Serb minority in Albania

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Serbs in Albania
Serbët në Shqipëri
Срби у Албанији
Total population
ca. 30,000 (est.)
Regions with significant populations
Mostly in Shkodër County
Languages
Albanian and Serbian
Religion
Orthodox Christianity, Sunni Islam

The Serbs in Albania (called the Serbo-Montenegrin minority by the Council of Europe[1]) are estimated to number ca. 30,000 people. Most of the community adhere to the Orthodox Church, while a minority professes Islam.

Human rights[edit]

According to the Serbian Ministry of Diaspora in 2009, the most vulnerable minority of Europe were the Serbs in Albania, who since Communist Albania have not had their right to the use of the Serbian language, the religious orientation (Serbian Orthodox), while during the rule of Enver Hoxha, they were forced to change names and are not able to reclaim them.[2][verification needed]

Economy[edit]

The community lives largely on trade with Montenegro.[3]

Population[edit]

In 2000, the Albanian Helsinki Committee estimated that there were ca. 2,000 "Serb–Montenegrin" people in Albania.[4] The Morača-Rozafa Association had 4,000 members in 2009, while President Pavle Brajović claimed a number closer to 30,000.[5] The 2011 census in Albania was boycotted by the national minorities.[6] According to the Assembly for the Diaspora, the Serb minority in Albania number ca. 30,000 people.[7]

In Shkodër County, the Vraka region is where most of the community live:[8]

  • Boriç i Vogël (Stari/Mali Borič), in Gruemirë, majority of Serbs–Montenegrins and minority of Albanians
  • Boriç i Madh (Mladi/Veliki Borič), in Gruemirë, majority of Slavic Muslims hailing from Podgorica (the "Podgoričani") and minorities of Albanians and Serbs–Montenegrins
  • Grilë (Grilj), in Gruemirë, majority of Serbs–Montenegrins and minority of Albanians
  • Omaraj (Omara), in Gruemirë, majority of Serbs–Montenegrins and minority of Albanians
  • Rrash-Kullaj (Ras i Kule), in Gruemirë, inhabited by Serbs–Montenegrins until World War II
  • (Kontrobudan)
  • (Kamenica)

[9]

Smaller communities live outside northern Albania. Several hundred families live in Durrës and Tirana. There are also communities in Elbasan and Korça.[10] In two villages of Fier, the inhabitants declare as Serbs of Islamic faith.[11][12] In Fier, there are some 2,000 Serbs of Orthodox faith, living mostly in the settlements of Retli Bouša and Hamir.[13]

History[edit]

Middle Ages[edit]

Jovan Vladimir.

With short interruptions, the territory that later became a part of Sanjak of Scutari in the Ottoman Empire, belonged to the Slavic medieval feudal states for many centuries.[14] The South Slavs ("Sklavenoi") began raiding Byzantine territories in the 520s and had conquered Durrës and most of Epirus and Macedonia in 548. According to Emperor Constantine VII (r. 913–959) the early Serbs lived in the former Roman provinces of Dalmatia, Praevalitana and Moesia. During the rule of Časlav Klonimirović (r. 927-960), most of Albania was part of Bulgaria (eastern) and the Byzantine Empire (Dyrrhachium (theme), western maritime). After the Byzantine annexation of Raška, the Serbian principality of Duklja succeeded as the main Serb state and it included much of the land north of Durrës, with Shkodër being an important city. Khan Samuel of Bulgaria (r. 997–1014) had by 997 conquered all of Thessaly, Epirus, Macedonia, and most of modern Albania.[15] Jovan Vladimir ruled Duklja during the war between Byzantine Emperor Basil II and Samuel. Vladimir allegedly retreated into Koplik when Samuel invaded Duklja, and was subsequently forced to accept Bulgarian vassalage. Vladimir was later slewn by the Bulgars, and received a cult; Shingjon (the feast of St. Jovan Vladimir), which is celebrated by the Albanian Orthodox Christians.[16] In 1018 Basil II conquered most of the Balkans and established the Archbishopric of Ochrid for the South Slavs. In the 1030s, Stefan Vojislav expelled the last strategos and defeated the Byzantines (1042), then set up Shkodër (Skadar) as his capital.[17] Constantine Bodin accepted the crusaders of the Crusade of 1101 in Shkodër. After the dynastic struggles in the 12th century, Shkodër became part of the Nemanjić Zeta province. In 1330 Stefan Uroš III appointed his son Stefan Dušan as the "Young King" and ruler of Zeta seated in Shkodër.[18] According to the study of a Serbian chrysobull dating 1330, northern Albania was populated by Orthodox Serbs and several town names attest to a prominence of Serbs: Trebo polje, Bajbane, Luzane, Gorane, Buljane etc.[19] During the fall of the Serbian Empire (14th century), Shkodër was taken by the Balšić family of Zeta who surrendered the city to Venice, in order to form protection zone from the Ottoman Empire. During Venetian rule the city adopted the Statutes of Scutari, a civic law written in Venetian, which also contained Albanian elements such as Besa and Gjakmarrja.[20][21] Principality of Zeta, a former Ottoman vassal, lost its status as an independent state and was largely incorporated into the Sanjak of Scutari in 1499.[22] In 1514, this territory was separated from the Sanjak of Scutari and established as a separate sanjak, under the rule of Skenderbeg Crnojević. When he died in 1528, the Sanjak of Montenegro was reincorporated into the Sanjak of Scutari as a unique administrative unit (vilayet) with certain degree of autonomy.[23] The first Ottoman censuses (1431, 1467 and 1485) show such substantial presence of Slavic toponyms.

