|This article may rely excessively on sources too closely associated with the subject, preventing the article from being verifiable and neutral. (July 2013)|
|Type||Worker cooperative federation|
|Founder(s)||José María Arizmendiarrieta|
|Headquarters||Mondragón, Basque Country, Spain|
|Key people||Txema Gisasola (Chairman)|
|Revenue||14.081 billion € (2012)|
|Divisions||Finance, Industry, Retail, Knowledge|
The MONDRAGON Corporation is a corporation and federation of worker cooperatives based in the Basque region of Spain. It was founded in the town of Mondragón in 1956 by graduates of a local technical college. Its first product was paraffin heaters. It is the seventh-largest Spanish company in terms of asset turnover and the leading business group in the Basque Country. At the end of 2012, it employed 80,321 people in 289 companies and organizations in four areas of activity: finance, industry, retail and knowledge.
The determining factor in the creation of the Mondragon system was the arrival in 1941 of a young Catholic priest José María Arizmendiarrieta in Mondragón, a town with a population of 7,000 that had not yet recovered from the Spanish Civil War: poverty, hunger, exile and tension. In 1943, Arizmendiarrieta established a technical college that became a training ground for generations of managers, engineers and skilled labour for local companies, and primarily for the co-operatives.
Before creating the first co-operative, Arizmendiarrieta spent a number of years educating young people about a form of humanism based on solidarity and participation, in harmony with Catholic social teaching, and the importance of acquiring the necessary technical knowledge. In 1955, he selected five of these young people to set up the first company of the co-operative and industrial beginning of the Mondragon Corporation. The people were Usatorre, Larrañaga, Gorroñogoitia, Ormaechea and Ortubay, and the company was called Talleres Ulgor, an acronym derived from their surnames, known today as Fagor Electrodomésticos.
In the first 15 years many co-operatives were established, thanks to the autarky of the market and the awakening of the Spanish economy. During those years, also with the encouragement of Don José María, two bodies were set up that were to play a key role in the development of Mondragon - Caja Laboral (1959) and the Social Welfare Body Lagun Aro (1966). The first local group was created, Ularco, the embryo of the industrial co-operative associativism which has been so important in the corporation’s history. In 1969, Eroski was set up by a merger of ten small local consumer co-operatives.
During the next 20 years, from 1970 to 1990, the dynamism continued, with a strong increase in turnover, the launch of new co-operatives promoted by Caja Laboral’s Business Division, the promotion of co-operative associativism with the forming of local groups, and the setting up of the Ikerlan Research Centre in 1974.
With big changes on the horizon like Spain joining the European Economic Community, scheduled for 1986, it was decided to take an important step in the organisational area, by setting up the Mondragon Co-operative Group in 1984, the forerunner to the current corporation. In-service training for managers was also strengthened with the creation of Otalora, which was to dedicate itself to training and co-operative dissemination. The Group had 23,130 workers at the end of 1990.
On the international stage, the aim was to respond to the growing globalisation process, strongly promoting expansion abroad by setting up production plants in a number of countries. The first, the Copreci plant in Mexico in 1990 was followed by many others taking the total to 73 by the end of 2008 and 105 at the end of 2012. This was part of a strategy aimed at: increasing competitiveness and market share, bringing component supply closer to important customers’ plants, especially in the automotive and domestic appliance sectors; and strengthening employment in the Basque Country, by promoting the export of products manufactured by the co-operatives by means of the new platforms.
In October 2009, the United Steelworkers announced an agreement with Mondragon to create worker cooperatives in the United States. On March 26, 2012, the USW, Mondragon, and the Ohio Employee Ownership Center (OEOC) announced its detailed union co-op model.
In 2012 its industry area which ended the year with international sales that set a new record of €4 billion, beating sales figures from before the crisis. Mondragon consolidated its presence abroad by opening 11 new production subsidiaries. Its international sales that year accounted for 69% (with a 26% increase from 2009 to 2012) and it employed 14,000 people abroad. The increase in Mondragon’s share in the BRIC markets (Brazil, Russia, India and China) was also particularly significant, around 20% up compared to the previous year.
