Mongoloid // is the general physical type of some or all of the populations of East Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, Eastern Russia, the Arctic, the Americas, parts of the Pacific Islands, and some northeastern parts of South Asia. Individuals within these populations often share certain associated phenotypic traits, such as epicanthic folds and neoteny. In terms of population, it is the most widely distributed physical type, constituting over a third of the human species.
The term "mongoloid" was introduced by early ethnology primarily to describe various central and East Asian populations, one of the proposed three major races of humanity. Although some forensic anthropologists and other scientists continue to use the term in some contexts (such as criminal justice), the term mongoloid is now considered derogatory by most anthropologists due to its association with disputed typological models of racial classification.
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach said that he borrowed the term Mongolian from Christoph Meiners to describe the race he designated "second, [which] includes that part of Asia beyond the Ganges and below the river Amoor, which looks toward the south, together with the islands and the greater part of these countries which is now called Australian".
In 1861, Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire added the Australian as a secondary race (subrace) of the principal race of Mongolian. In the nineteenth century Georges Cuvier used the term Mongolian again as a racial classification, but additionally included American Indians under the term. Arthur de Gobineau defined the extent of the Mongolian race, "by the yellow the Altaic, Mongol, Finnish and Tartar branches". Later, Thomas Huxley used the term Mongoloid and included American Indians as well as Arctic Native Americans. Other terms were proposed, such as Mesochroi (middle color), but Mongoloid was widely adopted.
In 1940, anthropologist Franz Boas included the American race as part of the Mongoloid race of which he mentioned the Aztecs of Mexico and the Maya of Yucatan. Boas also said that, out of the races of the Old World, the American native had features most similar to the east Asiatic.
In 1981, Elizabeth Smithgall Watts who taught anthropology at Tulane University said that the question of American Indians being a separate race from "Asiatic Mongoloids" is a question of how much genetic difference a population needs from another population to be considered a "major race". She said that even the people who consider American Indians to be a separate race acknowledge that they are genetically closest to "Asians".
In 1983, Douglas J. Futuyma, professor of evolutionary processes at the University of Michigan, said that the inclusion of Native Americans and Pacific Islanders under the Mongoloid race was not recognized by many anthropologists who consider them distinct races.
In 1984, Roger J. Lederer, Professor of Biological Sciences at California State University at Chico, separately listed the Mongoloid race from Pacific islanders and American Indians when he enumerated the "geographical variants of the same species known as races...we recognize several races, Inuit, American Indians, Mongoloid... Polynesian".
In 1995, Dr. Marta Mirazon Lahr of the Department of Biological Anthropology at Cambridge University used the term Mongoloid to refer to Asian populations, Indigenous Australians, Pacific Islanders, Negritos, and Amerindians, classifying Northeast Asians as typical Mongoloids and all other Mongoloid groups as atypical Mongoloids.
Finns were previously considered by some scholars to be partly Mongoloid, dating to claims by Johann Friedrich Blumenbach. Finns (and other Finno-Ugrians in Europe) are now considered typically European. 10% of Finnish genes are shared with Siberian populations. Nevertheless more than 80% of Finnish genes are from a single ancient Northeastern European population.
Archaeologist Peter Bellwood claims that the vast majority of people in Southeast Asia, the region he calls the "clinal Mongoloid-Australoid zone", are Southern Mongoloids but have a high degree of Australoid admixture.
Professor of anthropology, Akazawa Takeru (Japanese:赤沢威) at the International Research Center for Japanese Studies, Kyoto, said that there are Neo-Mongoloids and Paleo-Mongoloids. Akazawa said Neo-Mongoloids have "extreme Mongoloid, cold-adapted features" and they include the Chinese, Buryats, Eskimo and Chukchi. In contrast, Akazawa said Paleo-Mongoloids are less Mongoloid and less cold-adapted. He said Burmese, Filipinos, Polynesians, Jōmon and the indigenous peoples of the Americas were Paleo-Mongoloid.
History of the concept
||This article lends undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies. (November 2011)|
The earliest systematic use of the term was by Blumenbach in De generis humani varietate nativa (On the Natural Variety of Mankind, University of Göttingen, first published in 1775, re-issued with alteration of the title-page in 1776). Blumenbach included East and South East Asians, but not Native Americans or Malays, who were each assigned separate categories.
In 1865, biologist Thomas Huxley presented the views of polygenesists (Huxley was not one of them) as "some imagine their assumed species of mankind were created where we find them... the Mongolians from the Orangs".
In 1972, physical anthropologist Carleton Coon said, "From a hyborean [sic] group there evolved, in northern Asia, the ancestral strain of the entire specialized Mongoloid family". In 1962, Coon believed that the Mongoloid "subspecies" existed "during most of the Pleistocene, from 500,000 to 10,000 years ago". According to Coon, the Mongoloid race had not completed its "invasions and expansions" into Southeast Asia, the Americas, and the Pacific Islands until "[t]oward the end of the Pleistocene". By this time Coon hypothesis that the Mongoloid race had become "sapien".[verification needed]
Paleo-anthropologist Milford Wolpoff and Rachel Caspari characterize "his [Carleton Coon's] contention [as being] that the Mongoloid race crossed the 'sapiens threshold' first and thereby evolved the furthest".
Mahinder Kumar Bhasin (Hindi: महेंद्र कुमार भसीन) of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Delhi suggested in a review of an article referencing Mourant 1983 that "The Caucasoids and the Mongoloid almost certainly became differentiated from one another somewhere in Asia" and that "Another differentiation, which probably took place in Asia, is that of the Australoids, perhaps from a common type before the separation of the Mongoloids".
Douglas J. Futuyma, professor of evolutionary processes at the University of Michigan, said the Mongoloid race "diverged 41,000 years ago" from a Mongoloid and Caucasoid group which diverged from Negroids "110,000 years ago".
In 1999, Peter Brown of the Department of Anthropology and Paleoanthropology at the University of New England evaluated three sites with early East Asian modern human skeletal remains (Liujiang, Liuzhou, Guangxi, China; Shandingdong Man of (but not Peking Man) Zhoukoudian's Upper Cave; and Minatogawa in Okinawa) dated to between 10,175 to 33,200 years ago, and finds lack of support for the conventional designation of skeletons from this period as "Proto-Mongoloid". He stated that "The colonisation of the Americas by 11 kyr indicates an earlier date for the appearance of distinctively East Asian features, however, the earliest unequivocal evidence for anatomically East Asian people on the Asian mainland remains at 7000 years BP." He saw this as "possibility that migration across the Bering Strait went in two directions and the first morphological Mongoloids evolved in the Americas." 
The human fossil remains of the Ordos Man from Salawusu site in Inner Mongolia dated between 50,000 and 35,000 BCE show strong Mongoloid features, specifically on the fore-tooth and occipital bone.
In 2006, Yali Xue (Chinese: 薛亞黎) et al. of the genome research Sanger Institute conducted a study of linkage disequilibrium that said that northern populations in East Asia started to expand in number between 34 and 22 thousand years ago, before the last glacial maximum at 21–18 KYA, while southern populations started to expand between 18 and 12 KYA, but then grew faster, and suggests that the northern populations expanded earlier because they could exploit the abundant megafauna of the "Mammoth Steppe", while the southern populations could increase in number only when a warmer and more stable climate led to more plentiful plant resources such as tubers.
Mongoloids are characterized by absent browridges.
Mongoloid subjects had about "20% higher bone density at the angle of the mandible" when compared to Caucasoid subjects.
Samoans are of the Mongoloid race but their features represent a "slightly different evolution since the time of their separation and isolation from their parental stock" or a retention of features that have been lost in other Mongoloid types. The wavy and wooly hair of the Samoan is one such retention compared to the stiff, coarse hair that typifies the Mongoloid. Most of the characteristics of the Samoan have Mongoloid affinities such as: skin color, hair color, eye color, conjuctiva, amount of beard, hair on chest, nasal bridge, nostrils, lips, face width, biogonial width, cephalo-facial index, nasal height, ear height and chin.