1582 Ottoman census[edit]

In 1582, in Ottoman defter "Tahrir defterleri", most of northern Albania had Serb populations; the Sanjak of Scutari had 81,700 Serbs, while Durrës Sandjak had 8,600 Serbs.[24][verification needed] In the east of the Shkodra lake there were Serb enclaves, also attested in place-names: Zlogora, Brezje, Grnčar, Podgor, Kosmač, Gradič, Dobre, Trnoslav, Gradec, Rumište, Maličevo, Kosovo, Brdence, Poljičani, Popine, and the village Srbin and city of Šklav.[24][25] The 1582—1583 Scutari defter show many nahiyah with a total of 709 villages,[26] of which the following were located within Albania:

  • Shkodër with 128 villages
  • Dušmen (Dushmani) with 24 villages; majority had personal names with an Albanian character, minority with a Serbian character.
    • Toponyms show some South Slavic influence, indicating a presence of a South Slavic-speaking population that later depopulated the region
    • Islamisation was slowly occurring within the nahiyah, based on the presence of characteristically Muslim names within its population
  • Zabojana with 48 villages; majority had personal names with an Albanian character, minority with a Serbian character.
  • Gorje Šestan (Džebel-i Šestan) with 7 villages; majority had personal names with a Serbian character, minority with an Albanian character.
  • Pobor with 11 villages; overwhelming majority had personal names with a Serbian character
  • Klemente with 2 villages; majority had personal names with an Albanian character, minority with a Serbian character.
  • Altin (Altun li) with 41 villages; relative majority had names with a Serbian character, minority with an Albanian character
  • Petrišpan with 33 villages
  • Komoran with 20 villages; overwhelming majority had personal names with a Serbian character
    • Presence of Muslim inhabitants shown in two villages within the nahiyah

Modern[edit]

Montenegrins and Serbs began migrating to Vraka in the late 17th century. From confirmed documents, one of the first families to inhabit the area of Vraka was in 1705 were the Đurčevići from the village of Momče in Kuči. A certain Jerko Đurčević was the only one from his clan in Vraka to convert to Islam. His descendants later became known as the Jerkovići, who are found in the village of Štoj, near Ulcinj.

In 1828, a Serbian school was opened in Shkodra, which Nikola Musulin attended.

Vuk Stefanović Karadžić was not certain "how far there are Serbs in Albania and Macedonia".[27]

In 1909, the Eparchy of Raška–Prizren had 15 protopresbyteriates, the last of which was Skadar, in which the parishes of:[28]

  • Skadar: 105 households in a part of the town Skadar, parish under protojerej Obrad Popović, the Metropolitan's vicar for the Skadar protopresbyteriate. 84 in the other part, with villages Deregnjat, Brdica Bušat, parish under Mihailo Štirkić. Churches in Skadar: Church of St. Nicholas and Church of St. Alexander Nevsky.[28]
  • Vranj: 69 households (villages Vranj, Mataluž, town of Tuzi), Church in Vranj dedicated to St. Nicholas, parish under Filip Majić.[28]