On 16 October 2013, Fagor filed for bankruptcy under Spanish law in order to renegotiate €1,1 billion of debt, after suffering heavy losses during the eurocrisis and as a consequence of poor financial management, putting 5,600 employees at risk of losing their jobs. This was followed by the bankruptcy of the whole Fagor group on 6 November 2013.
Mondragon co-operatives are united by a humanist concept of business, a philosophy of participation and solidarity, and a shared business culture. The culture is rooted in a shared mission and a number of principles, corporate values and business policies.
Over the years, these links have been embodied in a series of operating rules approved on a majority basis by the Co-operative Congresses, which regulate the activity of the Governing Bodies of the Corporation (Standing Committee, General Council), the Grassroots Co-operatives and the Divisions they belong to, from the organisational, institutional and economic points of view as well as in terms of assets.
This framework of business culture has been structured based on a common culture derived from the 10 Basic Co-operative Principles, in which Mondragon is rooted: Open Admission, Democratic Organisation, the Sovereignty of Labour, Instrumental and Subordinate Nature of Capital, Participatory Management, Payment Solidarity, Inter-cooperation, Social Transformation, Universality and Education.
This philosophy is complemented by four corporate values: Co-operation, acting as owners and protagonists; Participation, which takes shape as a commitment to management; Social Responsibility, by means of the distribution of wealth based on solidarity; and Innovation, focusing on constant renewal in all areas.
This business culture translates into compliance with a number of Basic Objectives (Customer Focus, Development, Innovation, Profitability, People in Co-operation and Involvement in the Community) and General Policies approved by the Co-operative Congress, which are taken on board at all the corporation’s organisational levels and incorporated into the four-year strategic plans and the annual business plans of the individual co-operatives, divisions, and the corporation as a whole.
At Mondragon, there are agreed-upon wage ratios between executive work and field or factory work which earns a minimum wage. These ratios range from 3:1 to 9:1 in different cooperatives and average 5:1. That is, the general manager of an average Mondragon cooperative earns no more than 5 times as much as the theoretical minimum wage paid in his/her cooperative. In reality, this ratio is smaller because there are few Mondragon worker-owners that earn minimum wages, because most jobs are somewhat specialized and are classified at higher wage levels. The wage ratio of a cooperative is decided periodically by its worker-owners through a democratic vote.
Compared to similar jobs at local industries, Mondragon managers' wages are considerably lower (as some companies pay their best paid managers hundreds of times more than the lowest-paid employee of the company) and equivalent for middle management, technical and professional levels. Lower wage levels are on average 13% higher than similar jobs at local businesses. Spain's progressive tax rate further reduces any disparity in pay.
Areas of activity
The corporation’s companies operate in four areas: finance, industry, retail, and knowledge, with the latter distinguishing Mondragon from other business groups. In 2012, the corporation posted a total revenue of over €14 billion (roughly $19 billion USD), and employed 80,000 workers, making it Spain's fourth-largest industrial and seventh-largest financial group.
This area includes the banking business of Caja Laboral, the insurance company Seguros Lagun Aro, and the Voluntary Social Welfare Body Lagun Aro, which had an asset fund totalling €4.2 billion at the end of 2009. The yield obtained from this fund is used to cover long-term retirement, widowhood, and invalidity benefits, complementary to those offered by the Spanish social security system.
Caja Laboral, for its part, ended 2009 with €18.6 billion of deposits in a year in which it granted loans worth €16.4 billion, mainly to households and small and medium-sized enterprises. Its extensive experience with the Corporation’s Co-operatives enables it to offer SMEs services typical of large companies.
The corporation’s companies manufacture consumer goods, capital goods, industrial components, products and systems for construction, and services to business.