Mongoloid features are a mesocranic skull, fairly large and protruding cheekbones, nasal bones that are flat and broad, a nasal bridge that is slightly concave without depression in the nasion, "the lower borders of the piriform aperture are not sharp but guttered", shallow prenasal fossae, small anterior nasal spine, trace amounts of canine fossae and moderate alveolar prognathism.
The Paleoindian has proto-Mongoloid morphology such as pronounced development of supraorbital ridges low frontals, marked post-orbital constriction, prominent and protruding occipitals, small mastoids, long crania and a relatively narrow bizygomatic breadth.
The features of the Japanese that "attest their relationship with the great Mongolian family" are slightly oblique eyes, small nose, black lank hair, sparse beard, salient cheek-bones and yellowish complexion.
The Mongoloid eyelid is characterized by puffiness of the upper eyelid, "superficial expansion of the levator aponeurosis" that are "turned up around this transverse ligament to become the orbital septum", "low position of the preaponeurotic fat" and narrowness of the palpebral fissure.
The Mongoloid racial type is distinguished by forward-projecting malar (cheek) bones, comparatively flat faces, large circular orbits, "moderate nasal aperture with a slightly pointed lower margin", larger, more gracile braincase, broader skull, broader face and flatter roof of the nose.
Mongoloid skin has thick skin cuticle and an abundance of carotene (yellow pigment). Mongoloid males have "little or no facial or body hair". Mongoloid hair is coarse, straight, blue-black and weighs the most out of the races. The size of the average Mongoloid hair is 0.0051 square millimetres (7.9×10−6 sq in) based on samples from Chinese, North and South American Indians, Eskimos and Thais. Mongoloid hair whether it be Sioux, Ifugao or Japanese has the thickest diameter out of all human hair. Mongoloids evolved hairlessness to keep clean while wearing heavy garments for months without bathing during the Ice Age.
In 1996, Rebecca Haydenblit of the Hominid Evolutionary Biology Research Group at Cambridge University did a study on the dentition of four pre-Columbian Mesoamerican populations and compared their data to other Mongoloid populations. She said that Tlatilco, Cuicuilco, Monte Albán and Cholula populations followed an overall Sundadont dental pattern characteristic of Southeast Asia rather than a Sinodont dental pattern characteristic of Northeast Asia.
The traits of the Mongoloid skull are: long and broad skulls of intermediate height, arched sagittal contour, very wide facial contour, high face height, rounded orbital opening, narrow nasal opening, wide, flat nasal bones, sharp lower nasal margin, straight facial profile, moderate and white palate shape, 90%+ shovel-shaped incisors and large, smooth general form.
Miquel Hernández of the Department of Animal Biology at the University of Barcelona said East Asians (Kyushu, Atayal, Philippines, Chinese, Hokkaido and Anyang) and Amerinds (Yaujos, Santa Cruz and Arikara) have the typical Mongoloid cranial pattern, but other Mongoloids such as Pacific groups (Easter Island, Mokapu, Guam and Moriori people), arctic groups (Eskimos and Buriats), Fuegians (Selk’nam, Ya´mana, Kawe´skar) and the Ainu differ from this by having "larger cranial dimensions over many variables".
Ashley Montagu who taught anthropology at Princeton University said that Mongoloids have 450 sweat glands per square inch while both "American blacks" and Caucasoids have 750 sweat glands per square inch.
|Nasal bone size||small||large||medium/small|
Anthropologist Elsie Clews Parsons said that physical features of the Proto-Mongoloid were characterized as, "a straight-haired type, medium in complexion, jaw protrusion, nose-breadth, and inclining probably to round-headedness".
Mark J. Hudson Professor of Anthropology at Nishikyushu University, Kanzaki, Saga, Japan, said Japan was settled by a Proto-Mongoloid population in the Pleistocene who became the Jōmon and their features can be seen in the Ainu and Okinawan people. Hudson said that, later, during the Yayoi period, the Neo-Mongoloid type entered Japan. Hudson said that genetically Japanese people are primarily Neo-Mongoloid with Proto-Mongoloid admixture.
Theodore G. Schurr of the Department of Anthropology at University of Pennsylvania said that Mongoloid traits emerged from Transbaikalia, central and eastern regions of Mongolia, and several regions of Northern China. Schurr said that studies of cranio-facial variation in Mongolia suggest that the region of modern-day Mongolians is the origin of the Mongoloid racial type".
Dr. Rukang Wu (Chinese: 吴汝康) of the Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Palaeoanthropology, Academia Sinica, China, said that the remains of Liukiang human fossils were an early type of evolving Mongoloid that indicated South China was the birthplace where the Mongoloid race originated.
Dr. Marta Mirazon Lahr of the Department of Biological Anthropology at Cambridge University said there are two hypotheses on the origin of Mongoloids. Lahr said that one hypothesis is that Mongoloids originated in north Asia due to the regional continuity in this region and this population conforming best to the standard Mongoloid features. Lahr said that the other hypothesis is that Mongoloids originate from Southeast Asian populations that expanded from Africa to Southeast Asia during the first half of the Upper Pleistocene and then traveled to Australia-Melanesia and East Asia. Lahr said that the morphology of the Paleoindian is consistent with the proto-Mongoloid definition.
Anthropologist Arnold Henry Savage Landor said that the Ainu have deep-set eyes and an eye shape typical of Europeans, with a large and prominent browridge, large ears, hairy and prone to baldness, slightly flattened hook nose with large and broad nostrils, prominent cheek bones, large mouth and thick lips and a long region from nose to mouth and small chin region.
"Mongoloid skulls are the most gracile in the human family. It is believed that the Mongoloid skull type is a very recent evolutionary development." According to Ashley Montagu who taught anthropology at Princeton University, "The Mongoloid skull has proceeded further than in any other people", "The Mongoloid skull, whether Chinese or Japanese, has been rather more neotenized than the Caucasoid or European" and "The female skull, it will be noted, is more pedomorphic in all human populations than the male skull". In his list of "[n]eotenous structural traits in which Mongoloids... differ from Caucasoids", Montagu lists "Larger brain, larger braincase, broader skull, broader face, flat roof of the nose, inner eye fold, more protuberant eyes, lack of brow ridges, greater delicacy of bones, shallow mandibular fossa, small mastoid processes, stocky build, persistence of thymus gland into adult life, persistence of juvenile form of zygomatic muscle, persistence of juvenile form of superior lip muscle, later eruption of full dentition (except second and third molars), less hairy, fewer sweat glands, fewer hairs per square centimeter [and] long torso".
Ashley Montagu said "the skeleton of the classic Mongoloid type is very delicately made, even down to the character of the sutures of the skull which, like those of the infant skull, are relatively smooth and untortuous. In fact the Mongoloid presents so many physical traits which are associated with the late fetus or young infant that he has been called a fetalized, infantilized or pedomorphic type. Those who have carefully observed young babies may recall that the root of the nose is frequently flat or low as in Mongoloids, and that an internal epicanthic fold in such instances is usually present. The smaller number of individual head hairs and the marked hairlessness of the remainder of the body are infantile traits, as are likewise the small mastoid processes, the shallow fossa into which the jawbone fits (the mandibular fossa), the rather stocky build, the large brain-pan and brain, lack of brow ridges, and quite a number of other characters."
Richard Grossinger, professor of anthropology at University of Maine at Portland, said that "The intuition that advanced human development was pedomorphic rather than recapitulationary and accelerated was disturbing to many Eurocentric nineteenth century anthropologists". "If juvenilization was the characteristic for advanced status, then it was clear that the Mongoloid races were more deeply fetalized in most respects and thus capable of the greatest development".
