Mongolian People's Party

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Mongolian People's Party
General Secretary Ulziisaikhan Enkhtuvshin
Founded March 1, 1921
Headquarters Ulan Bator, Mongolia
Newspaper Mongolian True
Youth wing NAMZH
Membership  (as of May 2012) 220,000
Ideology 1921-1991:
Communism
Marxism-Leninism
1991-present:
Post-Communism
Democratic socialism
Social democracy
Political position 1921-1991:
Non-declared
1991-present:
Centre-left
International affiliation Socialist International,
Progressive Alliance
Colors Red and Blue
State Great Khural
26 / 76
Website
http://mpp.mn
Politics of Mongolia
Political parties
Elections
formerly known as the
Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party
Монгол Ардын Нам
(1924–2011)

The Mongolian People's Party (Mongolian: Монгол Ардын Нам, Mongol Ardiin Nam), formerly the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (Mongolian: Монгол Ардын Хувьсгалт Нам, Mongol Ardyn Khuvsgalt Nam, МАХН, MAKHN) is the oldest political party in Mongolia. The party's ideology is currently social democracy and was previously Marxism-Leninism. The party is abbreviated MPP in English and МАН (MAN) in (transliterated) Mongolian.

The party in 2010 reverted to its original name by dropping the word "Revolutionary", resulting in a split in the party in which the breakaway faction retained the previous name.[1][2]

The MPP was the ruling party of Mongolia from 1921 until 1996 (with no other political parties allowed until 1990), in 2000-2004, 2008-2012. The MPP entered into a coalition government with Motherland-Democracy Coalition of Democratic Party and Motherland Party in 2004-2008, and with Democratic Party in 2008-2012, although the MPP had a majority in parliament at that time. After the 2012 elections, the MPP became the opposition party in parliament.

History[edit]

Background[edit]

In 1911, Mongolia had declared its independence from the Qing dynasty after over two centuries of foreign rule. Unfortunately, this new independence under the Bogd Khan did not last, not being recognized as independent by its two neighbors, only being granted autonomous status under Chinese rule. In 1919, Mongolia was invaded by the Chinese Beiyang Government and in turn by White Russian forces in 1921.

1921 revolution[edit]

During this occupation period, two groups, known as the "Consular Hill" (Konsulyn denj) and East Khuree (Züün khüree) formed as resistance movements. On June 25, 1920, these two groups united to form a "Mongolian People's Party", and decided to send seven representatives to the Soviet Russia. In August, they met with Soviet representatives in Irkutsk. On March 1, 1921, the party officially formed as a political party, claimed to be the first in Mongolia, in Kyakhta and formed a provisional government.

The conceptual foundation of the party was formulated as follows:

"The Mongolian People’s Party will aim to eliminate all brutal enemies harmful to the state and the religion; to re-gain the lost rights; to vigorously enhance the state and the religion; to regard the deeds for the sake of poor and vulnerable people as the supreme mission; to uphold long-lasting nature of internal affairs; and to create a living free from dangers of being oppressed and oppressing others."

On March 18, a Mongolian People's Army under Damdin Sükhbaatar defeated Chinese forces and took Kyakhta. In May, the White Russian Baron Ungern took his forces north from Ikh Khuree and were defeated by joint Mongolian People's Army and Red Army forces. On June 25, 1921, the Mongolian People’s Party issued a statement addressed to all Mongolians, which informed about its decision to liberate Capital city through military force. The forces entered the capital in July 6 and finally declared independence on July 11, 1921.

The party renamed itself the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party in 1924 upon the advice of the Communist International.[3]

Armed uprising and Purges[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Stalinist repressions in Mongolia.
For more details on this topic, see 1932 armed uprising in Mongolia.

In 1928, Mongolian politics took a sharp leftward turn, beginning to adhere to communist ideology. Herds were forcibly collectivized, private trade and transport forbidden, and monasteries and the nobility came under attack. With the now state-run trade and transport unable to function, it led to an economic breakdown with more than 7 million heads of livestock dead, and to widespread unrest and uprisings in 1932. The uprising was quelled in October 1932, after the Mongolian and Soviet armies, tanks and planes had been involved.