In 1918, besides the Serb Orthodox in Scutari, there were communities in different neighbouring villages such as Vraka, Vramenica, Derigniat, etc., as well as several thousands of Slavic Muslims of Montenegrin and Bosnia-Herzegovina origin.[29] With the establishment of Yugoslavia, almost all of the ethnic Serbs had been united into one state, except for those scattered in Hungary, Romania and a small number in Albania.[30] In 1920, the following villages had Serb majority or plurality: "Brch, Basits, Vraka, Sterbets, Kadrum" and farming was the chief occupation.[31]

In 1939 there were ca. 4,000 Serbs west of Ohrid, and several villages were inhabited by Serbian refugees.[32]

According to Jovan Erdeljanović, in his book "Stara Crna Gora",[when?] all descendants of Jovan Martinović, who has been mentioned since 1687, have emigrated to Vraka.

In the Zog period, the Yugoslav-Albanian borders offered free movement.[33] In 1921, Albanian government declared that the Greeks were to be registered as a minority, the Orthodox Serbs however were to register themselves as Albanians (thus becoming nationals of Albania) in a two-year period.[citation needed] In the Albanian census the Greeks numbered 15,000 while Serbs and Bulgarians numbered 200[citation needed] families. During the time of 1921-1928 the Serb community in Albania was strengthened through efforts of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, which opened several Serbian private schools in 1923-1924 of which the school of Vrake had 72 pupils in 1930, three schools in Shkodra.[citation needed] A ethnic Serb football team existed in Shkodra that competed in the Albanian league. Two youth organizations (Guslar and Obilich) existed in Shkodra. The formation of Orthodox Autocephalous Church of Albania weakened the Serbs and Greeks in the country. The active 14 churches and Monastery were slowly closed by the Albanian government.[34] The Serb school in Vrake was destroyed in 1934.[35] Enver Hoxha decided to destroy the Serbian cemeteries and 2 of the Serb temples.[36]

1928 data shows that Albania had 65,000 (7.83%) Serbs and Montenegrins.[37]

After the 1981 student protest in Kosovo, Albanian Serbs complained on harassment and pressure to leave the country.[38]

Vraka is known for having been the place where poet Millosh Gjergj Nikolla became teacher on 23 April 1933, and it was in this period that he started to write prose sketches and verses.[39]

Following the liberation of the Balkan states, Serbs from Albania began to migrate to Serbia and Montenegro. A period of migration occurred between 1925 and 1934. This wave marked the return of many Montenegrin families to Montenegro, leaving their homes in Vraka behind.

In 1992, the Morača-Rozafa Association was established.[40]

During the Yugoslav Wars, there were incidents of violence against the Serb-Montenegrin minority in places like Vraka, Boriç i Vogël and Boriç i Madh, where the Albanian government also tried to forcibly take land from them. The Albanian government also planned to forcibly resettle Serb-Montenegrins and Podgoričani from Boriç i Vogël, Boriç i Madh, Vraka and other places.[41][42][43] Many moved to Serbia and Montenegro.[44] Another wave came with the Kosovo War.

Demographic history[edit]

Minorities of Albania, Serbs in green
  • According to the 1928 population census, there were ca. 65,000 Serbs in Albania, forming around 8% of Albania's total population and the largest of its minorities.[45][46]

Culture[edit]

Religion[edit]

Serb-Montenegrins in Albania are adherents of two rellgions: Eastern Orthodoxy and Sunni Islam.

The Serbian minority in Scutari had always celebrated its liturgy in Serbian. The Serbian Metropolitan of Scutari participated in the Albanian Synod.[47]

Names[edit]

As part of assimilation politics, Serbs were not allowed to have Serbian names.[35] Many Serbs took simple words as surnames: Druri (drvo, tree), Arra (orah, walnut), Guri (kamen, stone), Hekuri (gvožđe, iron), Qershia (trešnja, cherry), Dritarja (prozor, window).[35][dubious ]

Architecture[edit]

On the small route from Elbasan to Djuhaze[where?] are the remains of 99 Serbian Orthodox buildings. In Shkodra is the Cathedral of Saint Stephen, in Donja the church of Mother Mary.[citation needed]

Anthropology[edit]

Many towns with historical Serb population derive their name from the early Middle Ages when Slavs ruled Albania.[25]

