Montcalm and Wolfe
Montcalm and Wolfe (ISBN 0-306-80621-5) is the sixth volume in Francis Parkman's seven-volume history, France and England in North America, originally published in 1884. It tells the story of the French and Indian War. Its title refers to Louis-Joseph de Montcalm and James Wolfe, the commanding generals of the French and English forces respectively and to whom the book devotes particular attention. Parkman considered the book his masterpiece.
It was republished in 1983, along with the other six volumes, in a two-volume unabridged version with notes by David Levin (Library of America). A centennial edition was published in 1984 by Atheneum, New York, with a foreword by C. Vann Woodward. The Atheneum edition was republished in 1995 by Da Capo Press, New York.
- AUTHOR'S INTRODUCTION
- CHAPTER 1: 1745-1755 The Combatants
England in the Eighteenth Century. Her Political and Social Aspects. Her Military Condition. France. Her Power and Importance. Signs of Decay. The Court, the Nobles, the Clergy, the People. The King and Pompadour. The Philosophers. Germany. Prussia. Frederic II. Russia. State of Europe. War of the Austrian Succession. American Colonies of France and England. Contrasted Systems and their Results. Canada. Its Strong Military Position. French Claims to the Continent. British Colonies. New England. Virginia. Pennsylvania. New York. Jealousies, Divisions, Internal Disputes, Military Weakness.
- CHAPTER 2: 1749-1752 Céloron de Bienville
La Galissonière. English Encroachment. Mission of Céloron. The Great West. Its European Claimants. Its Indian Population. English Fur-Traders. Céloron on the Alleghany. His Reception. His Difficulties. Descent of the Ohio. Covert Hostility. Ascent of the Miami. La Demoiselle. Dark Prospects for France. Christopher Gist. George Croghan. Their Western Mission. Pickawillany. English Ascendency. English Dissension and Rivalry. The Key of the Great West.
- CHAPTER 3: 1749-1753 Conflict for the West
The Five Nations. Caughnawaga. Abbé Piquet. His Schemes. His Journey. Fort Frontenac. Toronto. Niagara. Oswego. Success of Piquet. Detroit. La Jonquiére. His Intrigues. His Trials. His Death. English Intrigues. Critical State of the West. Pickawillany Destroyed. Duquesne. His Grand Enterprise.
- CHAPTER 4: 1710-1754 Conflict for Acadia
Acadia ceded to England. Acadians swear Fidelity. Halifax founded. French Intrigue. Acadian Priests. Mildness of English Rule. Covert Hostility of Acadians. The New Oath. Treachery of Versailles. Indians incited to War. Clerical Agents of Revolt. Abbé Le Loutre. Acadians impelled to emigrate. Misery of the Emigrants. Humanity of Cornwallis and Hopson. Fanaticism and Violence of Le Loutre. Capture of the “St. Francois.” The English at Beaubassin. Le Loutre drives out the Inhabitants. Murder of Howe. Beauséjour. Insolence of Le Loutre. His Harshness to the Acadians. The Boundary Commission. Its Failure. Approaching War.
- CHAPTER 5: 1753, 1754 Washington
The French occupy the Sources of the Ohio. Their Sufferings. Fort Le Boeuf. Legardeur de Saint-Pierre. Mission of Washington. Robert Dinwiddie. He opposes the French. His Dispute with the Burgesses. His Energy. His Appeals for Help. Fort Duquesne. Death of Jumonville. Washington at the Great Meadows. Coulon de Villiers. Fort Necessity.
- CHAPTER 6: 1754, 1755 The Signal of Battle
Troubles of Dinwiddie. Gathering of the Burgesses. Virginian Society. Refractory Legislators. The Quaker Assembly It refuses to resist the French. Apathy of New York. Shirley and the General Court of Massachusetts. Short-sighted Policy. Attitude of Royal Governors. Indian Allies waver. Convention at Albany. Scheme of Union. It fails. Dinwiddie and Glen. Dinwiddie calls on England for Help. The Duke of Newcastle. Weakness of the British Cabinet. Attitude of France. Mutual Dissimulation. Both Powers send Troops to America. Collision. Capture of the “Alcide” and the “Lis.”
- CHAPTER 7: 1755 Braddock
Arrival of Braddock. His Character. Council at Alexandria. Plan of the Campaign. Apathy of the Colonists. Rage of Braddock. Franklin. Fort Cumberland. Composition of the Army. Offended Friends. The March. The French Fort. Savage Allies. The Captive. Beaujeu. He goes to meet the English. Passage of the Monongahela. The Surprise. The Battle. Rout of Braddock. His Death. Indian Ferocity. Reception of the Ill News. Weakness of Dunbar. The Frontier abandoned.