The 1933, the first wave of purges began with the Lkhümbe Affair, a manufactured conspiracy linking Party Secretary Jambyn Lkhümbe with Japanese spying networks. Over 1500 people were implicated in the purge, many of them being executed. The victims included Prime Minister Peljidiin Genden who was enthusiastic in the liberalised development of the economy. In 1936, Genden was removed from power and executed in the USSR. Khorloogiin Choibalsan, a strong ally of Joseph Stalin, gained power.

Between 1937 and 1939, a second wave of purges began, with 25,437 people officially arrested, of which 20,099 were executed. Some estimates place the number of victims from over 35,000 to 100,000. Of the implicated over 18,000 were lamas, resulting in the virtual destruction of the Buddhist clergy. Between 1940 and 1955, purges were conducted against those who were complicit in the previous purges.

During Choibalsan's rule considerable improvements in the country's infrastructure, roads and communication lines were made with Soviet assistance, and steps were taken toward improving the country's literacy rate.

In December 1947, 11th Congress of the Party was held, approving the first 5-year plan of the country with the objectives to intensify the development of the economy, industries, animal husbandry and agriculture through a series of stages.

In 1952, Khorloogiin Choibalsan died, with Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal gaining power. He successfully purged his political rivals: Dashiin Damba in 1958-59, Daramyn Tömör-Ochir in 1962, Luvsantserengiin Tsend in 1963, and the so-called Lookhuuz-Nyambuu-Surmaajav "anti-party" group in December 1964. His foreign policy was marked by efforts not only to bring Mongolia into ever closer cooperation with the USSR but also aggressive attempts to incorporate Mongolia into the Soviet Union. Tsedenbal's attempts to bring Mongolia into Soviet Union and make it the 16th Republic of the Soviet Union met strong opposition from other patriotic politicians and Tsedenbal was accused of treachery. At the time of the Sino-Soviet split, Tsedenbal decisively sided with the Soviet Union and incurred China's wrath. Tsedenbal is remembered for successfully maintaining a path of moderate socialism during the Cold War.

Achievements[edit]

After declaring country’s independence in 1921, the country started to develop under MPP and People’s Government’s multifaceted progressive socio-economic policy.

The special regulation to establish a public school was approved by People’s government on August 14, 1921 and the Ministry of Home Affairs set up a special department in charge of schools and enlightenment on August 31, 1921. On November 2, 1921, the first 3-year state-run school was established in capital city which set the basis for literacy for all. The establishment of the Institute of Manuscripts on November 19, 1921, served as the beginning of scientific organizations of Mongolia. As national trade was considered to be vital to the revival of economy The Mongolian Cooperative for Mutual Assistance was founded with 70 members. The circulation of the new national currency in 1925, marked the birth of Mongolia’s banking and taxation system. Since 1925, carpet-weaving, wood processing, iron smelting brick and gypsum plants were established, the Nalaikh coal mine, power plant and the leather factory in Altanbulag was expanded. Small-scale hand-craft cooperatives met domestic demand for goods such as clothing. All these laid down the beginning of qualitative change in the economic system of Mongolia.

Since the establishment of People’s Government in 1921, the country abandoned its old court system which had used harsh interrogation methods and corporal punishment, introducing a new penitentiary and re-education centers.

With the view of fostering culture and arts in Mongolia, the People’s government established the Sukhbaatar Club in 1924, thus laying the foundations of national cultural and art organizations. In 1925, clubs were established in several provinces while mobile red gers were put into operation to promote culture and education among the general public this enabling people to have access to books and newspapers, cinema etc.

On March 25, 1921, the People’s Provisional Government issued a resolution to establish the unit to treat patients in the military facilities which began providing free medical treatment to the military and civilians, thus beginning the modern health system in the country. In 1930, the People’s Health Ministry was established and the state policies and activities on health started to be implemented.