In the Shkodra region, especially in Vrakë, and on the outskirts of Elbasan, Korça, there were villages with Serbian population. Albanized Serbs exist in Cermenikë, Bulqizë, in Mokër, in Malësia, etc.[48]

The Ljumljani were Serbs that were Islamicized and subsequently Albanised.[49]

There are sources that point that the Kelmendi are of Serb origin,[50][51][52] that the founder came from the Morača[53] i.e. Piperi[52] i.e. Herzegovina.[54] A certain Klmen (or Amati) from Kuči settled first in Hoti then re-settled in the present clan area.[52] Among some Kelmends, Nikola Oštroumni Kolmendija (Nikola "Sharp-minded" Kolmendija) is the founding father.[55]

The Kastrati clan was recorded for the first time in 1416.[56] The clan's centre was once at the ruins of a Roman castra on the Shkodra-Orosh road.[57] According to a local legend they are descendants of Krsto who was a brother of Grča, the ancestor of Kuči.[58] It was also recorded that Alexius[59] Kastrati, a lord of three villages, had in 1403 received a gift from the governor of Shkodra.[60][61] In a work of Jovan Cvijić it was recorded that in one of the villages (Kamenicë) of the Kastrati region the majority of the population were Orthodox Serbs.[62] Cvijić also recorded that the Kastrati themselves have a story about their mixed Serbian-Albanian origin.[62] The region had 300 Catholic and 200 Muslim households.[63] According to the founding legend of the clan, 300 houses descend from a Delti or Dedli from Drekalovići of Kuči, while 200 houses descend from Slavs who were living on the territory before arrival of Delti.[64][65]

