Monieux

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Monieux
Blason ville fr Monieux (Vaucluse).svg
Monieux is located in France
Monieux
Monieux
Coordinates: 44°04′05″N 5°21′35″E / 44.0681°N 5.3597°E / 44.0681; 5.3597Coordinates: 44°04′05″N 5°21′35″E / 44.0681°N 5.3597°E / 44.0681; 5.3597
Country France
Region Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Department Vaucluse
Arrondissement Carpentras
Canton Sault
Intercommunality Pays de Sault
Government
 • Mayor (2001–2008) Alain Gabert
Area
 • Land1 47.12 km2 (18.19 sq mi)
Population (2006)
 • Population2 331
 • Population2 density 7.0/km2 (18/sq mi)
INSEE/Postal code 84079 / 84390
Elevation 439–1,022 m (1,440–3,353 ft)
(avg. 700 m or 2,300 ft)

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Monieux is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.

Geography[edit]

The commune of Monieux is located on the plateau of the Mounts of Vaucluse, near to the commune of Sault. It shelters on its territory part of the classified as sites “Reserve of Biosphere” of the Ventoux Mount.

Hydrology[edit]

La Nesque flows through Monieux.

Climate[edit]

The commune is located in the zone of influence of the Mediterranean climate. The summers are hot and dry, related to the increase in altitude of the subtropical anticyclones, intersected with stormy episodes sometimes violent one. The winters are soft. Precipitations are not very frequent and rare snow. It there 275 days of sun per year.

Demography[edit]

Historical population of Monieux
(Source: INSEE[1])
Year 1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2006
Population 139 151 122 171 158 250 323

Agriculture[edit]

It primarily confines in an activity of medium mountains of the type of Provence with a production of lavender, of lavandin, of old variety of wheat and of the derivative products. Sheep breeding and the production of honey holds also an important place.

History[edit]

The town of Monieux is the site of a medieval pogrom that occurred at the end of the 11th century, as determined by Historian Norman Golb. The evidence of this attack by Crusaders on the community is indicated through the discovery of a manuscript in the Cairo Geniza. When Jacob Mann first translated the beginning portion of the document in 1931, the location of the attack described was misinterpreted as taking place in the province of Anjou. In 1969, however, when Norman Golb retranslated the document, he discovered that the referral to the pogrom’s location as a town did not coincide correctly with Mann’s assessment of the locale as Anjou, which was recognized as a province during the time period. Through further inspection, he found that an improper reading of the Hebrew script had led Mann further astray in his translation; Golb, therefore, ultimately published his translation of the document in its entirety, highlighting that Monieux and not Anjou was the site of the attack.[2]

The document, a vellum-inscribed letter written in Hebrew by Joshua B. Obadiah of Monieux, France, exposes the severe maltreatment of the Jewish people when their small community in southeastern France was attacked during the First Crusade of 1096–1099 CE. The manuscript itself serves a unique purpose in that it was not written in the context of memoirs such as those of Usama Ibn Munqidh[3] and Fulcher of Chatres,[4] but was constructed as a letter of recommendation for a woman of note who was living in the community of Monieux during the time of the pogrom. Obadiah’s writings feature an account of the profound misfortune of a proselytess, a woman who, having left her homeland after converting to Judaism, first took refuge in Narbonnne, France. There, she married R. David, a member of a well-respected family in the region. When she began to fear that her relatives would find her via the established Christian authority in Narbonne, she left the city and settled in the remote village of Monieux, France, roughly six years prior to the arrival of the Crusaders.[5]

Obadiah writes of the harrowing fate of the proselytess during the severe attack on the Jews by the French Crusaders, in which her husband was murdered in the synagogue and her two young children, a boy and a girl, were taken captive—likely to be converted to Christianity by the enemy. Left to care for her infant son, Obadiah describes the woman as penurious and “in thirst and nakedness, lacking all provisions, and with no fund to pay for her (daily needs) and (those of) her son.”[6] With only a small number of Jews remaining after the pogrom, “a few from many,”[7] the residents of Monieux no longer had the means to care for the widowed proselytess. This letter, therefore, written by a literate community member in Monieux, provides a full breadth of the woman’s hardships in hopes that she could present it to members of another Jewish community and be taken in there. The discovery of the letter in Egypt suggests that the woman may have travelled far eastward from Monieux after the pogrom, ultimately settling in the flourishing Jewish community of Cairo, where she could be cared for effectively.[8]

City sites and monuments[edit]

  • Vestiges of an old castle / medieval tower dated from the 12th century
  • Saint-Pierre Church, Roman style, 12th century
  • Saint Michel Chapel(1643)
  • Saint-Roch Chapel (1632).
  • Saint-André Chapel
  • Distillings of lavender factories
  • Gorges of Nesque

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ (French) Monieux sur le site de l'Insee
  2. ^ Golb, Norman. "Monieux." Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 113.1 (1969): 67-94. Print.
  3. ^ Cobb, Paul M. Usamah Ibn Munqidh. The Book of Contemplation: Isalm and the Crusades. Penguin Classics. London: Penguin, 2008.
  4. ^ Peters, Edward. The First Crusade: The Chronicle of Fulcher of Chartres and Other source Materials. The Middle Ages Series. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1971.
  5. ^ Golb, Norman. New Light on the Persecution of French Jews at Time of the First Crusade. Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research, vol. 34, 1966.
  6. ^ Golb, Norman. New Light on the Persecution of French Jews at Time of the First Crusade. Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research, vol. 34, 1966. Manuscript, ln 20.
  7. ^ Golb, Norman. New Light on the Persecution of French Jews at Time of the First Crusade. Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research, vol. 34, 1966. Manuscript, ln 20.
  8. ^ Golb, Norman. New Light on the Persecution of French Jews at Time of the First Crusade. Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research, vol. 34, 1966.