The first national radio broadcasting was aired on September 1, 1934.

The establishment of the Communications unit in the capital city in 1921 laid down the foundation for Mongolian Communications. In 1925 a flight between Troyitskosavsk and Ulaanbaatar was launched, paving the way for Mongolian air forces and civil aviation. The establishment of the State freight unit in July, 1925 laid down the foundation for automobile transportation.

In 1940-1960, the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party intensified its activities to develop the country by implementing a series of important projects with the view to re-organizing the agricultural sector into a system of cooperatives[4] and gradually develop other sectors of the economy of strategic importance in planned method. The 11th Congress of the MPP, held in December 1947, approved the first 5-year plan of the country with the objectives to intensify the development of the economy, industries, animal husbandry and agriculture through series of stages. The decision of the 3rd Plenum of the Central Committee of MPP to cultivate untouched land enabled the country to produce wheat which met nation’s domestic needs.

In the period between 1960 and 1990, the country consolidated its development basis by creating light industrial complex, laying the foundation for mining and heavy industries and establishing new industrial and urban centers throughout the country.

1990 Democratic Revolution[edit]

In August 1984, Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal was forced into retirement in a Soviet-sponsored move, allegedly on the account of his old age and mental weakness. Jambyn Batmönkh took power in August 1984 as MPP leader as well as the country's leader.

On 10 December 1989, the first open pro-democracy demonstration met in front of the Youth Cultural Center in Ulaanbaatar.[5] In the subsequent months, the demonstration organizer activists founded Mongoliin Ardchilsan Kholboo (Mongolian Democratic Union) and continued to organize demonstrations, rallies, protests and hunger strikes, as well as teachers' and workers' strikes[6] calling for democracy both in the capital and the countryside and had growing support from Mongolians all over the country.[7][8]

On March 7, 1990, in Sükhbaatar Square, Mongolian Democratic Union launched a hunger strike urging the communists to resign. The party's Politburo – the authority of the government – eventually gave way to the pressure and entered negotiations with the leaders of the democratic movement.[9] Jambyn Batmönkh, chairman of Politburo of MPRP's Central Committee decided to dissolve the Politburo and to resign on 9 March 1990.[10][11] This paved the way for the first multi-party elections in Mongolia.[6]

Behind the scenes, however, the Party had seriously considered cracking down on the protesters, writing a decree that was left to be signed by the party leader Jambyn Batmönkh. Batmönkh opposed it, maintaining a strict policy of never using force (Mongolian: Хэрхэвч Хүч хэрэглэж болохгүй). People those present later recalled that Batmönkh said "I will never sign this. We few Mongols have not yet come to the point that we will make each other's noses bleed," smacked the table, and left the room."[12]

In the elections of 1990, parties had run for 430 seats in the Great Khural. Opposition parties had been unable to nominate enough candidates. The MPRP won 357 seats in the Great Khural, won a majority in the Small Khural as well (which was later to be abolished), winning 31 out of 53. Nonetheless, the new MPRP government under Dashiin Byambasüren shared power with the democrats, and implemented constitutional and economic reforms, with a new constitution being adopted in 1992. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, which had until 1990 provided significant economic aid to Mongolia's state budget, the country experienced harsh economic problems. In the 1993 Mongolian presidential elections, the MPRP was defeated for the first time in its history, with the candidate backed by the democratic parties, Punsalmaagiin Ochirbat, winning with two thirds of the vote.

In 1996 parliamentary elections, Democratic Union Coalition co-led by Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj as chairman of Democratic Party won. This time the democrats won the legislative elections for the first time.[13] In 2000, 2004, and 2008, the MPRP won the legislative elections and was the ruling party between these periods. It formed two coalition governments with Democratic Party in 2004-2008 and 2008-2012.

In 2003, the party became a member of the Socialist International.