In the consumer goods sector, with sales totalling €1.5 billion, Mondragon produces white goods: refrigerators, washing machines, ovens, dishwashers, and boilers, under the brands Fagor, Brandt, and Mastercook, and maintains a leadership position in Spain and France and co-leadership in Poland and Morocco. It also produces office furniture and home furniture. In the leisure and sports area, it manufactures Orbea bicycles, exercise equipment and items for camping, the garden and the beach.
In capital goods, Mondragon posted a turnover of €976 million in 2009, and is the leading Spanish manufacturer of chip-removing (Danobat Group) and sheet metal forming (Fagor Arrasate Group) machine tools. These machines are complemented by automation and control products for machine tools, packaging machinery, machinery for automating assembly processes and processing wood, forklift trucks, electric transformers, integrated equipment for the catering industry, cold stores, and refrigeration equipment. Specifically focusing on the automotive sector, the corporation also manufactures a wide variety of dies, molds and tooling for casting iron and aluminium, and occupies a leading position in machinery for the casting sector.
In Industrial Components, Mondragon posted a turnover of €1.5 billion in 2009, a sector in which it operates as an integrated supplier for the leading car manufacturers, offering from the design and development of a part to the industrialisation and supply of components and assemblies. It has different business units such as brakes, axles, suspension, transmission, engines, aluminium wheel rims, fluid conduction, and other internal and external vehicle components. It also produces components for the main domestic appliance manufacturers in three business areas: white goods, home comfort, and electronics. And it manufactures flanges and pipe accessories for processing oil-gas, petrochemical plants and power generation, copper and aluminium electrical conductors, and components for conveyors.
In construction, sales totalled €974 million in 2009. Mondragon has constructed buildings and important infrastructure projects. It designs and builds large metallic (URSSA), laminated wood and prefabricated concrete structures; supplies prefabricated parts in polymer concrete; offers solutions for formwork and structures (ULMA Group) as well as public works machinery and the industrialisation of the construction process, including engineering and assembly services. It also produces elevators (ORONA Group).
In services to business, sales totalled €248 million in 2008, including business consultancy services, architecture and engineering, property consulting, design and innovation (LKS Group), systems engineering for electromechanical installations, and integrated logistics engineering. It also offers a modern language service, manufactures educational equipment, and provides graphic arts services (MccGraphics).
In 2009, 59.4% of turnover came from international sales. Sales resulting from the export of products abroad and production generated in the 75 subsidiaries located in 17 different countries: China (13), France (9), Poland (8), Czech Republic (7), Mexico (7), Brazil (5), Germany (4), Italy (4), United Kingdom (3), Romania (3), United States (2), Turkey (2), Portugal (2), Slovakia (2), India (2), Thailand (1) and Morocco (1). Overall, in 2009 these 75 plants produced goods worth €3.1 billion and provided work for 14,506 people. The corporate industrial park in Kunshan, close to Shanghai houses seven subsidiaries. In 2012, it opened 11 new subsidiaries abroad, employing around 14,000 people. Its international sales that year marked a record number of 69% of its total sales (€5.8bn, with a 2% fall compared to the previous year). Mondragon also participated in 91 international R&D projects.
Led by Eroski, Mondragon runs one of the leading retail groups in Spain, posting a turnover of €8.3 billion in 2010. It operates all over Spain and in the southern France, and maintains close contacts with the French group Les Mousquetaires and the leading German retailer Edeka, with whom it set up the Alidis international partnership in 2002. The worker-owners and consumer-members are involved in the management of Eroski, with both groups participating in the co-operative’s decision-making bodies.
At the end of 2009, Eroski was operating an extensive chain of almost 2,400 stores made up of 113 Eroski hypermarkets, 1,063 Eroski/center, Caprabo and Eroski/city supermarkets, 224 branches of the Eroski/viajes travel agency, 58 petrol stations, 40 Forum Sport stores, 289 IF perfume stores, 7 Abac leisure and culture outlets and 40 goods depots. In addition to this chain, there are 481 self-service franchise outlets. Moreover, in the south of France it has 4 hypermarkets, 16 supermarkets and 17 petrol stations, and it has 4 perfume stores in Andorra.