Stephen Oppenheimer of the Institute of Cognitive & Evolutionary Anthropology at Oxford University said that "An interesting hypothesis put forward by paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould many years ago was that the package of the Mongoloid anatomical changes could be explained by the phenomenon of neoteny, whereby an infantile or childlike body form is preserved in adult life. Neoteny in hominids is still one of the simplest explanations of how we developed a disproportionately large brain so rapidly over the past few million years. The relatively large brain and the forward rotation of the skull on the spinal column, and body hair loss, both characteristic of humans, are found in foetal chimps. Gould suggested a mild intensification of neoteny in Mongoloids, in whom it has been given the name pedomorphy. Such a mechanism is likely to involve only a few controller genes and could therefore happen over a relatively short evolutionary period. It would also explain how the counterintuitive retrousse [turned up at the end] nose and relative loss of facial hair got into the package". "[D]ecrease unnecessary muscle bulk, less tooth mass, thinner bones and smaller physical size; ...this follows the selective adaptive model of Mongoloid evolution".
Paul Storm of the Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Netherlands, said that in Australasia there are two types of cranial morphologies—the "Sunda" (Mongoloid) and "Sahul" (Australoid) types. Storm said that the "Sunda" (Mongoloid) type includes Chinese and Javanese people, and he said that the "Sahul" (Australoid) type includes Papuans and Australian aborigines. Storm said that the "Sunda" (Mongoloid) type has a flat face with high cheek bones, and Storm said that this "flat face" of the Chinese and Javanese is known as the "mongoloid face". Storm further said that the "Sunda" (Mongoloid) type has a more rounded skull, "feminine (juvenile) characters", a "retention of juvenile characters" and a limited outgrowth of superstructures such as the supraorbital region. Storm said that "Sunda" (Mongoloid) skulls resemble female skulls more than "Sahul" (Australoid) skulls resemble female skulls. Storm said that the skulls of "Asian" males ("Chinese and Javanese") have "more feminine characteristics", and he said that they have "many feminine characters in contrast with Australians".
Paul Storm said that Asia contained humans with "generalized" cranial morphology, but between 20,000 BP and 12,000 BP this generalized type disappeared as a new type emerged. This new type had a flatter face with more pronounced cheekbones, a more rounded head, reduced sexual dimorphism (male skulls started to resemble female skulls), a reduction of supestructures such as the supraorbital region and an increased "retention of juvenile characters". Storm said that this new type of skull that emerged is called the "Proto-Sunda" (Proto-Mongoloid) type, and it is distinguished from the "Sunda" (Mongoloid) type by being more "robust". Storm said that the "Mongoloid" or "Asian" type of skull developed relatively fast during a population bottleneck in Asia that happened during the Late Pleistocene or Early Holocene through a microevolutionary trend that involved a "continuation of neoteny and gracilisation trends". Due to different courses of evolution, Storm said that these two types of skulls, the "Sunda" (Mongoloid) type and the "Sahul" (Australoid) type, are now clearly recognizable at the present time.
Andrew Arthur Abbie who was an anatomist and anthropologist at the University of Adelaide talked about leg-to-torso length being related to neoteny. Abbie said that women normally have shorter legs than men, and he said that shorter legs are the normal condition in some ethnic groups such as Mongoloids. Abbie said that Mongoloids of whom he listed the people of "China, Japan and the Americas" have proportionately larger heads and shorter legs than Europeans, and he said that this is a case of "paedomorphism". Abbie said that aboriginal Australians and some African ethnic groups such as the "Negro", the "Hottentot" and the "Nubian" peoples have proportionately longer legs than Europeans, and he said that this is a case of "gerontomorphism". Abbie said that ethnic groups with proportionately shorter legs than Europeans are relatively "paedomorphic" in terms of leg-to-torso ratios when compared to Europeans, and he said that ethnic groups with proportionately longer legs than Europeans are relatively "gerontomorphic" in terms of leg-to-torso ratios when compared to Europeans.
William Ernest Castle said that the difference in limb proportions between the relatively short-limbed "Chiriguan" amerindian and the relatively long-limbed "Dinka negro" is the "same" as the difference in limb proportions between "boy and man". He said that there could be an ontogenic cause that produces "long-continued growth" in populations that characteristically have relatively longer limbs, and he said that the differences in height between the races could be due to "interruptions at different stages of the general growth process".
Leonard Halford Dudley Buxton who taught physical anthropology at Oxford University said that in the "Yellow man" the depression of the nose is below the nasion rather than at the place where the nasal bones meet the frontal bone like in the "European races". Buxton said that in the "Yellow man" the nasal bones form a wider angle rather than the narrower angle of the "European races". Buxton said that these features of the nose of the "Yellow man" make it "flatter" and "not unlike that found in European children". Buxton said that "Yellow men" have the "Mongolian fold", and Buxton said that this "fold occurs occasionally in European children, and sometimes even in adults". Buxton said that the presence of the "Mongolian fold" in "Yellow men" is possibly due to the shape of the nose of "Yellow men" that "in some cases resemble that of European children".
Professor of anthropology, Akazawa Takeru (Japanese:赤沢威) of the International Research Center for Japanese Studies in Kyoto Japan, said that Mongoloid features are an adaptation to the cold of the Mammoth steppe. He mentions the Lewis waves of warm blood cyclical vasodilation and vasoconstriction of the peripheral capillaries in Mongoloids as an adaption to the cold. He lists the short limbs, short noses, flat faces, epicanthic fold and lower surface to mass ratio as further Mongoloid adaptations to cold.
Nicholas Wade said that biologists have speculated that the Mongoloid skull type was the result of natural selection in response to a cold climate, and Wade said that the Mongoloid skull type first started to indisputably appear in the archaeological record 10,000 years ago. Wade said that biologists have speculated that the fat in the eyelids of Mongoloids and the stocky builds of Mongoloids were selected for as adaptations to the cold.
Takasaki Yuji (Japanese:高崎裕治) of Akita University, Japan, in the Journal of Physiological Anthropology and Applied Human Science said that, "Mongoloid ancestors had evolved over time in cold environments" and the short limbs of the Mongoloid was due to Allen's ecological rule.
Professor of anthropology at Trent University Ontario, Canada, Joseph K. So (Chinese: 蘇) (1980) cited a study by J. T. Steegman (1965) that the so-called cold-adapted Mongoloid face has been shown in an experiment, using Japanese and European subjects, to not offer greater protection to frostbite. In explaining Mongoloid cold-adaptiveness, So (蘇) cites the work of W. L. Hylander (1977) where Hylander said that in the Eskimo(Inuit), for example, the reduction of the brow ridge and flatness of the face is due to internal structural configurations that are cold adapted in the sense that they produce a large vertical bite force necessary to chew frozen seal meat.
Miquel Hernández of the Department of Animal Biology at the University of Barcelona said that the high and narrow nose of Eskimos(Inuit) and Neanderthals is an adaptation to a cold and dry environment, since it contributes to warming and moisturizing the air and the "recovery of heat and moisture from expired air".
A. T. Steegman of the Department of Anthropology at State University of New York investigated the assumption that Allen's rule caused the structural configuration of the Arctic Mongoloid face. Steegman did an experiment that involved the survival of rats in the cold. Steegman said that the rats with narrow nasal passages, broader faces, shorter tails and shorter legs survived the best in the cold. Steegman paralleled his findings with the Arctic Mongoloids, particularly the Eskimo and Aleut, by claiming these Arctic Mongoloids have similar features in accordance with Allen's rule: a narrow nasal passage, relatively large heads, long to round heads, large jaws, relatively large bodies, and short limbs.
