|Official name: City of Monessen|
|Named for: Monongahela + Essen, Germany|
|Elevation||1,128 ft (344 m)|
|Area||3.1 sq mi (8 km2)|
|- land||2.9 sq mi (7.5 km2)|
|- water||0.2 sq mi (0.5 km2), 6.45%|
|Density||2,662.1 / sq mi (1,027.8 / km2)|
|- Borough incorporated||September 3, 1898|
|- City incorporated||September 16, 1921|
|Mayor||Mary Jo Smith|
|- summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|School District||Monessen City School District|
Monessen is a city in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 7,720 at the 2010 census. In 1940, 20,257 people lived there. In 1990 the population was 13,026. Monessen is the most southwestern municipal of Westmoreland County. Steel-making was a prominent industry in Monessen, which was a Rust Belt borough in the "Mon Valley" of southwestern Pennsylvania that became a third-class city in 1921. It is near Charleroi and Donora, two similar places with similar histories.
Monessen, named for the Monongahela River and the industrial German city of Essen, was created by land speculators fairly late in the history of the Mon Valley, after neighboring towns had already been settled. The East Side Land Company bought land from various farmers, laid out the streets, and then sold the lots to prospective residents and employers. James M. Schoonmaker, who had made his fortune in coke, owned a controlling interest in the land company. Other investors in the land company who were also immortalized in street names include Philander C. Knox, James H. Reed, H. Sellers McKee, George O. Morgan, and George B. Motheral. In May 1897, National Tin Plate Company, founded by William Donner, began building its mill, thus becoming Monessen’s first employer. Sales of lots began on July 27, 1897, for the general public and other employers. Monessen became a borough on September 3, 1898.
Monessen experienced rapid growth in the first two decades of the twentieth century, the population increasing from 2,197 in 1900 to 11,775 in 1910 and then to 18,179 in 1920.
While there were many companies operating in Monessen, the largest employer was Pittsburgh Steel Company, later renamed Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel. In a practice that is shocking by today’s standards (and not limited to Monessen), pay was determined by ethnic background. For example, a Welsh immigrant would be paid more than an Italian immigrant. A normal workweek was 84 hours (7 days times 12 hours). Employers did not adopt the eight hour workday until the 1920s.
Monessen’s status changed from “borough” to “city” on September 16, 1921.
In the years following World War II, the region’s manufacturers, especially the steel industry, found it harder to compete, leading to a period of employment cutbacks. In 1972, the closure of Page Steel and Wire Company was a major setback to the city. A far greater blow to Monessen occurred when its largest employer, Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel, closed nearly all its Monessen operations in 1986. (The company’s rail mill did not close until March 1987, due to a bad batch of rails that were shipped.) The mill’s closure marked the end of an era in Monessen's history.
Monessen is currently trying to revitalize itself. The city has made efforts for several years to clean up abandoned properties in hopes of revitalizing the city. In January 2010 the first female mayor, Mary Jo Smith was sworn in at the Monessen Municipal Building.
Monessen is located at .(40.154271, -79.882779)
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.1 square miles (8.0 km2), of which, 2.9 square miles (7.5 km2) of it is land and 0.2 square miles (0.52 km2) of it (4.90%) is water.
The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and generally mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Monessen has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps.
|Climate data for Monessen, Pennsylvania|
|Average high °C (°F)||4
|Average low °C (°F)||−7
|Precipitation mm (inches)||74
|Source: Weatherbase |
As of the census of 2000, there were 8,669 people, 3,916 households, and 2,451 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,986.8 people per square mile (1,154.2/km²). There were 4,468 housing units at an average density of 1,539.4 per square mile (594.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 83.71% White, 13.99% African American, 0.09% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.33% from other races, and 1.63% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.82% of the population. 27.9% were of Italian, 8.4% Slovak, 7.5% German and 7.0% Polish ancestry according to Census 2000.
There were 3,916 households out of which 21.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.9% were married couples living together, 15.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.4% were non-families. 34.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 22.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.80.
In the city the population was spread out with 19.6% under the age of 18, 5.3% from 18 to 24, 23.3% from 25 to 44, 22.7% from 45 to 64, and 29.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females there were 84.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.0 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $26,686, and the median income for a family was $37,269. Males had a median income of $34,773 versus $21,508 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,627. About 11.5% of families and 15.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.7% of those under age 18 and 8.2% of those age 65 or over.
- Douglas Education Center is a private, for profit higher education career school, located in Monessen.
- Monessen City School District is a public school district in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania.
- The Valley Independent is a newspaper based in Monessen, that is under the Tribune Review Publishing Company.
- Albert Lexie, shoeshiner-by-trade, reputed for donating one third of his lifetime salary to charity 
- Michael Moorer, former heavyweight boxer; boxing champion
- Armand Niccolai (1911-1988), former NFL player for the Pittsburgh Pirates/Steelers
- Blanche Thebom, mezzo-soprano singer
- Christian B. Anfinsen, Nobel Prize Laureate
- Frances McDormand, Oscar-winning American actress
- James H. Reed (1853-1927) Allegheny, Pennsylvania native, United States federal judge, lawyer, founder of Reed Smith law firm, one of several founders of the City of Monessen.
- James M. Schoonmaker (1842-1927) Pittsburgh native, American Civil War Colonel, vice-president of the Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Railroad, one of several founders of the City of Monessen.
- Philander C. Knox (1852-1921) United States Senator, Brownsville, Pennsylvania native, one of several founders of the City of Monessen.
- Tom Savini, makeup artist
- Vivian, Cassandra (2002). Monessen: A Typical Steel Country Town. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. p. 13. ISBN 0-7385-2383-6.
- "Westmoreland County (Dates of incorporation of municipalities)" (PDF). Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. Retrieved 2008-05-24.
- Vivian, Cassandra (2002). Monessen: A Typical Steel Country Town. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. p. 53. ISBN 0-7385-2383-6.
- Vivian, Cassandra (2002). Monessen: A Typical Steel Country Town. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. pp. 143–145. ISBN 0-7385-2383-6.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2010-07-09.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- Climate Summary for Monessen, Pennsylvania
- "Weatherbase.com". Weatherbase. 2013. Retrieved on October 24, 2013.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- City of Monessen
- Monessen City School District
- Monessen Public Library
- Monessen Chamber of Commerce
- Douglas Education Center's Official Website
- The Valley Independent-Trib Total Media