Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate
|Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate|
|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||115.03 g mol−1|
|Appearance||white tetragonal crystals|
190 °C, 463 K, 374 °F
|Solubility in water||40.4 g/100 mL|
|Std enthalpy of
|Other anions||Ammonium phosphate
|Other cations||Monosodium phosphate
Potassium dihydrogen phosphate
| (what is: / ?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP), or monoammonium phosphate, NH4H2PO4, is formed when a solution of phosphoric acid is added to ammonia until the solution is distinctly acidic. It crystallizes in tetragonal prisms. Monoammonium phosphate is often used in the blending of dry agricultural fertilizers. It supplies soil with the elements nitrogen and phosphorus in a form usable by plants. The compound is also a component of the ABC powder in some dry chemical fire extinguishers. This substance is also supplied in an emerald green or aquamarine crystal growing box kit for children.
Solid monoammonium phosphate show a dissociation pressure of ammonia of 0.05 mm Hg at 125 °C based on the decomposition reaction as follows:
- NH4H2PO4(s) NH3(g) + H3PO4(l)
ADP is a widely used crystal in the field of optics due to its birefringence properties. As a result of its tetragonal crystal structure, this material has negative uniaxial optical symmetry with typical refractive indices no =1.522 and ne = 1.478 at optical wavelengths.
ADP crystals are piezoelectric, a property required in some active sonar transducers (the alternative being transducers that use magnetostriction). In the 1950s ADP crystals largely replaced the Quartz and Rochelle Salt crystals in transducers because they are easier to work than Quartz and, unlike Rochelle Salt, are not deliquescent.
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2009)|
- Lide, David R. (1998). Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87 ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. pp. 4–40. ISBN 0-8493-0594-2.
- John R Van Wazer (1958). Phosphorus And Its Compounds - Volume I: Chemistry. New York: Interscience Publishers, Inc. p. 503.
- Amnon Yariv, Pochi Yeh (1984). Optical Waves in Crystals. Wiley, Inc.
- Willem Hackmann (1984). Seek and Strike: Sonar, Anti-Submarine Warfare and the Royal Navy, 1914–1954. Her Majesty's Stationery Office. ISBN 0-11-290423-8.