Serbian and Montenegrin graves in Shkodra from the First World War[edit]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "ECRI report on Albania". 2010. p. 31. 
  2. ^ International Radio Serbia. "International Radio Serbia |". Glassrbije.org. Retrieved 2013-02-11. 
  3. ^ Hermine de Soto (1 January 2002). Poverty in Albania: A Qualitative Assessment. World Bank Publications. pp. 91–. ISBN 978-0-8213-5109-3. 
  4. ^ Manjola Xhaxho. "Minority Rights and the Republic of Albania: Missing the Implementation". 
  5. ^ "Pavle Brajović: Zahtevi i očekivanja". 
  6. ^ http://www.novosti.rs/vesti/naslovna/drustvo/aktuelno.290.html:523296-Aleksandar-Cotric-Srbi-nestaju-u-Albaniji.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  7. ^ http://www.b92.net/info/vesti/index.php?yyyy=2014&mm=12&dd=05&nav_category=167&nav_id=932802.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  8. ^ "Najnoviji demografski i drugi podaci o Vraki". 
  9. ^ Vojislav Stanovčić (2005). Položaj i identitet srpske manjine u jugoistočnoj i centralnoj Evropi: zbornik radova sa naučnog skupa održanog 26-29. novembra 2003. godine. Srpska Akad. Nauka i Umetnosti. Уосталом, српскоцрногорског живља и сада има у северној Албанији, код Скадра, у насељима: Бродица, Бардош, Грижа, Врака, Коплик, Пука, Вафа, Камени- ца, Омара, Велики Барич, Мали Барич, Грил, Раш, Стари Штој, Нови ... 
  10. ^ Kultura popullore. Akademia e Shkencave e RSH, Instituti i Kulturës Popullore. 1992. Nërrethinat e Shkodrës, sidomos në Vrakë, në rrethinat e Elbasanit e të Korçës, ka pasur fshatra me popullsi serbe. Serbë të shqiptarizuar ka pasur në Cermenikë, Bulqizë, në Mokër, në Malësi etj. Oaza mё e madhe serbe, sipas tij, është ... 
  11. ^ "Srbi-u-Albaniji-ponovo-uce-maternji-jezik". 
  12. ^ http://srbin.info/2013/08/20/u-srcu-albanije2-srbi-muslimani-pevaju-boze-pravde-i-sanjaju-majku-srbiju/.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  13. ^ http://www.rts.rs/page/rts/sr/Dijaspora/story/1526/Srbija+na+vezi/1563020/Srbi+u+Albaniji+%C5%BEele+%C4%8Dvr%C5%A1%C4%87u+vezu+sa+maticom.html.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  14. ^ Luka, David. "Regjistri turk i vitit 1485*" (in Albanian). http://www.kulturserver-hamburg.de. Retrieved 30 April 2011. Për katër shekuj me radhë (XI-XIV) me pak ndërprerje krahinat e Shqipërisë Veriore (përafërsisht ato që në të ardhmen do të bëjnë pjesë në sanxhakun e Shkodrës), qëndruan nën sundimin e feudalëve serbë të shtetit të Dioklesë dhe të Rashës. 
  15. ^ Fine 1991, p. 193
  16. ^ Koti 2006, para. 1, 2
  17. ^ Fine 1991, p. 206
  18. ^ Miladin Stevanović; Vuk Branković (srpski velmoža.) (2004). Vuk Branković. Knjiga-komerc. p. 38. Retrieved 20 April 2013. После битке код Велбужда млади краљ Душан, чији је углед знатно порастао, добио је од оца на управљање Зету са седиштем у Скадру. 
  19. ^ Milica Grković. "Lična imena u nekim naseljima Severne Albanije i slovensko-albanske veze u svetlu antroponimije" (in Serbian). Rastko.rs. Retrieved 2013-02-11. 
  20. ^ Anamali, Skënder and Prifti, Kristaq. Historia e popullit shqiptar në katër vëllime. Botimet Toena, 2002, ISBN 99927-1-622-3 pp. 231-232
  21. ^ Nadin, Lucia. Statuti di Scutari: della prima meta del secolo XIV con le addizioni fino al 1469 / Statutet e Shkodrës: në gjysmën e parë të shekullit XIV me shtesat deri më 1469. Tirana: Onufri, 2012.
  22. ^ Ćorović, Vladimir (1933). Istorija Jugoslavije (in Serbian). Beograd: Narodno Delo. Retrieved 27 April 2011. Год. 1499. припојена је била Црна Гора скадарском санџакату. Али, год. 1514. одвојио је султан поново и поставио јој за управника, као санџак-бега, потурченог Станишу, односно Скендер-бега Црнојевића. 
  23. ^ Ćorović, Vladimir (1933). Istorija Jugoslavije (in Serbian). Beograd: Narodno Delo. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 1528... Црна Гора је потом поново припојена скадарском санџакату и остала је са извесним ... правима његов саставни део... 
  24. ^ a b Varia turcica IV. Comité international d'etudes pré-Ottomanes et Ottomanes. VIth Symposium Cambridge, 1–4 July 1984, Istanbul-Paris-Leiden 1987, s. 105-114.
  25. ^ a b Milan Vasić (1984-07-04). "Etnički odnosi u jugoslovensko-albanskom graničnom području prema popisnom defteru sandžaka Skadar" (in Serbian). Rastko.rs. Retrieved 2013-02-11. 
  26. ^ Vasić, Milan (1991). "Etnički odnosi u jugoslovensko-albanskom graničnom području prema popisnom defteru sandžaka Skadar iz 1582/83. godine". Stanovništvo slovenskog porijekla u Albaniji : zbornik radova sa međunarodnog naučnog skupa održanog u Cetinju 21, 22. i 23. juna 1990 (in Serbo-Croatian). OCLC 29549273. 
  27. ^ Vasilije Krestić (2004). Great Serbia: truth, misconceptions, abuses : papers presented at the International Scientific Meeting held in the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts Belgrade, October 24-26, 2002. SANU. p. 163. ISBN 978-86-7025-377-3. 
  28. ^ a b c d Ljubomir Durković-Jakšić, Prilozi za istoriju Srpske pravoslavne crkve u Skadru i okolini 
  29. ^ André Radovitch; Radovan Boshković; Ivo Vukotić (1919). The Question of Scutari. Impr. "Graphique". p. 8. 
  30. ^ Vasilije Krestić (2004). Great Serbia: truth, misconceptions, abuses : papers presented at the International Scientific Meeting held in the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts Belgrade, October 24-26, 2002. SANU. p. 253. ISBN 978-86-7025-377-3. 
  31. ^ Great Britain. Admiralty (1920). A Handbook of Serbia, Montenegro, Albania and Adjacent Parts of Greece. H.M. Stationery Office. p. 403. 

    The following villages are in whole or part occupied by Orthodox Serbs — Brch, Borich, Basits, Vraka, Sterbets, Kadrum. Farming is the chief occupation.