The 2008 Parliamentary elections were especially controversial, with the MPRP being accused of vote rigging. Protests against the results turned violent on 1 July, and ensued riot. Not enough measures to stop the riot or extinguish the fire were taken by the authorities. The scene of the riots was the MPRP headquarters, which was burnt out. Following the riots, a five-day state of emergency was declared by President Nambaryn Enkhbayar, the first time in Mongolia.[14] Five people, all of them civilians, were killed during the state of emergency: four were shot, and one apparently died from carbon monoxide poisoning.[15][16] The Mongolian Minister of Justice estimated 220 civilians and 108 service members were injured. With the situation tense, the MPRP decided to admit the Democratic Party into government, forming a coalition. With its headquarters burnt, the MPRP tore down the building and built a new much taller and bigger modern headquarters in its place (named the Independence Palace, Mongolian: Тусгаар тогтнолын ордон) with subsidiary from the budget of the government run by the Mongolian People's Party (former MPRP) and donations from its party members and the building began to fully operate on 26 November 2011.[17][18]

In 2009 Mongolian Presidential election, Democratic Party candidate Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj defeated MPRP candidate incumbent President Nambaryn Enkhbayar.[19][20] In January 2012, Democratic Party made a decision to leave the coalition government before upcoming parliamentary elections in June. In 2012 Parliamentary elections Democratic Party defeated MPP and MPP became the opposition with 26 seats at the parliament.[21] In 2012 local elections of the capital city, provinces, districts MPP was defeated for the first time in the country's history.[22] In 2013 Mongolian Presidential election, Democratic Party candidate incumbent President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj defeated MPP candidate.[23]

Name restoration[edit]

The former logo of the "Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party", later adopted by a new party

The matter of restoring the name of the party to the "Mongolian People’s Party" had been at the core of discussions among the party members and during the Party Congresses since 1990. In 2010, the matter of restoring the original name of the party was extensively deliberated at all levels of party organizations, resulting on 81.3% of all members fully supporting the restoration of the original name of "Mongolian People’s Party", and 10.7% of members reckoning to deliberate this matter during the 26th Party Congress. The decision to restore the original name of the party was approved by 99.3% of the delegates of the 26th Congress of the Mongolian People’s Party. Another important decision made by 26th Congress was the reformulation of Party’s political ideology from democratic socialism to social democracy.

After Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party restored its original name "Mongolian People's Party", Nambaryn Enkhbayar, former President of Mongolia and former MPRP chairman established a new political party in 2010 and took the permission of using the name "Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party" for his new party from the Supreme Court of Mongolia on 24 June 2011.[24][25]

Ideology[edit]

In 1928, MPRP adopted Communist ideology which stemmed from the Mongolia’s special relations with the Soviet Union. From 1928 to 1943, MPRP was a member of the Communist International. In 1928-1956 period, Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party's communist doctrine was Stalinism, and later Marxism-Leninism. In 1987, MPRP upheld perestroika politics, initiating democratic reforms. The 1997 Party Congress, formalized social-democracy as ideological platform of MPRP. In 2003, the party achieved full membership in the Socialist International.

List of leaders[edit]

Election results[edit]

Presidential elections[edit]

Election Candidate Total votes Share of votes Outcome
1993 Lodongiyn Tudev 397,061 40.1% Lost Red XN
1997 Natsagiin Bagabandi 597,573 62.5% Elected Green tickY
2001 Natsagiin Bagabandi 581,381 59.2% Elected Green tickY
2005 Nambaryn Enkhbayar 495,730 54.20% Elected Green tickY
2009 Nambaryn Enkhbayar 520,948 48.07% Lost Red XN
2013 Badmaanyambuugiin Bat-Erdene 520,380 41.97% Lost Red XN

Legislative elections[edit]

