Montenegro–Russia relations

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Montenegro–Russia relations
Map indicating locations of Montenegro and Russia

Montenegro

Russia

Montenegro–Russia relations (Russian: Российско-черногорские отношения) are foreign relations between Montenegro and Russia. Montenegro has an embassy in Moscow and Russia has an embassy in Podgorica.

History[edit]

Before recognition of Montenegro at the Congress of Berlin[edit]

Former Russian embassy in Cetinje, used until the end of King Nikola's rule

In 1710, Metropolitan Danilo I Petrović-Njegoš, who led Montenegro into independence in 1697, went to Russia in order to gain recognition from the Czarist Empire. Moscow pledged aid[1] and declared the Russian Empire as a protector to Montenegrin independence.[2] During this time Russia was fighting against the Osmans in the Russo-Turkish War from 1710–1711.

Monarchy period (from 19th century until 1918)[edit]

Nicholas I of Montenegro, the last king of Montenegro, exchanged support with the Russian monarchy. In 1868 he undertook a journey to Russia, where he received an affectionate welcome from the tsar, Alexander II. Two of King Nicholas's daughters were married to Russian monarchs, Princess Milica and Princess Anastasija. Under Nicholas I, Montenegro was an ally of Russia in the Russo-Japanese war. Volunteers from Montenegro were fighting in the Russian Army.[3] In 1905 Japan recognized Montenegrin independence and declared an end to the war.[4] A peace treaty was signed.[5]

Economy[edit]

Russia plays a big role in the Montenegrin economy. In 2012, Monstat reported that Russian businessmen have majority shares 32% of foreign enterprises present in Montenegro.[6] German think tank Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik produced a statement in 2010 which stated that the economy of Montenegro is "firmly in Russian hands".[7]

Tourism[edit]

An S7 Airlines flight from Moscow landing at Tivat, Montenegro.

Montenegro and Russia share a visa-free regime on travelers between the two countries since 2008.[8] Montenegro is recognized as one of the most popular destinations among Russian tourists.[9][10] In the summer of 2011, Russians composed of over 20% of all the tourists that visited Montenegro.[11]

Controversies[edit]

Privatization[edit]

Up until the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro, the majority of business enterprises in Montenegro were state-owned. Following independence, mass privatization swallowed up many of Montenegro's former-state companies. Privatization in Montenegro has been recognized among Russian officials as a matter of controversy since 2005, when Vladimir Vaniev (at the time representing the Russian Consulate in Podgorica) said sarcastically in a press conference regarding the privatization of Montenegrin aluminum-producer KAP that "he didn't know that Montenegro was the 51st state of the United States."[12] Vaniev also accused the Montenegrin press of being funded "in dollars" by the United States in order to support a disproportionate privatization wave for the benefit of American interests.[13]

Property ownership[edit]

The dissolution of the Serbo-Montenegrin union also led to large swaths of property being sold to eccentric profiles under controversial exchanges. Russian press claimed in 2012 that Russian citizens own at least 40% of real-estate property in all of Montenegro.[14] In September 2012, Croatian news portal Globus called Montenegro a "Russian colony", accusing Milo Đukanović of manipulative strategies in post-independence privatizations for the benefits of non-Montenegrins.[15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]