- CHAPTER 8: 1755-1763 Removal of the Acadians
State of Acadia. Threatened Invasion. Peril of the English. Their Plans. French Forts to be attacked. Beauséjour and its Occupants. French Treatment of the Acadians. John Winslow. Siege and Capture of Beauséjour. Attitude of Acadians. Influence of their Priests. They refuse the Oath of Allegiance. Their Condition and Character. Pretended Neutrals. Moderation of English Authorities. The Acadians persist in their Refusal. Enemies or Subjects? Choice of the Acadians. The Consequence. Their Removal determined. Winslow at Grand Pré. Conference with Murray. Summons to the Inhabitants. Their Seizure. Their Embarkation. Their Fate. Their Treatment in Canada. Misapprehension concerning them.
- CHAPTER 9: 1755 Dieskau
Expedition against Crown Point. William Johnson. Vaudreuil. Dieskau. Johnson and the Indians. The Provincial Army. Doubts and Delays. March to Lake George. Sunday in Camp. Advance of Dieskau. He changes Plan. Marches against Johnson. Ambush. Rout of Provincials. Battle of Lake George. Rout of the French. Rage of the Mohawks. Peril of Dieskau. Inaction of Johnson. The Homeward March. Laurels of Victory.
- CHAPTER 10: 1755, 1756 Shirley. Border War
The Niagara Campaign. Albany. March to Oswego. Difficulties. The Expedition abandoned. Shirley and Johnson. Results of the Campaign. The Scourge of the Border. Trials of Washington. Misery of the Settlers. Horror of their Situation. Philadelphia and the Quakers. Disputes with the Penns. Democracy and Feudalism. Pennsylvanian Population. Appeals from the Frontier. Quarrel of Governor and Assembly. Help refused. Desperation of the Borderers. Fire and Slaughter. The Assembly alarmed. They pass a mock Militia Law. They are forced to yield.
- CHAPTER 11: 1712-1756 Montcalm
War declared. State of Europe. Pompadour and Maria Theresa. Infatuation of the French Court. The European War. Montcalm to command in America. His early Life. An intractable Pupil. His Marriage. His Family. His Campaigns. Preparation for America. His Associates. Lévis, Bourlamaque, Bougainville. Embarkation. The Voyage. Arrival. Vaudreuil. Forces of Canada. Troops of the Line, Colony Troops, Militia, Indians. The Military Situation. Capture of Fort Bull. Montcalm at Ticonderoga.
- CHAPTER 12: 1756 Oswego
The new Campaign. Untimely Change of Commanders. Eclipse of Shirley. Earl of Loudon. Muster of Provincials. New England Levies. Winslow at Lake George. Johnson and the Five Nations. Bradstreet and his Boatmen. Fight on the Onondaga. Pestilence at Oswego. Loudon and the Provincials. New England Camps. Army Chaplains. A sudden Blow. Montcalm attacks Oswego. Its Fall.
- CHAPTER 13: 1756, 1757 Partisan War
Failure of Shirley's Plan. Causes. Loudon and Shirley. Close of the Campaign. The Western Border. Armstrong destroys Kittanning. The Scouts of Lake George. War Parties from Ticonderoga. Robert Rogers. The Rangers. Their Hardihood and Daring. Disputes as to Quarters of Troops. Expedition of Rogers. A Desperate Bush-fight. Enterprise of Vaudreuil. Rigaud attacks Fort William Henry.
- CHAPTER 14: 1757 Montcalm and Vaudreuil
The Seat of War. Social Life at Montreal. Familiar Correspondence of Montcalm. His Employments. His Impressions of Canada. His Hospitalities. Misunderstandings with the Governor. Character of Vaudreuil. His Accusations. Frenchmen and Canadians. Foibles of Montcalm. The opening Campaign. Doubts and Suspense. London's Plan. His Character. Fatal Delays. Abortive Attempt against Louisbourg. Disaster to the British Fleet.
- CHAPTER 15: 1757 Fort William Henry
Another Blow. The War-song. The Army at Ticonderoga. Indian Allies. The War-feast. Treatment of Prisoners. Cannibalism. Surprise and Slaughter. The War Council. March of Lévis. The Army embarks. Fort William Henry. Nocturnal Scene. Indian Funeral. Advance upon the Fort. General Webb. His Difficulties. His Weakness. The Siege begun. Conduct of the Indians. The Intercepted Letter. Desperate Position of the Besieged. Capitulation. Ferocity of the Indians. Mission of Bougainville. Murder of Wounded Men. A Scene of Terror. The Massacre. Efforts of Montcalm. The Fort burned.