Kenneth L. Beals of the Department of Anthropology at Oregon State University said that the indigenous people of the Americas have cephalic indexes that are an exception to Allen's rule, since the indigenous people of the hot climates of North and South America have cold-adapted, high cephalic indexes. Beals said that these peoples have not yet evolved the appropriate cephalic index for their climate, being, comparatively, only recently descended from the cold-adapted Arctic Mongoloid.
Physical features of "Asian" people
Willett Enos Rotzell professor of Botany and Zoology at the Hahnemann Medical College said the Asian race has skin color ranging from a yellowish tint to an olive shade, with black and coarse hair with a circular cross section, an absent or scanty beard, a brachycephalic skull, prominent cheek bones and a broad face. Rotzell said that the Asian race has its original home in Asia.
Dennis C. Dirkmaat professor of paleoanthropology and archaeology at Mercyhurst University said that Southeast Asian skulls can be distinguished from Asian and Native American skulls in that they are "smaller and less robust" with noses exhibiting a medium width without nasal overgrowth, and can "exhibit gracile features common to female skulls".
A 2009 study of facial detection technology said that the technology incorrectly classified more "Mongoloids" or "Asian" male faces as females relative to its error rate for the "Caucasian... and Negroid races". Dirkmaat also said that body measurements of the "average Asian male" may fall within the range of those of the "American white female".
Dr. Ann H. Ross, Co-Director of the Forensic Sciences Institute at North Carolina State University, in a presentation on the concept of "race" (written in scare quotes) from the perspective of forensic anthropology, said individuals of "Asian ancestry" have an "intermediate profile", meaning the part of the maxilla is "moderate" compared to individuals of "African ancestry" who have a "projecting maxilla", and compared to individuals who are "White/Hispanic" who generally have a "straight profile" or "lack of prognathism". She qualified her statement about Hispanics by adding that their lack of prognathism would not hold true for Hispanic populations with "African admixture".
Qing He et al. of the Obesity Research Center at Columbia University did a study on "fat distribution" of 358 prepubertal children and the study said that Asians had less gynoid fat than African Americans and more relative trunk fat than Caucasians, but less relative extremity fat than Caucasians.
Victor H.H. Goh (Chinese:吴) et al. of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National University of Singapore, did a study that said that the World Health Organization's obesity cut off based on body mass index misclassified the true obese in an Asian population by labeling 3.76 times more men and 1.64 times more women as obese than would actually be obese.
Douglas W. Deedrick, Unit Chief of the Trace Evidence Unit for the Federal Bureau of Investigation, said that hairs of "Mongoloid or Asian origin" are characterized as being straight and coarse with a circular cross section and a wider diameter than those of other "racial groups". He said that the cuticle is thicker than those of Negroid or Caucasian hairs while the medulla is "continuous and wide". He said that the pigment granules are smaller than the larger pigment granules of Negroid hair, and the pigment granules in the cortex are "generally larger" than those of Caucasian hair. Unlike the "evenly distributed" pigment granules of Caucasian hair, Asian hair frequently has clusters of pigment granules that form "patchy areas".
Jeffrey Min Ahn (Korean:안민) professor at the College of Physicians & Surgeons of Columbia University, said that the "typical Asian nose" has "a broad low dorsum, decreased tip projection, thick, lobular skin, wide lobule, abundant subcutaneous fatty tissue, alar flaring, a retracted columella, and a small osteocartilaginous framework."
Eun-Sang Dhong (Korean:동은상) of the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Korea University Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, measured 52 alar cartilages of 26 Koreans and concluded that the alar cartilages" in Asians is not much smaller than whites.
Kyung-Wook Chun (Korean:전경욱) et al. of the Department of Plastic Surgery, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea, said that in "Asian noses" the size of the alar lobule is mainly due to the size of the dilator naris anterior muscle, the dilator naris posterior muscle and the "thickness of the external skin" rather than due to vestibular skin.
Sang-Ki Jeong (Korean:정상기) et al. of Chonnam University, Kwangju, Korea, using both Asian and Caucasian cadavers as well as four healthy young Korean men said that "Asian eyelids" whether "Asian single eyelids" or "Asian double eyelids" had more fat in them than in Caucasians. Jeong et al. said that the cause of the "Asian single eyelid" was that "the orbital septum fuses to the levator aponeurosis at variable distances below the superior tarsal border; (2) preaponeurotic fat pad protusion and a thick subcutaneous fat layer prevent levator fibers from extending toward the skin near the superior tarsal border; and (3) the primary insertion of the levator aponeurosis into the orbicularis muscle and into the upper eyelid skin occurs closer to the eyelid margin in Asians."
Dae-Hwan Park (Korean:박대환) et al. of the Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan, South Korea, used 498 "Asians" to study Asian eyes wherein he determined that in Asians the greatest growth of the "vertical dimension of the palpebral fissure", intercanthal distance and "the horizontal dimension of the palpebral fissure" were between 10 to 13 years old, 14 to 16 years old and 17 to 19 years old respectively.
Wee-Kiak Lim (Chinese:林伟杰) of the Singapore National Eye Centre said that the "Asian lower eyelid differs from its non-Asian counterpart" by having "no consistent fusion between the capsulopalpebral fascia and the orbital septum inferior to the inferior tarsal border" and "no extension of the capsulopalpebral fascia".
The average size of random melanosomes of "Asian skin" for Chinese individuals of Fitzpatrick phototype IV through V was measured to be 1.36 ± 0.15 μm2 x 10−2 which was between the higher value of 1.44 ± 0.67 μm2 x 10−2 measured for "African/American skin" of Fitzpatrick phototype VI and the lower value of 0.94 ± 0.48 μm2 x 10−2 measured for "Caucasian skin" of Fitzpatrick phototype II. The ratio of clustered to distributed melanosomes was 37.4% clustered vs. 62.6% distributed in Asian skin, 84.5%. clustered vs. 15.5% distributed in Caucasian skin and 11.1% clustered vs. 88.9% distributed in African/American skin.
George Richard Scott, physical anthropologist at the University of Nevada, said that some East Asians (in particular, Han Chinese and some Japanese), as well as Native Americans, have a distinctive dental pattern known as Sinodonty, where, among other features, the upper first two incisors are not aligned with the other teeth, but are rotated a few degrees inward and are shovel-shaped.
|Genetic Distances and Effective Divergence Times Between The Three Major Races of Man (3) by Masatoshi Nei (Japanese: 根井正利), Professor of Biology at Pennsylvania State University|
|Effective divergence time (years)|
|Caucasoid/Mongoloid||0.011||0.043||0.019||41,000 ± 15,000|
|Caucasoid/Negroid||0.030||0.038||0.032||113,000 ± 34,000|
|Negroid/Mongoloid||0.031||0.096||0.047||116,000 ± 34,000|
In 1994, geneticist Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza of Stanford University divided a principal coordinant map of 42 Asian populations into three groupings: Asian Caucasoids, Northeast and East Asian and Southeast Asian. Along Southeast Asia, Cavalli-Sforza said that there is a separation between northern and southern Mongoloids. To the West, Cavalli-Sforza said there is an approximate boundary between Caucasoids and Mongoloids from the Urals to the eastern part of India. Along this boundary there has been hybridization, causing a Caucasoid-Mongoloid gradient. More specifically, the ethnic groups Cavalli-Sforza said that were in the Northeast and East Asian cluster were the Koryak, Chukchi, Reindeer Chukchi, Nganasan Samoyed, Northern Tungus, Nentsy, N. Chinese, Tibetan, Bhutanese, Ainu, Mongol, Japanese and Korean. Moving south, the ethnic groups Cavalli-Sforza said that were in the Southeast Asian cluster were the Indonesian, Malaysian, Taiwan aborigines, S. Chinese, Vietnamese, Muong, Thai, Filipino, Balinese and Gurkha. Other studies also show that S. Chinese, Vietnamese and Tai peoples were found intermediate between the N. Chinese or other Northeast Asians and Southeast Asian. "Reference populations".