At an assembly held in 2008, its worker-members approved by a majority vote the process to expand the transformation into co-operatively run businesses to the group as a whole. So work started on turning the group’s subsidiaries into co-operatives, and on making their salaried workers worker-members. This process was to be carried out over the next few years.
The retail area is also home to the food group Erkop, which operates in the catering, cleaning, stock-breeding, and horticulture sectors and has as its leading name Auzo Lagun, a co-operative engaged in group catering and the cleaning of buildings and premises, and also offers an integrated service in the health sector.
This area has a dual focus: education-training and innovation, which have both been key elements in the development of the Corporation. Training-education is mainly linked to the dynamism of the University of Mondragón, the significant role that Politeknika Ikastegia Txorierri, Arizmendi Ikastola and Lea Artibai Ikastetxea play in their respective areas and the activity of the Management and Co-operative Development Centre Otalora.
The University of Mondragon is a co-operative university, which combines the development of knowledge, skills, and values, and maintains close relations with business, especially Mondragon co-operatives. Technological innovation is generated through the co-operatives’ own R&D departments, the Corporate Science and Technology Plan, the corporation’s 12 technology centres and the Garaia Innovation Park.
The 12 technology centres play a fundamental role in the development of the sectors of focus. In 2009 they employed 742 people and had a budget of €53.7 million. In 2012 its network of technology centres and R&D units provided employment for 2,000 people. That same year, 19% of its revenue came from products developed in the last five years. Mondragon has 564 patent families and files an invention patent every week.
Scholars such as Richard D. Wolff, American professor of economics, have hailed the Mondragon set of enterprises, including the good wages it provides for employees, the empowerment of ordinary workers in decision making, and the measure of equality for female workers, as a major success and have cited it as a working model of an alternative to the capitalist mode of production.
|“||Take the most advanced case: Mondragon. It’s worker owned, it’s not worker managed, although the management does come from the workforce often, but it’s in a market system and they still exploit workers in South America, and they do things that are harmful to the society as a whole and they have no choice. If you’re in a system where you must make profit in order to survive, you're compelled to ignore negative externalities, effects on others.||”|
Vincent Navarro wrote that from a business perspective, Mondragon is successful in matching efficiency with solidarity and democracy. However, he writes that the number of employees who are not owners have increased more rapidly than worker-owners, to a point that in some companies, for example in the supermarket chains owned by Mondragon, the first are a much larger group than the second. In Navarro's view, this establishes a two-tier system - for example, in terms of whom to save in the case the company collapses. In the collapse of Fagor, the relocation of employees to other companies belonging to Mondragon favored those who were worker-owners, which, in Navarro's view, creates a two-tier system that may affect labor relations:
|“||Actually, one of the successes of Mondragon was its ability to create a sense of identity among the workers within the company, encouraging an environment of solidarity and collegiality among them, a feeling that also extended (although to a much lesser degree) to non-worker-owners. The connection felt by the latter group has somewhat weakened, however, exposing a vulnerable point for the cooperative.||”|
The Mondragon system is one of four case studies analyzed in Capital and the Debt Trap, which summarized evidence claiming that cooperatives tend to last longer and are less susceptible to perverse incentives and other problems of organizational governance than more traditionally managed organization.
- José María Arizmendiarrieta
- John Lewis Partnership
- List of worker cooperatives
- Mondragon Corporation. "Annual Report 2012".
- The Mondragon Experiment - Corporate Cooperativism (1980) FULL
- Molina, Fernando (2005). Jose Maria Arizmendiarreta. Caja Laboral. ISBN 84-920246-2-3.
- Foote, William (1991). Making Mondragon. IRL Press. ISBN 0-87546-182-4.