- CHAPTER 16: 1757, 1758 A Winter of Discontent
Boasts of Loudon. A Mutinous Militia. Panic. Accusations of Vaudreuil. His Weakness. Indian Barbarities. Destruction of German Flats. Discontent of Montcalm. Festivities at Montreal. Montcalm's Relations with the Governor. Famine. Riots. Mutiny. Winter at Ticonderoga. A desperate Bush-fight. Defeat of the Rangers. Adventures of Roche and Pringle.
- CHAPTER 17: 1753-1760 Bigot
His Life and Character. Canadian Society. Official Festivities. A Party of Pleasure. Hospitalities of Bigot. Desperate Gambling. Château Bigot. Canadian Ladies. Cadet. La Friponne. Official Rascality. Methods of Peculation. Cruel Frauds on the Acadians. Military Corruption. Péan. Love and Knavery. Varin and his Partners. Vaudreuil and the Peculators. He defends Bigot; praises Cadet and Péan. Canadian Finances. Peril of Bigot. Threats of the Minister. Evidence of Montcalm. Impending Ruin of the Confederates.
- CHAPTER 18: 1757, 1758 Pitt
Frederic of Prussia. The Coalition against him. His desperate Position. Rossbach. Leuthen. Reverses of England. Weakness of the Ministry. A Change. Pitt and Newcastle. Character of Pitt. Sources of his Power. His Aims. Louis XV. Pompadour. She controls the Court, and directs the War. Gloomy Prospects of England. Disasters. The New Ministry. Inspiring Influence of Pitt. The Tide turns. British Victories. Pitt's Plans for America. Louisbourg, Ticonderoga, Duquesne. New Commanders. Naval Battles.
- CHAPTER 19: 1758 Louisbourg
Condition of the Fortress. Arrival of the English. Gallantry of Wolfe. The English Camp. The Siege begun. Progress of the Besiegers. Sallies of the French. Madame Drucour. Courtesies of War. French Ships destroyed. Conflagration. Fury of the Bombardment. Exploit of English Sailors. The End near. The White Flag. Surrender. Reception of the News in England and America. Wolfe not satisfied. His Letters to Amherst. He destroys Gaspé. Returns to England.
- CHAPTER 20: 1758 Ticonderoga
Activity of the Provinces. Sacrifices of Massachusetts. The Army at Lake George. Proposed Incursion of Lévis. Perplexities of Montcalm. His Plan of Defence. Camp of Abercromby. His Character. Lord Howe, His Popularity. Embarkation of Abercromby. Advance down Lake George. Landing. Forest Skirmish. Death of Howe. Its Effects. Position of the French. The Lines of Ticonderoga. Blunders of Abercromby. The Assault. A Frightful Scene. Incidents of the Battle. British Repulse. Panic. Retreat Triumph of Montcalm.
- CHAPTER 21: 1758 Fort Frontenac
The Routed Army. Indignation at Abercromby. John Cleaveland and his Brother Chaplains. Regulars and Provincials. Provincial Surgeons. French Raids. Rogers defeats Marin. Adventures of Putnam. Expedition of Bradstreet. Capture of Fort Frontenac.
- CHAPTER 22: 1758 Fort Duquesne
Dinwiddie and Washington. Brigadier Forbes. His Army. Conflicting Views. Difficulties. Illness of Forbes. His Sufferings. His Fortitude. His Difference with Washington. Sir John Sinclair. Troublesome Allies. Scouting Parties. Boasts of Vaudreuil. Forbes and the Indians. Mission of Christian Frederic Post. Council of Peace. Second Mission of Post. Defeat of Grant. Distress of Forbes. Dark Prospects. Advance of the Army. Capture of the French Fort. The Slain of Braddock's Field. Death of Forbes.
- CHAPTER 23: 1758, 1759 The Brink of Ruin
Jealousy of Vaudreuil. He asks for Montcalm's Recall. His Discomfiture. Scene at the Governor's House. Disgust of Montcalm. The Canadians Despondent. Devices to encourage them. Gasconade of the Governor. Deplorable State of the Colony. Mission of Bougainville. Duplicity of Vaudreuil. Bougainville at Versailles. Substantial Aid refused to Canada. A Matrimonial Treaty. Return of Bougainville. Montcalm abandoned by the Court. His Plans of Defence. Sad News from Candiac. Promises of Vaudreuil.
- CHAPTER 24: 1758, 1759 Wolfe
The Exiles of Fort Cumberland. Relief. The Voyage to Louisbourg. The British Fleet. Expedition against Quebec. Early Life of Wolfe. His Character. His Letters to his Parents. His Domestic Qualities. Appointed to command the Expedition. Sails for America.