  32. ^ Sir John Linton Myres; Harold St. John Loyd Winterbotham; F. Longland (1945). Albania. Naval Intelligence Division. p. 143. 

    In 1939 there were about 4,000 Serbs west of Ohrid, and a few Montenegrins near Scutari. On the left bank of the Rrjoll, between Prroni i thate and Kir valleys, Vrake and several other villages were inhabited by Serbian refugees and gave ...

  33. ^ a b Miranda Vickers; James Pettifer (1997). Albania: From Anarchy to a Balkan Identity. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. pp. 203–. ISBN 978-1-85065-279-3. 
  34. ^ [1][dead link]
  35. ^ a b c http://www.moraca-rozafa.org/onama/istorijat.html
  36. ^ "Srbi u Albaniji jedna od najugroženih manjina u svetu" (in Serbian). Arhiva.srbija.gov.rs. 1998-09-17. Retrieved 2013-02-11. 
  37. ^ Vladimir Ortakovski (1 January 2000). Minorities in the Balkans. Transnational Publishers. p. 114. ISBN 978-1-57105-129-5. 
  38. ^ Michael Anthony Sells (27 September 1996). The Bridge Betrayed: Religion and Genocide in Bosnia. University of California Press. pp. 55–. ISBN 978-0-520-92209-9. 
  39. ^ Robert Elsie (2005). Albanian Literature: A Short History. I.B.Tauris. pp. 132–. ISBN 978-1-84511-031-4. 
  40. ^ http://www.srpskadijaspora.info/vest.asp?id=9082.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  41. ^ Daily Report: East Europe 116–126. The Service. 1994. The report that the Albanian authorities have tried forcibly to resettle members of the Serb and Montenegrin minorities, residents of Vraka and Podgoricani, from the villages of Stari Boric and Mladi Boric, in which they have always lived, has caused great concern among the Yugoslav public. 
  42. ^ Daily Report: East Europe, 136-146. 1995. On that occasion the Albanian authorities attempted to forcibly requisition land from the members of the Serbian and Montenegrin minority from the village Stari Boric and Mladi Boric near Shkodra by demanding that they sign a statement ... 
  43. ^ Yugoslav Survey. Jugoslavija Publishing House. 1998. p. 38. 
  44. ^ IDSA News Review on USSR/Europe. Institute For Defence Studies and Analyses. January 1991. p. 293. 
  45. ^ Vladimir Ortakovski (1998). Malcinstvata na Balkanot. Štip. p. 191. Sixtу-five thousand of them were Serbs and Montenegrins (7.83%) [...] The Montenegrin and Serbian minority lived in Skadar (Sсutari) and the surrounding villages, in the Vraka region, and in Ljezh and Tirana. They could also be found in central Albania, in the villages of Fiera, Ljushe, Berat, and Uznova, as well as in Kavaja, Elbasan, and Korcha. 
  46. ^ https://lup.lub.lu.se/luur/download?func=downloadFile&recordOId=1555225&fileOId=1563588.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  47. ^ Ines Angjeli Murzaku (2009). Returning Home to Rome: The Basilian Monks of Grottaferrata in Albania. Analekta Kryptoferris. pp. 154–. ISBN 978-88-89345-04-7. 
  48. ^ Kultura popullore. Akademia e Shkencave e RSH, Instituti i Kulturës Popullore. 1992. p. 53. 

    Nërrethinat e Shkodrës, sidomos në Vrakë, në rrethinat e Elbasanit e të Korçës, ka pasur fshatra me popullsi serbe. Serbë të shqiptarizuar ka pasur në Cermenikë, Bulqizë, në Mokër, në Malësi etj.