Moving off the coast, Cavalli-Sforza said that there are Australoid and Negrito peoples, but also that the Polynesians are a diluted Mongoloid type, the Negritos of the Andaman Islands and Semang Negritos have a high frequency of the Mongoloid inner epicanthic eyefold and that among Australoid Micronesians some individuals look more Mongoloid. Moving to the Americas, Cavalli-Sforza said that the Eskimos and Aleuts derived from the Siberian Mongoloids and came after the American Indians who are both Mongoloid in general and uniform racially.
In 2008, biochemist Boris Abramovich Malyarchuk (Russian: Борис Абрамович Малярчук) et al. of the Institute of Biological Problems of the North, Russian Academy of Sciences, Magadan, Russia, used a sample (n=279) of Czech individuals to determine the frequency of Mongoloid mtDNA lineages. Malyarchuk said that Czech mtDNA lineages were typical of Slavic populations with 1.8% Mongoloid mtDNA lineage. Malyarchuk added that Slavic populations almost always contain Mongoloid mtDNA lineage. Malyarchuk said that the Mongoloid component of Slavic people was partially added before the split of Balto-Slavics in 2,000–3,000 BCE with additional Mongoloid mixture occurring among Slavics in the last 4,000 years. Malyarchuk said that the Russian population was developed by the assimilation of the indigenous pre-Slavic population of Eastern Europe by true Slavs with additional assimilation of Finno-Ugric populations and long-lasting interactions with the populations of Siberia and Central Asia. Malyarchuk said that other Slavs Mongoloid component was increased during the waves of migration from steppe populations (Huns, Avars, Bulgars and Mongols), especially the decay of the Avar Khaganate.
In 1999, Vladimir Orekhov (Russian: Владимир Орехов) et al. of the Institute of General Genetics, Moscow, Russia, said that there is evidence for influence of Mongoloid populations on the ethnogenesis of Russians due to the presence of mytotypes 26, 33, and 47 of Mongoloid haplogroup C in the Russian population as well as evidence for Finno-Ugric populations in the ethnogenesis of Eastern Slavs due to the presence of Finno-Ugric mitotype (mitotype 31) in the Russian population, but he said that Russian mtDNA pools differed by Russian regions with Russians of the Eastern-European plain close to European ethnic groups.
Atsushi Tajima (Japanese: 田嶋敦) et al. of Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Kanagawa, Japan, said that there is evidence for four separate populations, carrying distinct sets of non-recombining Y chromosome lineages, within the traditional Mongoloid category: North Asians, Han Chinese, Southeast Asians, and Japanese.
In 1997, Masatoshi Nei (Japanese: 根井正利), Professor of Biology at Pennsylvania State University, said that clusters of genetic distances conform to the customary three major races of man, namely, Negroids, Caucasoids and Mongoloids. Moreover, Nei said that Mongoloid populations irrespective of north and south show small genetic distances from any populations in Oceania and Americas. Nei said that the Northern Mongoloid included the Evens, Buryat, Hui, Mongolian, Tibetan, Japanese, Ainu, Northern Chinese and Korean. In the Southern Mongoloid, Nei included the Dong, Zhuang, Southern Chinese, Taiwanese-aborigines, Thai, Indonesian and Filipino. Based on genetic data, Nei said that the Amerindians descend from two populations: an original Northeast Asians migration which became the Paleo-Indian and a later migration which became both the Na-Dene and Eskimos. Based on the genetic data, Nei said that Southeast Asian Mongoloids are closer to the Micronesian and Polynesian than to the Papuan and Australian. In 1993, Nei said that the Mongoloids were contained within a larger genetic grouping called the Greater Asians or Greater Mongoloids which also included Pacific Islanders and Australopapuans. In the Australopapuan grouping, Nei included Dravidians, Andamanese, Australian, Papuan and Philippine Negritos. Since Nei said that Australopapuans were most closely related to East Asians, Nei offered an explanation for their peculiar traits. Nei rejected the hypothesis that Australopapuans have traits of black Africans due to convergent-evolution, since he estimated it would have taken far longer for them to have re-evolved frizzled-hair. Nei supported the other hypothesis put forward by Chris B. Stringer of the Paleontology Department of the Natural History Museum that there were two populations and that the original African population had absorbed most of its gene pool from the Mongoloid group.
Satoshi Horai (Japanese: 宝来聡) of the Japanese National Institute of Genetics, said that phylogenetic analysis indicated that there are two distinct groups of Mongoloids – one which early on diverged from Negroids and another that diverged from Caucasoids later. Horai said that Mongoloid distribution corresponds to North and South America, Oceania, Southeast Asia, east Asia, and Siberia.
A study conducted by the HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium in 2009 used principal components analysis, which makes no prior population assumptions, on genetic data sampled from a large number of points across Asia. They said that East Asian and South-East Asian populations clustered together, and suggested a common origin for these populations. At the same time they observed a broad discontinuity between this cluster and South Asia, commenting most of the Indian populations showed evidence of shared ancestry with European populations. The study said that genetic ancestry is strongly correlated with linguistic affiliations as well as geography.
Professor Lic. Edvin Santiago Trujillo said that antigen Dia is not present in blacks and Caucasians. Trujillo said that Dia is found in populations of Mongolic origin. Trujillo said that Dia is present in Chinese (2 — 5%), Polish (0.25 — 0.91%), Japanese (8 — 12%), Mexican Americans (8.2 — 14.7%) and American Indian tribes (7 — 54%). Trujillo said that when Dia is found in Caucasians, there is a presumption that they have a Mongoloid ancestor.
|"Estimates of the Number of Nucleotide Differences per Site Both Among (dxy) and within (dx or dy) Each of the Three Races, and Net Nucleotide Differences (d) among the Races" made by Satoshi Horai (Japanese:宝来聡) of the Department of Human Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Shizouka, Japan.|
DNA studies of "Asian" populations
Hiroki Oota (太田博樹) et al. of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Germany, said that "Asian populations" have high mtDNA variation with Vietnamese having the highest mtDNA diversity, but, overall, the genetic distance between "Asian populations" is small.
Melissa L. Cann et al. of the Department of Biochemistry at the University of California, Berkeley, said that early Asians did not mix with "Asian Homo and that the features of "ancient Asian forms" indicate that "Asian erectus" was not ancestral to "Homo sapiens". Since modern-day "Asians" do not show the amount of mtDNA divergence expected had they mixed with Homo erectus, Cann believes the expanding Homo sapiens from Africa replaced the Asian Homo erectus.
Douglas C. Wallace of the Department of Biochemistry at Emory University said that the mtDNA of the indigenous peoples of the Americas is "clearly Asian in character", but the few founding females carried "rare Asian mtDNAs", causing a different frequency of mtDNA and a "dramatic founder effect". The Austro-Asiatic groups of India are proto Asiatic groups, like the Munda people
Shama Barnabas, B. Joshi and C.G. Suresh of the Division of Biochemical Sciences, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, India, said that evidence for the original people of India who they refer to as the "proto-Asiatic element" spreading into Southeast Asia to become Southeast Asians is shown by the mtDNA affinities between Indians and East Asians and Southeast Asians in DdeI 10394 site along with the associated Asian-specific AluI 10397 site.
Russians are known to have Mongol admixture according to genetic studies
"Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphism was examined in three Russian populations from the European part of Russia (Stavropol krai, Orel oblast, and Saratov oblast). This analysis showed that mitochondrial gene pool of Russians was represented by the mtDNA types belonging to haplogroups H, V, HV*, J, T, U, K, I, W, and X. A mongoloid admixture (1.5%) was revealed in the form of mtDNA types of macrohaplogroup M. Comparative analysis of the mtDNA haplogroup frequency distribution patterns in six Russian populations from the European part of Russia indicated the absence of substantial genetic differences between them. However, in Russian populations from the southern and central regions the frequency of haplogroup V (average frequency 8%) was higher than in the populations from more northern regions. [...]"
