East Bodish languages

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East Bodish
Ethnicity: Monpa people etc.
Linguistic classification: Sino-Tibetan
Glottolog: east1469[1]

The East Bodish languages are those Bodish languages not covered by the name Tibetan, such as those spoken by the Monpa. They include:

The most divergent is Dakpa, and the most conservative is Black Mountain.

While the East Bodish languages are closely related, Tshangla and related languages of eastern Bhutan, also called "Monpa" and predating Dzongkha, form a sister branch not to the East Bodish group, but to its parent Bodish branch.[2][3] Thus the ambiguous term "Monpa" risks separating languages that should be grouped together, while grouping languages together that are quite separate.[4] Zakhring is apparently also related, though strongly influenced by Midzu (Geman) or a similar language.[5]

Internal classification[edit]

Hyslop (2010) classifies the East Bodish languages as follows.

East Bodish

Lu (2002) divides the "Menba language" (门巴语) into the following subdivisions. The southern dialect is most likely Tawang Monpa.


  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "East Bodish". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ van Driem, George L. (1993). Language Policy in Bhutan (PDF). London: SOAS. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  3. ^ van Driem, George (2001). Languages of the Himalayas: An Ethnolinguistic Handbook of the Greater Himalayan Region. Brill. p. 915 et seq. 
  4. ^ Andvik, Eric E. (2009). A Grammar of Tshangla. Tibetan Studies Library 10. Brill. pp. 4–7. ISBN 90-04-17827-9. 
  5. ^ Blench, Roger; Post, Mark (2011), (De)classifying Arunachal languages: Reconstructing the evidence 
  • Hyslop, Gwendolyn (2010). On the internal phylogeny of East Bodish, m.s.
  • Lu Shaozun [陆绍尊]. 2002. A study of Menba (Monpa) dialects [门巴语方言研究]. Beijing: Ethnic Publishing House [民族出版社].