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In the ecology of tropical forests, monodominance is the case where more than 50% of the canopy comprises a single species of tree. (Connel and Lowman, two of the earliest to address this subject, called it single-dominance in their paper (Connel & Lowman 1989). Monodominance has since become the usual name.) Conventional explanations of biodiversity in tropical forests in the decades prior to Connel and Lowman's work either ignored monodominance entirely or predicted that it wouldn't exist.
Connel and Lowman subdivided monodominance into two classes, according to whether the monodominant species persisted across multiple generations. Explanations of persistent monodominace include such things as the monodominant species being more resistant than others to seasonal flooding, or that the monodominance is simply a sere. With persistent monodominance, the monodominant species successfully remains so from generation to generation.
Connel and Lowman originally hypothesized ectomycorrhizal association causing the replacement of other species as one of two mechanisms by which a species becomes persistently monodominant, the other being the simple colonization of large gaps. However, subsequent research over the years since (including Hart 1990, Read, Hallam & Cherrier 1995, Torti, Coley & Kursar 2001, and McGuire 2007 amongst others) has shown that there isn't a single, simple, mechanism by which monodominance happens. Monodominant species have been recorded forming at various times after forest clearance, and this has not been shown to be a predector of monodominant species persistence; and a reliance upon ectomycorrhizae and poor soils has not been demonstrated.
Several causal mechanisms have been proposed for the formation of monodominant forest in tropical ecosystems, including features of the environment such as low disturbance rates, and intrinsic characteristics of the dominant species—such as escape from herbivores, high seedling shade-tolerance, and the formation of mycorrhizal networks between individuals of the same species 
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