Vladimir Nuzhny, of the Health Ministry’s National Narcology Research Centre "As many as 50 per cent of Muscovites are estimated to have inherited Mongol genes that make them absorb more alcohol into the bloodstream and break it down at a slower rate than most Europeans, they say.That means that they get more drunk and have worse hangovers, and are more likely to become addicted to alcohol, given Russia’s taste for vodka, its harsh climate and the social and economic chaos after the collapse of the Soviet Union.“The way they get drunk is completely different. They are also more likely to feel aggressive or depressed,” Dr Nuzhny said. “They do not necessarily look Mongolian, but the gene that governs how they metabolise alcohol is Mongoloid.” -</rev>
|Genetic diversity within/between continental populations by Hiroki Oota et al. (Japanese:太田博樹) of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Germany|
|Number of Populations||Within Populations average mean pairwise differences||Between population average Fst|
|Africa||15||7.99 ± 2.72||0.201|
|Europe||12||4.63 ± 0.94||0.066|
|Asia||12||7.12 ± 0.91||0.033|
|Eurasia||27||5.95 ± 1.51||0.086|
|mtDNA divergence within and between 5 human populations by Melissa L. Cann et al. of the Department of Biochemistry at the University of California, Berkeley|
|5. New Guinean||0.42||0.34||0.29||0.29||0.25|
|The divergence is calculated by a way developed by Masatoshi Nei. The values of the mean pairwise divergence between individuals within populations (δx) appear on the diagonal. The values below the diagonal (δxy) are the mean pairwise divergences between individuals belonging to two different populations, X and Y. The values above the diagonal (δ) are interpopulation divergences that corrected for variation within those populations with the equation δ = δxy – 0.5(δx + δy).|
Dr. George W. Gill, professor of anthropology at the University of Wyoming and Dennis O'Neil professor of anthropology at Palomar College, said that "Mongoloid" concept originated with a now disputed typological method of racial classification. All the -oid racial terms (e.g. Mongoloid, Caucasoid, Negroid, etc.) are now often controversial in both technical and non-technical contexts and may sometimes give offense no matter how they are used.
According to Ward O. Conner who wrote a book about John Langdon Down, since people with Down syndrome may have epicanthic folds, Down syndrome was widely called "Mongol" or "Mongoloid Idiocy". In slang usage the term came to be used as an insult. A shortened version of the term, mong or mongol, is also used in the United Kingdom. Chong Yah Lim, professor of economics at Nanyang Technological University in Singapore said that he did not like the term "Mongoloid" because it has "come to mean demented physical and mental developments". Lim said that he thought the term "East Asian race" would be a more "appropriately neutral, modern term".
- Afro-Asian (mixed ancestry)
- Asian people
- Craniofacial anthropometry
- Eurasian (mixed ancestry)
- Mestizo (mixed ancestry)
- Mongoloid. (2012). Dictionary.com. Retrieved September 3, 2012, from link.
- For a contrast with the "Europoid" or Caucasian race see footnote #4 of page 58-59 in Beckwith, Christopher. (2009). Empires of the Silk Road: a History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-13589-2.
- Smay, Diana; Armelagos, George. "Galileo Wept: A Critical Assessment of the Use of Race in Forensic Anthropology" (PDF). Emory University.
- Lieberman, Leonard. "Anthropology News. "Out of Our Skulls: Caucasoid, Mongoloid, Negroid? Volume 38, Issue 9, page 56, December 1997". Onlinelibrary.wiley.com.
- Templeton, Alan R. "Human Races: A Genetic and Evolutionary Perspective" (PDF). Washington University. Realfuture.org.
- Keevak, Michael. "Becoming Yellow: A Short History of Racial Thinking". Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011. ISBN 978-0-691-14031-5.
- Painter, Nell Irvin (2003). "Why White People are Called Caucasian?" (PDF). Yale University. Retrieved September 27, 2007. Keevak. Becoming Yellow, pp. 74–77
- Blumenbach, Johann. "The Anthropological Treatise of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach". London: Longman Green, 1865.
- Deniker, Joseph. The Races of Man: An Outline of Anthropology and Ethnography C. Scribner's Sons: New York, 1900. ISBN 0-8369-5932-9
- [The End of Racism by Dinesh D'Souza, pg 124]
- Gobineau, Arthur (1915). The Inequality of Human Races. Putnam. ISBN 0-86527-430-4. Retrieved 2007-10-18.
- DiPiero, Thomas. White Men Aren't gid/s work Duke University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-8223-2961-1
- "Huxley, Thomas, On the Geographical Distribution of the Chief Modifications of Mankind. 1870. August 14, 2006". Aleph0.clarku.edu. Retrieved 2013-12-15.
- James Dallas, "On the Primary Divisions and Geographical Distributions of Mankind", 1886 Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, p.304-30. James describes this as "equivalent to Professor Huxley's Mongoloid division" and as encompassing "Mongols and American Indians"
- Boas, F. (1940). Race, language, and culture. New York: Macmillan.
- Anemone, R. L. (1996). Obituary: Elizabeth Smithgall Watts (1941-1994). In American Journal of Physical Anthropology. (99)221-222. link
- Watts, E.S. (1981). "The Biological Race Concept and Diseases of Modern Man." In Biocultural Aspects of Disease. New York: Academic Press.
- Futuyma, Douglas A. Evolutionary Biology. Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, 1983. p. 520
- "University Catalog". California State University, Chico. 2003. Retrieved September 28, 2007.
- Lederer Roger J. Ecology and Field Biology. Cummings Publishing Company: California, 1984. ISBN 0-8053-5718-1 p.129
- Lahr, M. M. (1995), Patterns of modern human diversification: Implications for Amerindian origins. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 38: 163–198. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330380609
- Niskanen, M. (2002). The Origin of the Baltic-Finns from the Physical Anthropological Point of View. Mankind Quarterly Volume XLIII Number 2, Winter. p. 125
- Rand McNally’s World Atlas International Edition Chicago:1944 Rand McNally Map: "Races of Mankind" Pages 278–279
- Bellwood, Peter. Pre-History of the Indo-malaysian Archipelago. Australian National University:1985. ISBN 978-1-921313-11-0
- Takeru Akazawa and Emóke J.E. Sathmåry. Prehistoric Mongoloid dispersals. New York, Oxford University Press, 1996.
- Huxley, Thomas. Collected Essays of Thomas Huxley: Man's Place in Nature and Other Kessinger Publishing: Montana, 2005. ISBN 1-4179-7462-1
- Coon, Carleton S. The Races of Europe. Greenwood: USA, 1972 ISBN 0-8371-6328-5 p.2
- Coon, Carleton S. The Origin of the Races. Knopf: Michigan, 1962. ISBN 0-394-30142-0
- Milford Wolpoff and Rachel Caspari (1998). Race and Human Evolution: A Fatal Attraction. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-3546-9.
- Bhasin, M.K. (2006). "Genetics of Caste and Tribes of India: Indian Population Milieu". Int J Hum Genet (Kamla Raj) 6 (3): 244. Retrieved 2007-10-22.
- Peter Brown (1999). "The First Modern East Asians? another Look at Upper Cave 101, Liujiang, and Minatogawa". K. Omoto (ed.) Interdisciplinary Perspectives on the Origins of the Japanese, International Research Center for Japanese Studies: Kyoto. Department of Anthropology and Paleoanthropology, University of New England. pp. 105–130. Retrieved 2007-09-23.
- Weiwen, Huang, Salawusu Relic. Encyclopedia of China, 1st ed.
