Mongolian People's Party
|Mongolian People's Party
Монгол Ардын Нам
Mongol Ardiin Nam
|Founded||March 1, 1921|
|Headquarters||Ulan Bator, Mongolia|
|Membership (as of May 2012)||220,000|
|International affiliation||Socialist International|
|Colors||Red and Blue|
|State Great Khural|
|Politics of Mongolia
formerly known as the
Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party
Монгол Ардын Нам
The Mongolian People's Party (Mongolian: Монгол Ардын Нам, Mongol Ardiin Nam), formerly the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (Mongolian: Монгол Ардын Хувьсгалт Нам, Mongol Ardyn Khuvsgalt Nam, МАХН, MAKHN) is the oldest political party in Mongolia. The party is abbreviated MPP in English and МАН (MAN) in (transliterated) Mongolian. The party in 2010 reverted to its original name by dropping the word 'Revolutionary', resulting in a split in the party in which the breakaway faction retained the previous name.
The MPP was the ruling party of Mongolia from 1921 until 1996 (with no other political parties allowed until 1990), and from 2000 until 2004. Since 2006, it has been the leading force in two coalition governments. The incumbent prime minister, Sükhbaataryn Batbold, is from the MPP. Additionally, MPRP-backed candidates have won several presidential elections.
In 1911, Mongolia had declared its independence from the Qing dynasty after over two centuries of foreign rule. Unfortunately, this new independence under the Bogd Khan did not last, not being recognized as independent by its two neighbors, only being granted autonomous status under Chinese rule. In 1919, Mongolia was invaded by the Chinese Beiyang Government and in turn by White Russian forces in 1921.
1921 revolution 
During this occupation period, two groups, known as the "Consular Hill" (Konsulyn denj) and East Khuree (Züün khüree) formed as resistance movements. On June 25, 1920, these two groups united to form a "Mongolian People's Party", and decided to send seven representatives to the Soviet Russia. In August, they met with Soviet representatives in Irkutsk. On March 1, 1921, the party officially formed as a political party, claimed to be the first in Mongolia, in Kyakhta and formed a provisional government.
The conceptual foundation of the party was formulated as follows:
"The Mongolian People’s Party will aim to eliminate all brutal enemies harmful to the state and the religion; to re-gain the lost rights; to vigorously enhance the state and the religion; to regard the deeds for the sake of poor and vulnerable people as the supreme mission; to uphold long-lasting nature of internal affairs; and to create a living free from dangers of being oppressed and oppressing others."
On March 18, a Mongolian People's Army under Damdin Sükhbaatar defeated Chinese forces and took Kyakhta. In May, the White Russian Baron Ungern took his forces north from Ikh Khuree and were defeated by joint Mongolian People's Army and Red Army forces. On June 25, 1921, the Mongolian People’s Party issued a statement addressed to all Mongolians, which informed about its decision to liberate Capital city through military force. The forces entered the capital in July 6 and finally declared independence on July 11, 1921.
The party renamed itself the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party in 1924 upon the advice of the Communist International.
Armed uprising and Purges 
In 1928, Mongolian politics took a sharp leftward turn, beginning to adhere to communist ideology. Herds were forcibly collectivized, private trade and transport forbidden, and monasteries and the nobility came under attack. With the now state-run trade and transport unable to function, it led to an economic breakdown with more than 7 million heads of livestock dead, and to widespread unrest and uprisings in 1932. The uprising was quelled in October 1932, after the Mongolian and Soviet armies, tanks and planes had been involved.
The 1933, the first wave of purges began with the Lkhümbe Affair, a manufactured conspiracy linking Party Secretary Jambyn Lkhümbe with Japanese spying networks. Over 1500 people were implicated in the purge, many of them being executed. The victims included Prime Minister Peljidiin Genden who was enthusiastic in the liberalised development of the economy. In 1936, Genden was removed from power and executed in the USSR. Khorloogiin Choibalsan, a strong ally of Joseph Stalin, gained power.
Between 1937 and 1939, a second wave of purges began, with 25,437 people officially arrested, of which 20,099 were executed. Some estimates place the number of victims from over 35,000 to 100,000. Of the implicated over 18,000 were lamas, resulting in the virtual destruction of the Buddhist clergy. Between 1940 and 1955, purges were conducted against those who were complicit in the previous purges.
