Mondo film

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A mondo film (from the Italian word for "world") is an exploitation documentary film, sometimes resembling a pseudo-documentary and usually depicting sensational topics, scenes, or situations. Common traits of mondo films include an emphasis on taboo subjects (such as death and sex), portrayals of foreign cultures (which have drawn accusations of ethnocentrism or racism[1]), and staged sequences presented as genuine documentary footage. Over time, the films placed increasing emphasis on footage of the dead and dying (both real and fake). The term shockumentary is also used to describe the genre.[2]

History[edit]

Although earlier films such as European Nights (1959) and World By Night 1 & 2 (1961) may be considered examples of the genre,[3] the origins of the mondo documentary are generally traced to the 1962 Italian film Mondo Cane (A Dog's World—a mild Italian profanity) by Paolo Cavara, Gualtiero Jacopetti and Franco Prosperi which was a commercial success.[4][5][6]

Documentary films imitating Mondo Cane in the 1960s often included the term "mondo" in their titles, even if they were in English; examples include Mondo Bizarro, Mondo Daytona, Mondo Mod, Mondo Infame and Mondo Hollywood.[7] Films outside the genre followed suit: Mondo Trasho, Mondo Weirdo: A Trip to Paranoia Paradise, Mondo Keyhole[8] and Mondo Brutale (a German release of Wes Craven's The Last House on the Left[9]) title themselves mondo, although none are mondo documentaries. Later in the decade, this naming convention began to fall out of favour and fewer mondo films identified themselves as such in their titles.[7]

Filmmakers wanted to top each other in shock value to attract audiences. Cruelty to animals, accidents, tribal-initiation rites and surgeries are features of a typical mondo. Much of the action is staged, although the filmmakers may claim their goal is to document "reality". Subjects of mondo films include sex (Mondo Sex and Mondo Sexualis USA); celebrities (Mondo Elvis and Mondo Lugosi); youth culture (Mondo Teeno) and the gay subculture (Mondo Rocco).

Russ Meyer's film Mondo Topless was one of the few "documentaries" restricted to the old midnight movie circuit in the pre-VCR era; it explored strip clubs in 1960s San Francisco at a time when strip clubs were a novelty in the United States, restricted to centers of port-city decadence (such as San Francisco). Other examples of this genre include Mondo New York by Harvey Keith, Mondo di Notte by Gianni Proia and Mondo Balordo by Roberto Bianchi Montero.

The 1980s saw a resurgence of mondo movies focusing almost exclusively on (onscreen) death, instead of world cultures. The Faces of Death series is a notable example of this type of mondo (or "death") movie. The producers used fake footage (passed off as real), but some of the footage was legitimate (including scenes of autopsies, suicides and accidents).

The rare 1985 film Mondo Senza Veli (World without Veils or Mondo Fresh) was purported by viewers to feature at its end the brutal execution of a young Arab rapist by public rectal impalement. This episode was, however, believed to have been a staged execution by some viewers.

Mondo films in the 21st century feature gore, exemplified by the Faces of Gore and Traces of Death series. There is less fake footage, and many use news footage of accidents from East Asia.[citation needed]

A number of films have parodied the genre. Examples include Ricardo Fratelli's Mondo Ford; Mr. Mike's Mondo Video by Saturday Night Lives Michael O'Donoghue and Is There Sex After Death? by Jeanne and Alan Abel. Mondo Beyondo spoofed the films' approach to titling, but was a parody of satellite television.[10] The Italian cannibal film is arguably an offshoot of the mondo film.[8]

Films[edit]

The original mondo film series was the Mondo Cane series by Gualtiero Jacopetti, Paolo Cavara, and Franco Prosperi. When this type of film proved successful, many imitators followed.