Election Total seats won Total votes Share of votes Outcome of election Election leader
1992
70 / 76
1,719,257 56.9% Increase70 seats; Governing party Puntsagiin Jasrai
1996
26 / 76
408,977 40.5% Decrease46 seats; Opposition Puntsagiin Jasrai
2000
72 / 76
517,746 51.6% Increase47 seats; Governing party Nambaryn Enkhbayar
2004
36 / 76
517,443 48.23% Decrease36 seats; Opposition Nambaryn Enkhbayar
2008
45 / 76
914,037 52.67% Increase8 seats; Governing party Sanjaagiin Bayar
2012
26 / 76
353,839 31.31% Decrease19 seats; Opposition Sükhbaataryn Batbold

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mongolia’s oldest party restores its original name, Business Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, 5 November 2010.Retrieved: May 12, 2011.
  2. ^ Yuriy Humber (May 14, 2012). "Former Mongolian President Granted Bail After Hunger Strike". Businessweek. 
  3. ^ Simons, William B., ed. (1980). The Constitutions of the Communist World. BRILL. p. 256. ISBN 9028600701. 
  4. ^ "Collectivized Farming and Herding". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved July 28, 2012. 
  5. ^ G., Dari (5 December 2011). "Democracy Days to be inaugurated". news.mn (in Mongolian). Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  6. ^ a b Ahmed and Norton, Nizam U. and Philip (1999). Parliaments in Asia. London: Frank Cass & Co.Ltd. p. 143. ISBN 0-7146-4951-1. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  7. ^ Baabar (16 November 2009). "Democratic Revolution and Its Terrible Explanations". baabar.mn (in Mongolian). Retrieved 25 June 2013. 
  8. ^ "Mongolia Celebrates 20th Anniversary of Democratic Revolution". The International Republican Institute. 11 December 2009. Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  9. ^ Wilhelm, Kathy (12 March 1990). "Mongolian Politburo resigns en masse". The Free Lance Star (Fredericksburg, VA). p. 4. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  10. ^ "Entire Mongolian Politburo resigns". Lawrence Journal-World (Lawrence, KS). 12 March 1990. pp. 8A. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  11. ^ Ch., Munkhbayar (13 March 2013). "What was the Mongolian democratic revolution?". dorgio.mn (in Mongolian). Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  12. ^ B. and R., Enkhtuul and Oyun. "Batmönkh's widow A. Daariimaa:If my husband was working as a professor, he would have been alive today". Zuunii Medee (Century News). Retrieved 3 July 2013. 
  13. ^ Lawrence, Susan V. (14 June 2011). "Mongolia: Issues for Congress". Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 25 June 2013. 
  14. ^ Mongolia: MPRP building in flames, president declares emergency. Mongolia Web News. 2008-07-01.
  15. ^ 5,000 người Mông Cổ tràn ngập thủ đô đòi giải tán quốc hội (Vietnamese)
  16. ^ Tsedevdamba, Oyungerel (17 July 2008). "A young man with an American dream was among the state-of-emergency victims in Ulaanbaatar". oyungerel.org. Retrieved 4 August 2013. 
  17. ^ B., Ganbileg (30 November 2011). "Fully opened MPP building's elevator is prohibited to run (in Mongolian)". 24tsag.mn. Retrieved 4 August 2013. 
  18. ^ "Who is who of MPP reformers (in Mongolian)". info.mn. 4 August. Retrieved 4 August 2013. 
  19. ^ "Mongolia Profile". BBC. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  20. ^ Enkhbayar, Roland-Holst, Sugiyarto, Shagdar, David and Guntur (September 2010). "Mongolia's investment priorities from a national development perspective". berkeley.edu. p. 9. Retrieved 25 June 2013. 
  21. ^ "Mongolia's State Great Hural (the Parliament)". parliament.mn (in Mongolian). Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  22. ^ G., Dashrentsen (1 July 2013). "A party that is defeated in five elections in row is dissolved". baabar.mn (in Mongolian). Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  23. ^ "Incumbent Mongolian president wins 2nd term on pro-Western, anti-graft platform". The Washington Post (Washington). 27 June 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2013. 
  24. ^ Supreme Court of Mongolia
  25. ^ "Former MPRP is reborn and former President named chairman". Business-Mongolia.com. 2 February 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2013. 

External links[edit]