- Yali Xue,*,†,‡ Tatiana Zerjal,*,‡ Weidong Bao,‡,§ Suling Zhu,‡,§ Qunfang Shu,§ Jiujin Xu,§ Ruofu Du,§ Songbin Fu,† Pu Li,† Matthew E. Hurles,* Huanming Yang** and Chris Tyler-Smith*,‡,1 (2006). "Male Demography in East Asia: A North–South Contrast in Human Population Expansion Times". Genetics Society of America. doi:10.1534/genetics.105.054270. Retrieved 2007-09-29.
- Posnansky, A. (1917). Signos Mongoloides en Algunos Tipos Étnicos del Altiplano Andino. In Proceedings of the Second Pan American Scientific Congress:(section I) Anthropology. WH Holmes, chairman (Vol. 1, p. 112). US Government Printing Office.
- Wilkenson, Caroline. Forensic Facial Reconstruction. Cambridge University Press. 2004. ISBN 0-521-82003-0
- Ong RG, Stevenson MR (January 1999). "Evaluation of bone density in the mandibles of young Australian adults of Mongoloid and Caucasoid descent". Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology 28 (1): 20–5. doi:10.1038/sj.dmfr.4600399. PMID 10202474.
- Louis Robert Sullivan, Edward Winslow Gifford, Will Carleton McKern. (1921). A contribution to Samoan somatology. Bishop Museum Press: Hawaii.
- Wu, Ju-kang (1959). "Human Fossils Found in Liukiang, Kwangsi, China" 1 (3). pp. 97–104.
- Augustus Henry Keane. (1882). Asia. Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel For General Reading. London.[page needed]
- MD Shunsuke Yuzurihaa, Staff Surgeon, MD, PhD Kiyoshi Matsuo, Professor and Chairman and MD Hideo Kushimaa, Staff Surgeon. An anatomical structure which results in puffiness of the upper eyelid and a narrow palpebral fissure in the Mongoloid eye. Most scientists now believe that this physical trait is the reason that Asians are unable to squint and may also explain minor differences in visual/spacial perception that make operating a motor vehicle challenging. British Journal of Plastic Surgery Volume 53, Issue 6, September 2000, Pages 466–472 doi:10.1054/bjps.2000.3387
- Schurr, Theodore G. (2011). Mapping Mongolia: Situating Mongolia in the World from Geologic Time to the Present. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Pennsylvania. ISBN 1-934536-18-0[page needed]
- Dawber R.P.R. (1997). Diseases of the head and scalp (3rd ed.). Virginia:Blackwell Science Ltd.
- Trotter, M. (1938), A review of the classifications of hair. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 24: 105–126. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330240131
- Duggins, O. H., Trotter, M. and Coon, C. S. (1959), Hair from a Kadar woman of India. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 17: 95–98. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330170203
- Hrdy, D. (1973), Quantitative hair form variation in seven populations. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 39: 7–17. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330390103
- Haydenblit, R. (1996), Dental variation among four prehispanic Mexican populations. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 100: 225–246. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199606)100:2<225::AID-AJPA5>3.0.CO;2-W
- Robert B. Pickering, David Bachman. (2009). The Use of Forensic Anthropology (2nd ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 9781420068771. pp. 83
- Hernández, M., Fox, C. L. and Garcia-Moro, C. (1997), Fueguian cranial morphology: The adaptation to a cold, harsh environment. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 103: 103–117. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199705)103:1<103::AID-AJPA7>3.0.CO;2-X
- Montagu, Ashley. Growing Young. Published by Greenwood Publishing Group, 1989 ISBN 0-89789-167-8
- Blumenfield, J. (2011). Racial Identification in the Skull and Teeth. Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology. 8(1).
- Franz Boas. (1905). Anthropometry of Central California. Harvard University.
- Aleš Hrdlička. 1906. Contribution to the Physical Anthropology of California. Berkeley University Press.
- Worthington, Elsie. North American Indian Life: Customs and Traditions of 23 Tribes. University of Nebraska Press: USA, 1967. ISBN 0-486-27377-6 p. 7
- Sleeboom, Margaret. Academic Nations in China and Japan. Routledge: UK, 2004. ISBN 0-415-31545-X p.56
- Hudson, Mark J. (1999). Ruins of identity: ethnogenesis in the Japanese Islands
- Arnold Henry Savage Landor (1970). Alone with the hairy Ainu: or, 3.800 miles on a pack saddle in Yezo and a cruise to the Kurile islands
- Nicholas, Wade. Before the Dawn. Published by Penguin Publishing, 2006 ISBN 978-1594200793
- Montagu, A. (1951). An introduction to physical anthropology: A revised second edition. Charles C. Thomas Publisher: Springfield, Illinois, USA.
- Moxon, Steve (2003). "The Eternal Child: An Explosive New Theory of Human Origins and Behaviour by Clive Bromhall". Human-nature.com.
- Grossinger, Richard. Embryogenesis. Published by North Atlantic Books, 2000 ISBN 1-55643-359-X
- Oppenheimer, Stephen. The Real Eve. Published by Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2003 ISBN 0-7867-1192-2
- Storm, P. The evolutionary significance of the Wajak skulls. — Scripta Geol., 110: 1-247, figs. 1-30, tabs. 1-121, Leiden, September 1995.
- Ronald Elmslie and Susan Nance, 'Abbie, Andrew Arthur (1905–1976)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, link, published first in hardcopy 1993, accessed online 18 November 2014.
- Abbie, A.A. (1964). THE FACTOR TIMING IN EMERGENCE DISTINCTIVELY HUMAN CHARACTERS. Papers and proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania, Volume 98. 63-71.
- Castle, W.E. (1922). Genetic studies of rabbits and rats. Carnegie Institution of Washington:Washington, D.C.
- Pitt Rivers Museum, University of Oxford. The Invention of Museum Anthropology, 1850-1920: Scoping the local material resources for an intellectual history of a global discipline. Measuring the Natives: Beatrice Blackwood and Leonard Dudley Buxton's work in Oxfordshire. Accessed October 29, 2014, from link
- Dudley Buxton, L.H. (1925). The Peoples of Asia. Routledge, Trench Trubner: New York, N.Y.
- International Zoo News Vol. 47/7 (No. 304) October/November 2000 link
- Vilhjalmur Stefansson My Life with the Eskimo (1922)
- "秋田大学: Comparison between Triceps and Subscapular Skinfold Thickness of Japanese Children with respect to Environmental Effects". Air.lib.akita-u.ac.jp. Retrieved 2013-12-15.
- Yuji Takasaki, Steven F. Loy and Hans W. Juergens "Ethnic Differences in the Relationship between Bioelectrical Impedance and Body Size". Journal of Physiological Anthropology and Applied Human Science; Vol. 22; 233–235 (2003).
- Joseph K. So. "Human Biological Adaptation to Arctic and Subarctic Zones". Annual Review of Anthropology; Vol. 9, (1980), pp. 63–82
- Steegmann, A. T. and Platner, W. S. (1968), "Experimental cold modification of cranio-facial morphology". American Journal of Physical Anthropology; 28: 17–30. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330280111
- Beals, K. L. (1972), "Head form and climatic stress". American Journal of Physical Anthropology; 37: 85–92. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330370111
- Willett Enos Rotzell. (1905). Man: an introduction to anthropology. Philadelphia.
- Dirkmaat, D. (2012). A companion to forensic anthropology. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing: USA. pp. 300 ISBN 978-1-4051-9123-4
- "Dennis C. Dirkmaat, Ph.D., D.A.B.F.A.". Mai.mercyhurst.edu. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- Ball, K., Haggerty, K. & Lyon, D. (2012). Routledge handbook of surveillance studies. Routledge: New York. ISBN 978-0-415-58883-6
- Ann H Ross. Research Gate Retrieved March 8, 2014, from Research Gate
- Ross, A.H. (2011). Seminar Session 1 The Concept of "Race": A Forensic Anthropological Perspective on Human Variation. Advances in Forensic Anthropology Retrieved March 8, 2014, from You Tube Video
- QING HE, MARY HORLICK, JOHN THORNTON, JACK WANG, RICHARD N. PIERSON, JR., STANLEY HESHKA, AND DYMPNA GALLAGHER (2002). Sex and race differences in fat distribution among Asian, African-American and Caucasian prepubertal children. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 87(5). 2164–2170.