Jacopetti and Prosperi
Title Year Country Director and screenplay Music Uncut run time Notes
Mondo Cane 1962 Italy Gualtiero Jacopetti
Paolo Cavara
Franco E. Prosperi
Riz Ortolani 108 minutes R-rated run time 85 minutes
La donna nel mondo 1963 Italy Franco E. Prosperi
Paolo Cavara
Gualtiero Jacopetti
Riz Ortolani
Nino Oliviero
107 minutes aka Women of the World
Mondo Cane 2 1963 Italy Franco E. Prosperi
Gualtiero Jacopetti
Nino Oliviero 95 minutes R-rated run time 76 minutes; aka Mondo Pazzo
Africa Addio 1966 Italy Gualtiero Jacopetti
Franco Prosperi
Riz Ortolani 139 minutes Unrated English version 128 minutes; R-rated version 80 minutes
Addio Zio Tom 1971 Italy Gualtiero Jacopetti
Franco Prosperi
Riz Ortolani 136 minutes Unrated English version 123 minutes; aka Goodbye Uncle Tom

The pair's Mondo candido (1975) is not a "Mondo" film; the title was imposed on them by the studio, who wished to cash in on their earlier successes. The film is a retelling of Voltaire's novel, Candide.

In the late 1980s Stelvio Massi (aka Max Steele) made two spinoffs of the original Mondo Cane series, known as Mondo Cane 3 and Mondo Cane 4 on video.

Max Steele
Title Year Country Director and cinematography Screenplay Uncut run time Notes
Mondo Cane Oggi 1986 Italy Stelvio Massi Stelvio Massi 78 minutes aka Mondo Cane 3
Mondo Cane 2000, l'Incredibile 1988 Italy Stelvio Massi G. Crisanti aka Mondo Cane 4

In 1969, brothers Angelo and Alfredo Castiglioni began to make a series of their own Mondo films until the early 1980s. They made five films in all, tying Jacopetti and Prosperi as the most prolific Mondo film producers. Each film examines brutal and bizarre behavior on the African continent. Their films are considered some of the most graphic Mondo films ever made.[citation needed]

Castiglioni Brothers
Title Year Country Directors Music Notes
Africa Segreta 1969 Italy Angelo Castiglioni
Alfredo Castiglioni
Angelo Francesco Lavagnino aka Secret Africa; uncut run time 103 min
Africa Ama 1971 Italy Angelo Castiglioni
Alfredo Castiglioni
Angelo Francesco Lavagnino aka Africa Uncensored
Magia Nuda 1975 Italy Angelo Castiglioni
Alfredo Castiglioni
Ciro Dammicco (credited as Zacar) aka Mondo Magic
Addio Ultimo Uomo 1978 Italy Angelo Castiglioni
Alfredo Castiglioni
Franco Godi aka The Last Savage
Africa Dolce e Selvaggia 1982 Italy Angelo Castiglioni
Alfredo Castiglioni
Franco Godi aka Shocking Africa

Antonio Climati, cinematographer to Prosperi and Jacopetti in many Mondo films, joined Mario Morra in 1974 to produce their own string of Mondo films, known as the Savage Trilogy. Prosperi also produced the films. Climati and Morra were known for staging scenes.

Savage Trilogy
Title Year Country Director and Screenplay Music Notes
Ultime grida dalla savana 1975 Italy Antonio Climati
Mario Morra
Carlo Savina aka Savage Man Savage Beast; uncut run time 94 min
Savana violenta 1976 Italy Antonio Climati
Mario Morra
Guido De Angelis
Maurizio De Angelis
aka This Violent World
Dolce e selvaggio 1983 Italy Antonio Climati
Mario Morra
Daniele Patucchi aka Sweet and Savage

The 1978 Faces of Death popularized a Mondo style known as "death films", which depicted humans or animals dying in graphic ways.

John Alan Schwartz
Title Year Director Screenplay Notes
The Faces of Death Series 1978–1996 John Alan Schwartz John Alan Schwartz Six parts
The Worst of Faces of Death 1987 John Alan Schwartz John Alan Schwartz Compilation of first three Faces of Death films
Faces of Death: Fact or Fiction? 1999 John Alan Schwartz John Alan Schwartz
James B. Schwartz
Documentary about Faces of Death

Uwe Schier bought the rights to the Mondo Cane and Faces of Death films and released his own entries in both series, consisting largely of footage lifted from other mondo films. Faces of Death 5 draws heavily on Death Scenes; Faces of Death 6 consists almost entirely of Days of Fury and Mondo Cane IV (not to be confused with Mondo Cane 2000, l'Incredibile, Schier's Mondo Cane IV is in fact the fifth film in the series) lifts from other films (including Death Scenes and Death Faces IV).[11] In 1993, Hurricane Pictures edited a mix of scenes featured in Addio ultimo uomo and Shocking Africa, labeling it the "fifth chapter" of the saga (teil V in German).

