Monocalcium aluminate is formed when the appropriate proportions of calcium carbonate and aluminium oxide are heated together until the mixture melts. It melts incongruently at 1390 °C. The crystal is monoclinic and pseudohexagonal, and has density 2945 kg.m−3. In calcium aluminate cements, it exists as a solid solution in which the amount of minor elements depends upon the bulk composition of the cement. A typical composition is Ca0.93Al1.94Fe0.11Si0.02O4. It reacts rapidly with water, forming the metastable hydrate CaO·Al2O3·10H2O, or a mixture of 2CaO·Al2O3·8H2O, 3CaO·Al2O3·6H2O and Al(OH)3 gel. These reactions form the first stage of strength development in calcium aluminate cements.