During Choibalsan's rule considerable improvements in the country's infrastructure, roads and communication lines were made with Soviet assistance, and steps were taken toward improving the country's literacy rate.
In December 1947, 11th Congress of the Party was held, approving the first 5-year plan of the country with the objectives to intensify the development of the economy, industries, animal husbandry and agriculture through a series of stages.
In 1952, Khorloogiin Choibalsan died, with Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal gaining power. He successfully purged his political rivals: Dashiin Damba in 1958-59, Daramyn Tömör-Ochir in 1962, Luvsantserengiin Tsend in 1963, and the so-called Lookhuuz-Nyambuu-Surmaajav "anti-party" group in December 1964. His foreign policy was marked by efforts not only to bring Mongolia into ever closer cooperation with the USSR but also aggressive attempts to incorporate Mongolia into the Soviet Union. Tsedenbal's attempts to bring Mongolia into Soviet Union and make it the 16th Republic of the Soviet Union met strong opposition from other patriotic politicians and Tsedenbal was accused of treachery. At the time of the Sino-Soviet split, Tsedenbal decisively sided with the Soviet Union and incurred China's wrath. Tsedenbal is remembered for successfully maintaining a path of moderate socialism during the Cold War.
After declaring country’s independence in 1921, the country started to develop under MPP and People’s Government’s multifaceted progressive socio-economic policy.
The special regulation to establish a public school was approved by People’s government on August 14, 1921 and the Ministry of Home Affairs set up a special department in charge of schools and enlightenment on August 31, 1921. On November 2, 1921, the first 3-year state-run school was established in capital city which set the basis for literacy for all. The establishment of the Institute of Manuscripts on November 19, 1921, served as the beginning of scientific organizations of Mongolia. As national trade was considered to be vital to the revival of economy The Mongolian Cooperative for Mutual Assistance was founded with 70 members. The circulation of the new national currency in 1925, marked the birth of Mongolia’s banking and taxation system. Since 1925, carpet-weaving, wood processing, iron smelting brick and gypsum plants were established, the Nalaikh coal mine, power plant and the leather factory in Altanbulag was expanded. Small-scale hand-craft cooperatives met domestic demand for goods such as clothing. All these laid down the beginning of qualitative change in the economic system of Mongolia.
Since the establishment of People’s Government in 1921, the country abandoned its old court system which had used harsh interrogation methods and corporal punishment, introducing a new penitentiary and re-education centers.
With the view of fostering culture and arts in Mongolia, the People’s government established the Sukhbaatar Club in 1924, thus laying the foundations of national cultural and art organizations. In 1925, clubs were established in several provinces while mobile red gers were put into operation to promote culture and education among the general public this enabling people to have access to books and newspapers, cinema etc.
On March 25, 1921, the People’s Provisional Government issued a resolution to establish the unit to treat patients in the military facilities which began providing free medical treatment to the military and civilians, thus beginning the modern health system in the country. In 1930, the People’s Health Ministry was established and the state policies and activities on health started to be implemented.
The first national radio broadcasting was aired on September 1, 1934.
The establishment of the Communications unit in the capital city in 1921 laid down the foundation for Mongolian Communications. In 1925 a flight between Troyitskosavsk and Ulaanbaatar was launched, paving the way for Mongolian air forces and civil aviation. The establishment of the State freight unit in July, 1925 laid down the foundation for automobile transportation.
In 1940-1960, the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party intensified its activities to develop the country by implementing a series of important projects with the view to re-organizing the agricultural sector into a system of cooperatives and gradually develop other sectors of the economy of strategic importance in planned method. The 11th Congress of the MPP, held in December 1947, approved the first 5-year plan of the country with the objectives to intensify the development of the economy, industries, animal husbandry and agriculture through series of stages. The decision of the 3rd Plenum of the Central Committee of MPP to cultivate untouched land enabled the country to produce wheat which met nation’s domestic needs.
In the period between 1960 and 1990, the country consolidated its development basis by creating light industrial complex, laying the foundation for mining and heavy industries and establishing new industrial and urban centers throughout the country.
After democratic revolution of 1991 
In August 1984, Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal was forced into retirement in a Soviet-sponsored move, allegedly on the account of his old age and mental weakness. After Jambyn Batmönkh took power, he started to implement reforms mirroring Mikhail Gorbachev's perestroika and glasnost. Nevertheless, pro-democracy movements formed and took to the streets, demanding multi-party elections. In March 1990 the first democratic alliance, called Ardchilsan Kholboo, launched a hunger strike urging that the communists resign.
