pp. 3–31, ed. Edel Bhreathnach, Four Courts Press, Dublin, 2005
- Kings named in "Baile Chuinn Chechathaig" and the Airgialla Charter Poem, Ailbhe Mac Shamhrain and Paul Byrne, in op.cit., pp. 159–224.
- High-Kings with Opposition, Maire-Therese Flannagan, in A New History of Ireland, Volume One:Pre-Historic and Early Ireland, 2008
- List of Irish monarchs
- Monarchy of the United Kingdom
- List of British monarchs
- Style of the British Sovereign
- Great Seal of the Irish Free State
- Irish head of state from 1936 to 1949
- Constitution of Ireland
- The King of Ireland's Son – a novel published in 1962