Uwe Schier
Title Year Country Notes
Mondo Cane IV 1992 Germany
Mondo Cane teil V 1993 Germany aka Mondo Cane 5; producers Uwe Schier and Gian Carlo Rossi[citation needed]
Faces of Death 5 1995 Germany
Faces of Death 6 1996 Germany

Several imitators followed the Faces of Death series; many used (or were composed entirely of) footage from other mondo films.

Faces of Death imitators
Title Year Director Screenplay Music Notes
Banned from Television 1998 Joe Francis APM Music Three parts; released in the US by Mantra Films. Banned in the UK by the BBFC
The Traces of Death Series 1993–2000 Damon Fox Damon Fox Five parts
The Faces of Gore Series 1999–2000 Todd Tjersland Todd Tjersland Three parts
The Best of Faces of Gore 2000 Todd Tjersland Todd Tjersland Compilation video
Other films
Title Year Country Director Screenplay Music Notes
Mondo Nudo 1963 Italy Francesco De Feo Gian Carlo Fusco
Giuseppe Marotta
Teo Usuelli aka Naked World
Il Pelo nel Mondo 1964 Italy Antonio Margheriti
Marco Vicario
Antonio Margheriti
Marco Vicario
Bruno Nicolai
Nino Oliviero
aka Go Go Go World and Weird, Wicked World
Kwaheri: Vanishing Africa 1964 US Thor L. Brooks
Byron Chudnow
Michael Vittes Byron Ross
I Malamondo 1964 Italy Paolo Cavara Guido Castaldo
Paolo Cavara
Ugo Gregoretti
Francesco Torti
Ennio Morricone
Le Schiave Esistono Ancora 1964 Italy Maleno Malenotti
Roberto Malenotti
Folco Quilici
Baccio Bandini
Gianfranco Calderoni
Roberto Malenotti
Teo Usuelli aka Slave Trade in the World Today
Ecco 1964 Italy Gianni Proia R.W Cresse Riz Ortolani aka This Shocking World
Mondo Balordo 1964 Italy Roberto Bianchi Montero Guido Castaldo
Francesco Torti
Coriolano Gori
Nino Rosso
I Tabu 1964 Italy Romolo Marcellini Ugo Guerra aka Taboos of the World
L'amore primitivo 1964 Italy Luigi Scattini Massimo Pupillo
Luigi Scattini
Lallo Gori aka Primitive Love
Mondo Topless 1966 US Russ Meyer The Aladdins
Mondo Freudo 1966 US Lee Frost Rodney Lee Bermingham
The Duvals
Chuck Morgan
Bill Wild
Mondo Bizarro 1966 US Lee Frost Lee Frost Lawrence Von Lattman
Macabro 1966 Italy Romolo Marcellini Giancarlo Del Re
Our Incredible World 1966 UK Edward Stewart Abraham aka The Mystery and the Pleasure
Mondo Hollywood 1967 US Robert Carl Cohen Robert Carl Cohen Mike Curb
Sweden: Heaven and Hell 1968 Italy Luigi Scattini Luigi Scattini Piero Umiliani
L'altra faccia del peccato 1969 Italy Marcello Avallone Giacinto Ciaccio
Massimo D'Avak
Peppino De Luca aka The Queer, the Erotic
Mille peccati... nessuna virtù 1969 Italy Sergio Martino Sergio Martino Peppino De Luca aka Mondo Sex
Inghilterra nuda 1969 Italy Vittorio De Sisti Pino De Martino
Ettore Mattia
Piero Piccioni aka Naked England
America così nuda, così violenta 1970 Italy Sergio Martino Luciano Martino Bruno Nicolai aka Naked and Violent
Shocking Asia 1974 West Germany Rolf Olsen Rolf Olsen
Ingeborg Stein Steinbach
Uncut run time 94 min.
Notti Porno nel Mondo 1977 Italy Bruno Mattei Bruno Mattei Gianni Marchetti aka Mondo Erotica
This Is America 1977 US Romano Vanderbes Romano Vanderbes Emmanuel Vardi aka Crazy Ridiculous American People (UK), Jabberwalk
Brutes and Savages 1978 US Arthur Davis Jenny Craven Riz Ortolani
Mr. Mike's Mondo Video 1979 US Michael O'Donoghue Mitch Glazer Paul Shaffer
This Is America Part 2 1980 US Romano Vanderbes Bill Milling Emmanuel Vardi
Cannibal Holocaust 1980 Italy Ruggiero Deodato Gianfranco Clerici Riz Ortolani
Des Morts 1981 Jean-Pol Ferbus
Dominique Garny
Thierry Zéno
Jean-Pol Ferbus
Dominique Garny
Thierry Zéno
Alain Pierre aka Of the Dead; uncut run time 105 min.
The Killing of America 1982 US Sheldon Renan
Leonard Schrader
Chieko Schrader
Leonard Schrader
W. Michael Lewis
Mark Lindsay
aka Violence U.S.A. in Japan; uncut run time 90 min.
Mondo New York 1988 US Harvey Keith Harvey Keith
David Silver
Luis Perico Ortiz Uncut run time 83 min.
Mondo Ford 2001 US Scott Calonico
Ricardo Fratelli
Scott Calonico
Ricardo Fratelli
Uncut run time 7 min.
Murder Collection V.1 2009 US Fred Vogel Don Moore
Fred Vogel
Shelby Vogel
Jerami Cruise
Mondo Sexxxx: The Terry Kobrah Story 2011 US Logan Myers
Mondo Delirium 2011 Italy Flavio Sciolè Flavio Sciolè Uncut run time 170 min.
Made in Italy 2012 Italy Jephta
Mondomanila 2012 Philippines Khavn

