Mongolian Academy of Sciences
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The Mongolian Academy of Sciences (Mongolian: Монгол улсын Шинжлэх ухааны Академи, Mongol ulsyn Shinjlekh ukhaany Akademi) is Mongolia's first centre of modern sciences. Knowledge has always been of high regard and great value for Mongolians. It was in the 13th century when Mongolians, the Great Khaan Khubilai in particular, established the first academic institution of the nation, called “The Academy of Worthies”. Mongolia’s first center of modern science came into being in 1921 when the government of newly independent Mongolia issued a resolution declaring the establishment of “The Institute of Literature and Scripts”, which was later upgraded into “The Institute of Sciences” and “ The Institute of Sciences and Higher Education”. In 1961, it was finally reorganized as “The Mongolian Academy of Sciences” MAS. At present there are 21 research institutes, centers, two affiliated academies and one library under MAS.
The law “on the Legal Status of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences” ratified by the State Great Hural (Parliament) of Mongolia promulgated the Mongolian Academy of Sciences as the central scientific thinktank, whose aim is to develop science and advanced technology in the country. The Mongolian Academy of Sciences is a civil self-governed non-commercial organization. Our mission is to conduct research in fundamental and technological sciences for the purpose of providing further knowledge and advise for the Government decision-making and to undertake government-assigned projects with regard to key S&T problems in the process of social, economic and cultural development of Mongolia.
MAS strives to build itself into a base for promoting the development of Mongolia’s high and new technology industries. By 2021 the national innovation system and S&T sector able to ensure the quality of life of the people and its security will be established.
General Assembly of MAS, the Presidium and President of MAS constitute management bodies of MAS.
The activities of the Academy in its present form are governed by the law “on the Legal Status of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences” of May 1996. The Supreme governing body of the Academy is its General Assembly consisting of all national Academy members. The General Assembly sets forth the direction of the Academy’s activities and supervises their execution. Between sessions of the Assembly (which takes place twice a year) the Presidium of the Academy takes responsibility for all strategic issues. The Presidium is composed of the President, four Vice Presidents (two of them are part-time), Secretary - General and other Presidium members.
The General Assembly addresses the following issues: 1) the development policy of science and technology, outcomes of scientific projects, methods for technology transfer and assisting the Government in science and technology policy, 2) to assess and evaluate the economic and social development issues of Mongolia, advise the Government the Parliament and the President of the country on decision-making, 3) determines the principal directions and priorities of MAS fundamental research, 4) approves the MAS Presidium Report on scientific achievements by MAS and scientific research work done by the Presidium since the previous election of the Academy members. 5) elects the Academy President, Vice Presidents and Secretary - General for a term of four years.
Mongolia has chosen the perspective of development in the 21st century based on new scientific knowledge and advances technology.
President and Presidium
The Presidium of MAS is a permanent collegiate body of MAS management. The MAS Presidium reports to the MAS General Assembly; the Presidium presents to the General Assembly a report on the most important resolutions adopted during the period between the MAS General Assembly sessions. The President of the Academy acts as the science and technology adviser to the Prime Minister and the President of Mongolia.
There are two affiliated Academies to MAS. They are the Academy of Medical Science and the Agricultural Academy.
The academic sub-assemblies are the principal scientific and research organization center that unites the MAS members specializing in one or several related fields of science. It comprises the research institutes, organizations, scientific councils and committees. There are five academic sub-assemblies: Sub-Assembly of Biology, Sub-Assembly of Geology and Geography, Sub-Assembly of Physics, Mathematics and Chemistry, Sub-Assembly of Social Sciences and Sub-Assembly of Technology. The principal objectives of the MAS academic divisions are to develop fundamental research by the scientific subdivisions, coordination and analysis and forecast of the scientific development and to provide methodological guidelines to the institutes within the Sub-Assembly. Academic Sub-Assemblies establish and publish the field-specific scientific journals.
The Academic Sub-Assemblies address following issues:
- discuss the progress and the results of scientific research conducted within each scientific sub-assembly;
- discuss, assess and evaluate project final reports and submit them to the appropriate organizations;
- discuss and evaluate scientific publications, proceedings, books and research materials to be submitted for publication.
International cooperation plays an important role in improving science and technology, training of talents, upgrading experimental conditions, and exchanging information. As Mongolia lies at the crossroads between Europe and Asia, MAS has cooperative arrangements with scientific organizations in Europe and Asia. The Mongolian Academy of Sciences is a national member of the International Council for Science (ICSU), Association of Academies of Sciences in Asia (AASA), Science Council of Asia (SCA) and Academies of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS). At present, the Mongolian Academy of Sciences has established formal contacts with over 100 national academic and research organizations on more than 30 countries, in addition to various kinds of cooperative arrangements on mutually interested areas.
In 1982, the Mongolian Academy of Sciences published the text of the Treaty of friendship and alliance between the Government of Mongolia and Tibet in the Mongolian language.
Notes and references
- Udo B. Barkmann, Geschichte der Mongolei, Bonn 1999, p. 380f