In March 1990, the politburo resigned and paved the way for democratic elections that were to take place later that year. Behind the scenes, however, the Party had seriously considered cracking down on the protesters, writing a decree that was left to be signed by the party leader Jambyn Batmönkh. Batmönkh opposed it, maintaining a strict policy of never using force (Mongolian: Хэрхэвч Хүч хэрэглэж болохгүй).
In the elections of 1990, parties had run for 430 seats in the Great Khural. Opposition parties had been unable to nominate enough candidates. The MPRP won 357 seats in the Great Khural, won a majority in the Small Khural as well (which was later to be abolished), winning 31 out of 53. Nonetheless, the new MPRP government under Dashiin Byambasüren shared power with the democrats, and implemented constitutional and economic reforms, with a new constitution being adopted in 1992. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, which had until 1990 provided significant economic aid to Mongolia's state budget, the country experienced harsh economic problems. In the 1993 Mongolian presidential elections, the MPRP was defeated for the first time in its history, with the candidate backed by the democratic parties, Punsalmaagiin Ochirbat, winning with two thirds of the vote.
In 1996, the Democratic Union won the legislative elections for the first time. In 2000, 2004, and 2008, the MPRP won the legislative elections and was the ruling party between these periods. It has formed 2 coalition governments with Democratic party in 2000-2004 and in 2008.
In 2003, the party became a member of the Socialist International.
The 2008 elections were especially controversial, with the MPRP being accused of vote rigging. Protests against the results turned violent on July 1, and the ensuing riots killed five people. The scene of the riots was the MPRP headquarters, which was burnt out. Following the riots, a five-day state of emergency was declared, the first time in Mongolia. With the situation tense, the MPRP decided to admit the Democratic Party into government, forming a coalition. In 2009, the democratic party candidate Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj won the presidential elections.
With its headquarters burnt, the building was torn down and a new headquarters was built in its place (named the Independence Palace, Mongolian: Тусгаар тогтнолын ордон), which opened in 2012.
In January 2012, Democratic Party made a decision to leave the coalition government before upcoming elections. The incumbent prime minister, Sükhbaataryn Batbold, is from the MPP.
Name restoration and split 
The matter of restoring the name of the party to the "Mongolian People’s Party" had been at the core of discussions among the party members and during the Party Congresses since 1990. In 2010, the matter of restoring the original name of the party was extensively deliberated at all levels of party organizations, resulting on 81.3% of all members fully supporting the restoration of the original name of "Mongolian People’s Party", and 10.7% of members reckoning to deliberate this matter during the 26th Party Congress.
The decision to restore the original name of the party was approved by 99.3% of the delegates of the 26th Congress of the Mongolian People’s Party. Other important decision made by 26th Congress was the reformulation of Party’s political ideology from democratic socialism to social democracy.
However, this name change was not supported by all members, who created a new Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party, headed by the former MPP leader and president of Mongolia, Nambaryn Enkhbayar. The party was approved by the supreme court on June 24, 2011
List of leaders 
- Soliin Danzan 1921
- Ajvaagiyn Danzan 1922-1924
- Tseren-Ochiryn Dambadorj 1924-1928
- Bat-Ochiriin Eldev-ochir 1928-1930
- Peljidiin Genden 1928-1932
- Dorjjavin Luvsansharav 1932-1937
- Banzarjavyn Baasanjav 1936-1940
- Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal 1940-1954,1958-1984
- Dashiin Damba February 1940 - April 1940, 1954-1958
- Jambyn Batmönkh 1985-1990
- Gombojavyn Ochirbat 1990-1991
- Büdragchaagiin Dash-Yondon 1991-1996
- Natsagiyn Bagabandi February 1997-June 1997
- Nambaryn Enkhbayar 1997-2005
- Miyeegombo Enkhbold 2005-2007
- Sanjaagiin Bayar 2007-2009
- Sükhbaataryn Batbold 2010-2012
- Ulziisaikhan Enkhtuvshin 2012–present
See also 
- Mongolia’s oldest party restores its original name, Business Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, 5 November 2010.Retrieved: May 12, 2011.
- Yuriy Humber (May 14, 2012). "Former Mongolian President Granted Bail After Hunger Strike". Businessweek.
- "Collectivized Farming and Herding". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved July 28, 2012.
- Supreme Court of Mongolia
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