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kerekes & Slater, p. 108.
  2. ^ Mondo New York (1988) The New York Times,
  3. ^ Kerekes & Slater, p. 102.
  4. ^ Mondo Cane (1962) The New York Times
  5. ^ Revisiting a Cinematic Smackdown, and Other Avant-Garde Pleasures The New York Times, October 1, 2009
  6. ^ Mondo Cane Variety Reviews, December 31, 1961
  7. ^ a b Kerekes & Slater, p. 107.
  8. ^ a b Kerekes & Slater, p. 109.
  9. ^ Kerekes & Slater, p. 315.
  10. ^ Kerekes & Slater, p. 155.
  11. ^ Kerekes & Slater, pp. 156-158.

Bibliography[edit]

  • RE/Search No. 10: Incredibly Strange Films: A Guide to Deviant Films. RE/Search Publications 1986, ISBN 0-940642-09-3
  • Brottman, Mikita: Mondo Horror. Carnivalizing the Taboo. In: Prince, Stephen (ed.) 2004: The horror film. S. 167-188. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0813533635.
  • Goodall, Mark 2006: Sweet & Savage. The World Through the Shockumentary Film Lens. London: Headpress. ISBN 978-1900486491. (the standard work on the mondo and cannibal genre)
  • Goodall, Mark 2006: Shockumentary Evidence. The perverse politics of the Mondo film. In: Dennison, Stephanie (Hg.) 2006: Remapping world cinema. Identity, culture and politics in film. S. 118-128. London: Wallflower. ISBN 978-1904764625.
  • Kerekes, David; Slater, David 2006: Killing for culture. Death film from Shockumentaries to snuff. Manchester: Headpress. ISBN 1900486636.
  • Stefano Loparco, 'Gualtiero Jacopetti - Graffi sul mondo'. The first complete biography dedicated to the co-director of 'Mondo cane'. Il Foglio Letterario, 2014 - ISBN 9788876064760
  • Shipka, Danny 2011: Perverse titillation. The exploitation cinema of Italy, Spain and France, 1960-1980. Jefferson: Mcfarland. ISBN 978-0786448883.

External links[edit]