- "Year-on-year Development, MONDRAGON Corporation". www.mondragon-corporation.com. Archived from the original on 2011-12-31.
- Ormaetxe, Jose Maria (2003). Medio siglo de la experiencia cooperativa de Mondragon. Azatza. SS-1433/2003.
- Wilson, Amanda. Bendable Business: Cooperatives less likely to break in economic crises. The Dominion. 4 December 2009.
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- Mondragon Corporation
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- Vincent Navarro, What About Cooperatives as a Solution? The Case of Mondragon, CounterPunch, 2014.04.30
- Jeffrey Hollender (June 27, 2011). "The Rise Of Shared Ownership And The Fall Of Business As Usual". Fast Company. Retrieved 2011-06-28.
- / Caja Laboral annual report 2009
- / Organisational Estructure in Mondragon, consumer goods
- / Organisational estructure in Mondragon, capital goods
- / Organisational Estructure in Mondragon, industrial components
- / Corporative Profile 2010
- Tu Lankide, 17 June 2013, "Internationalisation consolidates Mondragon’s industrial business with sales abroad in excess of €4bn", http://www.tulankide.com/en/internationalisation-consolidates-mondragon2019s-industrial-business-with-sales-abroad-in-excess-of-20ac4bn-3
- / Magnitudes económicas de Eroski
- Mondragon Annual Corporate Profile for 2010
- / Mondragon Yearly Report 2010
- Wolff, Richard (24 June 2012). Yes, there is an alternative to capitalism: Mondragon shows the way. The Guardian.
- Talking With Chomsky, Laura Flanders, CounterPunch.
- Azurmendi, Joxe 1984: El hombre cooperativo
- Spanish white goods company Fagor seeks protection from creditors (October 2013)
- Thousands of Fagor employees demand in Mondragon town to keep their jobs (October 2013)
- White-goods giant Fagor goes into administration (October 2013)
- Cooperation for Economic Success. The Mondragon Case (2011) in Analyse & Kritik, 33 (1), 157-170 . Ramon Flecha & Iñaqui Santa Cruz.http://www.analyse-und-kritik.net/en/abstracts_current.php#562
- Making Mondragon: The Growth and Dynamics of the Worker Cooperative Complex (1991), William Whyte. ISBN 0-87546-182-4
- We Build the Road as We Travel: Mondragon, A Cooperative Social System, Roy Morrison. ISBN 0-86571-173-9
- The Mondragon Cooperative Experience (1993), J. Ormachea.
- Cooperation at Work: The Mondragon Experience (1983), K. Bradely & A. Gelb.
- Values at Work: Employees participation meets market pressure at Mondragon (1999), G. Cheney.
- Mondragon: An economic analysis (1982), C. Logan & H. Thomas.
- The Myth of Mondragon: Cooperatives, Politics, and Working-Class Life in a Basque Town (1996), by Sharryn Kasmir, State University of New York Press.
- From Mondragon to America: Experiments in Community Economic Development (1997), by G. MacLeod, University College of Cape Breton Press. ISBN 0-920336-53-1
- "Jobs of Our Own: Building a Stakeholder Society" (1999), by Race Mathews, Pluto Press (Australia) and Comerford & Miller (London). ISBN 1-86403-064-X. US reprint 2009, The Distributist Review Press. ISBN 978-0-9679707-9-0. ISBN 0-9679707-9-2.
- "Rag Radio: Carl Davidson on Mondragon and Workers' Cooperatives," The Rag Blog, September 15, 2011 Interview by Thorne Dreyer (44:05)
- Articles about the Mondragon Corporation on The Rag Blog
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mondragon Corporation.|
- Official website
- El PNV asegura que Fagor y Mondragon han actuado tarde, mal y a destiempo EL CORREO Newspaper
- MONDRAGON Corporation - Google Maps
- CEPES MCC is member of the Spanish National Confederation of social economy Enterprises.
- Mondragón: The Remarkable Achievement article from In Context magazine, 1983