- Goh Victor H. H., Tain C. F., Tong Terry Y. Y., Mok Helen P. P., Wong M. T. (2004). "Are BMI and other anthropometric measures appropriate as indices for obesity? A study in an Asian population". The Journal of Lipid Research 45: 1892–1898. doi:10.1194/jlr.M400159-JLR200.
- Deedrick, D. W. (2000). Hairs, fibers, crime, and evidence. Forensic science communications, 2. pp. 3
- Ahn J.M. (2006). "The Current Trend in Augmentation Rhinoplasty". Facial plast Surg 22 (1): 061–069. doi:10.1055/s-2006-939954.
- Dhong, Eun-Sang MD, PhD; Han, Seung-Kyu MD, PhD; Lee, Chi-Ho MD; Yoon, Eul-Sik MD; Kim, Woo-Kyung MD, PhD. (2002). Anthropometric Study of Alar Cartilage in Asians. Annals of Plastic Surgery: – Volume 48 – Issue 4 – pp 386–391
- K.W. Chun, H.J. Kang, S.K. Hana, Corresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author, E.S. Leea, H. Chang, S.B. Kima and W.K. Kim. (2008). Anatomy of the alar lobule in the Asian nose. Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery. Volume 61, Issue 4, Pages 400–407
- Sangki Jeong, Bradley N. Lemke, Richard K. Dortzbach, Yeoung Geol Park, and Heoung Keun Kang The Asian Upper Eyelid: An Anatomical Study With Comparison to the Caucasian Eyelid Arch Ophthalmol, Jul 1999; 117: 907 – 912.
- Park Dae Hwan M.D., Choi Won Seok M.D., Yoon Sean Hyuck M.D., Song Chul Hong M.D. (2008). "Anthropometry of Asian Eyelids by Age". Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery 121 (4): 1405–1413. doi:10.1097/01.prs.0000304608.33432.67.
- Lim, Wee-Kiak F.R.C.Ophth., F.R.C.S. (ED.); Rajendran, Kanagasuntheram F.R.C.S. (ED.); Choo, Chai-Teck F.R.C.Ophth., F.R.C.S. (ED.) Microscopic Anatomy of the Lower Eyelid in Asians.Ophthalmic Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: May 2004 – Volume 20 – Issue 3 – pp 207–211
- Thong, H. Y., Jee, S. H., Sun, C. C., & Biossy, R. E. (2003). The patterns of melanosome distribution in keratinocytes of human skin as one determining factor of skin colour. British Journal Of Dermatology, 149(3), 498-505. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2133.2003.05473.x
- George Richard Scott; Christy G. Turner (1997). "The Anthropology of Modern Human Teeth: Dental Morphology and Its Variation". Cambridge University Press.
- Nei, M. (1985). Human Evolution at the Molecular Level. Population Genetics and Molecular Evolution. Japan Sci. Soc. Press, Tokyo. pp. 44–64.
- "斎藤成也 Naruya, S. Kyushu Museum. 2002. February 2, 2007". Museum.kyushu-u.ac.jp. Retrieved 2013-12-15.
- Roberts, D.F., Fujiki, N. and Torizuka, N. (1992). Isolation, Migration and Health. 33rd Symposium Volume of the Society for Study of Human Biology.
- Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., Menozzi, P. & Piazza, A. (1994). The History and Geography of Human Genes. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
- Table from "Genetic evidence supports demic diffusion of Han culture". Nature (journal, 16 September 2004 issue)
- Table from " A spatial analysis of genetic structure of human populations in China reveals distinct difference between maternal and paternal lineages". European Journal of Human Genetics (journal, 23 January 2008 issue)
- Malyarchuk, B.A., M. A. Perkova, & Derenko, M.V. (2008). On the Origin of Mongoloid Component in the Mitochondrial Gene Pool of Slavs. Russian Journal of Genetics, 44(3), pp. 344–349. ISSN 1022-7954.
- Orekhov, V. et al. (1999). Mitochondrial sequence diversity in Russians. In FEBS Letters. 445(1). pp. 197–201. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(99)00115-5
- TAJIMA Atsushi, PAN I.-Hung, FUCHAROEN Goonnapa, FUCHAROEN Supan, MATSUO Masafumi, TOKUNAGA Katsushi, JUJI Takeo, HAYAMI Masanori, OMOTO Keiichi, HORAI Satoshi, Three major lineages of Asian Y chromosomes: implications for the peopling of east and southeast Asia, Human Genetics 2002, vol. 110, no1, pp. 80–88
- Nei, M. & Roychoudhury, A.K. (1997). The emergence and dispersal of Mongoloids. Indian Journal of Anthrop. Soc. 32:01-49.
- Nei, M. & Roychouhdury, A.K. (1993). Evolutionary Relationships of Human Populations on a Global Scale. Mol. Bio. Evol. 10(5):927–943
- Satoshi Horai and Kenji Hayasaka. (1990). Intraspecific Nucleotide Sequence Differences in the Major Noncoding Region of Human Mitochondrial DNA. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 46:828–842
- Mapping Human Genetic Diversity in Asia, The HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium, 2009
- Grupo Cooperativo Iberoamericano de Medicina Transfusional.link
- Peter A. Underhill and Toomas Kivisild Use of Y Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Population Structure in Tracing Human Migrations Annual Review of Genetics Vol. 41: 539–564 (Volume publication date December 2007) doi:10.1146/annurev.genet.41.110306.130407
- Ballinger, S.W. (1992). Southeast Asian Mitochondrial DNA Analysis Reveals Genetic Continuity of Ancient Mongoloid Migrations. Genetics 130 139–152
- Hiroki Oota, Kitano Takashi, Jin Feng, Yuasa Isao, Wang Li, Ueda Shintaroh, Saitou Naruya, Stoneking Mark (2002). "Extreme mtDNA Homogeneity in Continental Asian Populations". AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 118: 146–153. doi:10.1002/ajpa.10056.
- Rebecca L. Cann, Mark Stoneking, and Allan C. Wilson. Mitochondrial. (1987). DNA and Human Evolution. Letters to Nature
- DOUGLAS C. WALLACE, KATHERINE GARRISON, AND WILLIAM C. KNOWER. "Dramatic Founder Effects in Amerindian Mitochondrial DNAs. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 68:149–155 (1985)
- Barnabas S., Joshi B., Suresh C. G. "Indian-Asian Relationship: mtDNA Reveals More". Naturwissenschaften 87 (4): 180–183. doi:10.1007/s001140050699.
- Maliarchuk BA , et al. "[Mitochondrial DNA variation in Russian populations of Stavropol kr... - PubMed - NCBI". Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- O'Neil, Dennis (May 13, 2007). "Biological Anthropology Terms". Palomar College.
- Gill, George W. "Does Race Exist? A proponent's perspective". Pbs.org.
- "Bartleby.com: Great Books Online -- Quotes, Poems, Novels, Classics and hundreds more". Bartleby.com. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- [Ward, Connor O. John Langdon (2006). "Down the man and the message". Down-syndrome.info.
- Clark, Nicola (October 19, 2011). "Ricky Gervais, please stop using the word 'mong'". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
- Chong Yah Lim. Southeast Asia: The Long Road Ahead. World Scientific, 2004 P. 3.
- Khoyt Sanj. Mongoloids. The Eastern Variant (version) of Humanity – in Russian
|Look up mongoloid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Race.|