  49. ^ http://www.filg.uj.edu.pl/~wwwip/postjugo/files/245/manjine-albanija.pdf
  50. ^ Hyacinthe Hecquard, Histoire et description de la HauteAlbanie ou Ghégarie, Paris 1859
  51. ^ Miloš Velimirović, Na Komovima, Bratstvo 5, Beograd 1892, 24
  52. ^ a b c A. Jovićević, Malesija
  53. ^ Jovan N. Tomić, O Arnautima u Staroj Srbiji i Sandžaku /About the Albanians in the Old Serbia and Sanjak/ (Belgrade: Geca Kon. 1913)
  54. ^ Andrija Luburić, Vojvoda Jovan Mrkšić Klimenta Karađorđev ded i plavski Turci, Beograd 1937. 17.
  55. ^ Milan Šufflay, Povijest sjev. Arb., Arhiv za arbanašku stranu II, 2, Beograd 1924, 197 (Croatian)
  56. ^ Elsie, Robert (2010) [2004]. Historical Dictionary Of Albania (2 ed.). Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group. p. 226. ISBN 9781282521926. OCLC 816372706 
  57. ^ Milan Šufflay (2000). Izabrani politički spisi. Matica hrvatska. p. 136. Retrieved 9 May 2013. Kastrati, kojima je embrio sjedio kod ruševina rimskog "Kastra" (tabora, Iminacium?) viđenih još g. 1559. na cesti Skadar - Oroši 
  58. ^ Konstantin Jireček (1923). Istorija Srba. Izdavačka knjižarnica G. Kona. p. 58. Retrieved 17 May 2013. По предању, родоначелник Куча био је Грча Ненадин, од чијих пет синова, Петра, Ђурђа, Тиха, Леша и Мара потичу њихова братства. Праотац Кастрата је Крсто, а Шаљана Шако; обојица су тобоже били браћа нареченог Грчина, док би Берише били потомци баш самога Грче. 
  59. ^ Mary Edith Durham (1928). Some clannish origins, laws and customs of the Balkans. George Allen & Unwin. p. 22. Retrieved 14 May 2013. The Kastrati were evidently a powerful clan, for in 1403 we find Alexius Kastrati headman in a list of Albanian chiefs who are rewarded by the Venetians with gifts of cloth. 
  60. ^ Marko Miljanov; Milorad Stojović (1963). Sjaj legende. Grafički zavod. p. 261. Retrieved 9 May 2013. Кастрати су од Крста 
  61. ^ Srpska akademija nauka i umetnosti (1983). Glas. p. 109. Retrieved 9 May 2013. Почетком XV века сусрећу се и клице данашњег племена Кастрати, чији је праотац био неки Крсто. Алекса Кастрати добио је 1403... 
  62. ^ a b Jovan Cvijić (1987). Sabrana dela: pt. 1. Govori i c̆lanci. Srpska akademija nauka i umetnosti. p. 130. Retrieved 9 May 2013. У најновије време сам сазнао од мог ученика Ј. Мајића да у арбанашком племену Кастрати, у селу Каменици, превлаћују православни Срби. 
  63. ^ George Walter Gawrych (2006). The Crescent and the Eagle: Ottoman Rule, Islam and the Albanians, 1874-1913. I.B.Tauris. p. 95. ISBN 1845112873. 
  64. ^ M. Edith Durham (30 June 2009). High Albania. ECHO LIB. p. 466. ISBN 978-1-4068-2855-9. Retrieved 13 May 2013. Kastrati. — Consisting also of about 500 houses, lies between the Licheni Hotit and the Skreli clan. 300 houses trace descent from one Delti or Dedli, who came with his seven sons from the hariak of Drekalovich of the Kuchi. This in turn traces origin from Berisha (see below). The other 200 houses trace from people already on the spot when Delti arrived. They are said to have been Slavs. All are now Albanophone and the majority Catholic, the rest Moslems. 
  65. ^ Carl Coleman Seltzer; Carleton Stevens Coon; Joseph Franklin Ewing (1950). The mountains of giants: a racial and cultural study of the north Albanian mountain Ghegs. The Museum. p. 45. Retrieved 14 May 2013. Two hundred out of the 500 houses of Kastrati are pre-invasion, and are said to be of Slavic origin. 
  66. ^ http://www.novosti.rs/vesti/naslovna/aktuelno.293.html:409526-Skadar-Zaboravili-i-junake-i-grobove
  67. ^ Sanja Lubardić. "Život Srba u Albaniji, Razgovor sa Pavlom Brajovićem, predsednikom Udruženja Srba u Albaniji" [Life of Serbs in Albania, Conversation with Pavle Brajović, President of the Association of Serbs in Albania]. Pravoslavlje, 996 (in Serbian). 
  68. ^ http://www.glas-javnosti.rs/aktuelne-vesti/2012-12-03/izlozba-dela-vasilija-popovica-cica

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