- CHAPTER 25: 1759 Wolfe at Quebec
French Preparation. Muster of Forces. Gasconade of Vaudreuil. Plan of Defence. Strength of Montcalm. Advance of Wolfe. British Sailors. Landing of the English. Difficulties before them. Storm. Fireships. Confidence of French Commanders. Wolfe occupies Point Levi. A Futile Night Attack. Quebec bombarded. Wolfe at the Montmorenci. Skirmishes. Danger of the English Position. Effects of the Bombardment. Desertion of Canadians. The English above Quebec. Severities of Wolfe. Another Attempt to burn the Fleet. Desperate Enterprise of Wolfe. The Heights of Montmorenci. Repulse of the English.
- CHAPTER 26: 1759 Amherst. Niagara.
Amherst on Lake George. Capture of Ticonderoga and Crown Point. Delays of Amherst. Niagara Expedition. La Corne attacks Oswego. His Repulse. Niagara besieged. Aubry comes to its Relief. Battle. Rout of the French. The Fort taken. Isle-aux-Noix. Amherst advances to attack it. Storm. The Enterprise abandoned, Rogers attacks St. Francis. Destroys the Town. Sufferings of the Rangers.
- CHAPTER 27: 1759 The Heights of Abraham
Elation of the French. Despondency of Wolfe. The Parishes laid waste. Operations above Quebec. Illness of Wolfe. A New Plan of Attack. Faint Hope of Success. Wolfe's Last Despatch. Confidence of Vaudreuil. Last Letters of Montcalm. French Vigilance. British Squadron at Cap-Rouge. Last Orders of Wolfe. Embarkation. Descent of the St. Lawrence. The Heights scaled. The British Line. Last Night of Montcalm. The Alarm. March of French Troops. The Battle. The Rout. The Pursuit. Fall of Wolfe and of Montcalm.
- CHAPTER 28: 1759 Fall of Quebec
After the Battle. Canadians resist the Pursuit. Arrival of Vaudreuil. Scene in the Redoubt. Panic. Movements of the Victors. Vaudreuil's Council of War. Precipitate Retreat of the French Army. Last Hours of Montcalm. His Death and Burial. Quebec abandoned to its Fate. Despair of the Garrison. Lévis joins the Army. Attempts to relieve the Town. Surrender. The British occupy Quebec. Slanders of Vaudreuil. Reception in England of the News of Wolfe's Victory and Death. Prediction of Jonathan Mayhew.
- CHAPTER 29: 1759, 1760 Sainte-Foy
Quebec after the Siege. Captain Knox and the Nuns. Escape of French Ships. Winter at Quebec. Threats of Lévis. Attacks. Skirmishes. Feat of the Rangers. State of the Garrison. The French prepare to retake Quebec. Advance of Levis. The Alarm. Sortie of the English. Rash Determination of Murray. Battle of Ste.-Foy. Retreat of the English. Lévis besieges Quebec. Spirit of the Garrison. Peril of their Situation. Relief. Quebec saved. Retreat of Lévis. The News in England.
- CHAPTER 30: 1760 Fall of Canada
Desperate Situation. Efforts of Vaudreuil and Lévis. Plans of Amherst. A Triple Attack. Advance of Murray. Advance of Haviland. Advance of Amherst. Capitulation of Montreal. Protest of Lévis. Injustice of Louis XV. Joy in the British Colonies. Character of the War.
- CHAPTER 31: 1758-1763 The Peace of Paris
Exodus of Canadian Leaders. Wreck of the “Auguste.” Trial of Bigot and his Confederates. Frederic of Prussia. His Triumphs. His Reverses. His Peril. His Fortitude. Death of George II. Change of Policy. Choiseul. His Overtures of Peace. The Family Compact. Fall of Pitt. Death of the Czarina. Frederic saved. War with Spain. Capture of Havana. Negotiations. Terms of Peace. Shall Canada be restored? Speech of Pitt. The Treaty signed. End of the Seven Years War.
- CHAPTER 32: 1763-1884 Conclusion
Results of the War. Germany. France. England. Canada. The British Provinces.
- Appendix A: Chapter 3. Conflict for the West
- Appendix B: Chapter 4. Acadia
- Appendix C: Chapter 5. Washington
- Appendix D: Chapter 7. Braddock
- Appendix E: Chapter 14. Montcalm
- Appendix F: Chapter 15. Fort William Henry
- Appendix G: Chapter 20. Ticonderoga
- Appendix H: Chapter 25. Wolfe at Quebec
- Appendix I: Chapter 27. The Heights of Abraham
- Appendix J: Chapter 28. Fall of Quebec
- Appendix K: Chapter 29. Sainte-Foy