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This range forms the northeastern border of the Mare Imbrium lunar mare. To the west of the range is the level and nearly featureless mare, while on the eastern face is a more rugged continental area with a higher albedo. The range begins about one crater diameter northwest of the crater Cassini, at the Promontorium Agassiz, then stretches about 50 kilometres to the northwest and continues in intermittent fashion to the eastern rim of the dark-floored crater Plato. In this last stretch can be found the system of rilles named Rimae Plato.
The northwestern third of the range is separated from the remainder of the mountains by the Vallis Alpes, a wide rift valley that extends from a narrow cleft in the Montes Alpes to the northeast, reaching the edge of the Mare Frigoris. The total length of this formation is about 180 km, and it reaches a maximum width of 20 km. Running down the center of this valley is a narrow cleft.
About one-third the length of the range from the southeast is Mons Blanc, a peak rising to a height of 3.6 km. This compares to a typical height of peaks in this range of 1.8 to 2.4 km. Mid-way between Mons Blanc and Promontorium Agassiz is Promontorium Deville. To the southwest of Promontorium Agassiz is the isolated Mons Piton, a peak rising to a height of 2.3 km.