Montfortian dialect

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Montforian
Mofers
(Mofertaans)
Pronunciation [ˈmoː˨fəʁs], [moː˨fəʁˈtaː˦ns]
Native to The Netherlands
Region Montfort, Maria-Hoop, Echterbosch, Aan de Berg, Reutje, Putbroek
Native speakers
3,000 (est.)  (date missing)[citation needed]
Latin alphabet (variant)
Official status
Official language in
no official status
Regulated by Stichting Mofers Waordebook
Language codes
ISO 639-3

Montfortian (locally Mofers [ˈmoː˨fəʁs] or Mofertaans [moː˨fəʁˈtaː˦ns]) is a Central Limburgish dialect spoken in the Dutch town of Montfort. It is closely related to the dialects spoken in Echt, Sint Joost, Hingen, Peij, Slek and Koningsbosch.

There are three main variants with only minor differences:

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Stop p b t d ɖ c, ɟ k ɡ ʔ
Approximant ð j
Affricate
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ ç, x ʝ, ɣ, χ h, ɦ
Trill r, ʁ, ɹ
Lateral approximant ɫ l ʎ

Montfortian also has a voiced labialized velar approximant (w)

Vowels[edit]

Monophthongs[edit]

Front Central Back
Close i iː y yː ʏ u uː
Near-close ɪ ɪː
Close-mid e eː ø øː o oː
Mid ə ɔ
Open-mid ɛ ɛː œ œː œ̃ː ɔː ɔ̃ː
Near-open æ æː æ̃ː
Open a aː ɑ ɑː ɑ̃ː
  • /ə/ only occurs in unstressed syllables.
  • /ɛ/ and /ɛː/ are often changed to /ɪ/ and /ɪː/.
Montfortian Vowels with Example Words
Symbol Example
IPA IPA orthography English translation
i ˈi˨zəʁ iezer 'iron'
ˈiː˦lə iele/iêle 'to become selfish'
y yl˦ uul 'owl'
flyːt˨ fluut/fluût 'whistle'
ʏ ˈʏ˧məʁ ummer 'always'
u uʁ˨ oer 'hour'
duː˨ doe/doê 'thou/you'
ɪ ɪn˦ in 'in'
ɪː ɪː˨ i/î 'in'
e elt˦ eelt 'callosity'
ˈneː˦stə neeste/neêste 'to sneeze'
ø øl˦ eul 'ale'
øː møːx˦ meug/meûg 'tired'
o ˈmo˦tə mótte 'to have to/must/should have to'
doːn˨ doon 'to do'
ə ˈdo˦mə dómme 'to become stupid'
ɔ ɔk˦ ok 'okay'
ɛ hɛɡ˦ hègk 'fence'
ɛː klɛːn˨ klèèn 'little'
œ dœk˦ dök 'often'
œː ˈœːʁ˨kə äörke 'little vein'
œ̃ː kœ̃ːʁ˨ coeur/cœur 'heart' (French loanword)
ɔː ɔːʁ˨ aor 'vein'
ɔ̃ː ʒɔ̃ː˦ Jean 'John' (French loanword)
æ æn(ð)˦ en 'and'
æː mæːʁ˦ maer 'lake'
æ̃ː wæ̃ː˦ waê 'yes' (French loanword?)
a va˨jəʁ vajer/vader 'father'
vaːn˦ vaan/vaân 'flag' (compare Dutch vaandel)
ɑ ɑl˧ al 'all/everything'
ɑː ɑː˨bəʁ abber/âbber 'but' (obsolete, compare German aber)
ɑ̃ː ˈmæ̃ːn˦ðənɑ̃ː˨ maintenant 'now' (French loanword)

Grammar[edit]

Like most Limburgish dialects, the grammar of Montfortian is very irregular and less simplified than the Dutch is.

Articles[edit]

There are two groups of articles: definite articles and indefinite articles. When referring to one particular person or item, the definite article is used (English the) In plural, like in English, there is no indefinite article and the indefinite forms consist of nouns unaccompanied by any article. Articles are conjugated by gender, bdht-vowel-rule, grammatical case and quantity. The form of the article could also be determined by whether a preposition is used.

The bdht-vowel-rule is a grammatical rule of Limburgish that influences the conjugation of the articles and adjectives. Words starting with b, d, h, t or a vowel put an extra 'n' to the article or adjective where possible. The high tree → d'n hoeagen boum but the fat man → de vètte miens. This extra 'n' is called naoklank (stress) in Limburgish.

The numeral ein (one) and negative indefinite article gein (no, not a, not any) are conjugated the same as 'n (a) So the nominative will be conjugated as einen, eine, ein, ein, ein, ei and geinen, geine, gein, gein, gein, gei. gein could also be gèn: gènnen, gènne, gèn, gèn, gèn, gèn, but then the neutral unstressed nominative will have a final 'n'.

Definite articles
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neutral Plural
Case ↓ Prep? ↓ stressed unstressed stressed unstressed stressed unstressed stressed unstressed
Nominative Yes  ?[2]  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?
No d'n de de, d'n de 't 't de de
Genitive Yes gès gès gèr gèr gès gès gèr gèr
No dès, diz-[3] dès dèr, dir- dèr dès, diz- dès dèr, dir- dèr
Locative Yes gèès gèès gèès gèès gèès gèès gèès gèès
No dèès dèès dèès dèès dèès dèès dèès dèès
Dative Yes gèm g'm g'r g'r gèm g'm ge ge
No dèm d'm d'r d'r dèm d'm de de
Accusative Yes g'n ge ge, g'n ge g'n ge ge ge
No d'n de de, d'n de d'n de de de
Indefinite articles
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neutral Plural
Case ↓ Prep? ↓ stressed unstressed stressed unstressed stressed unstressed stressed unstressed
Nominative Yes  ?[4]  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?
No 'nen 'ne 'n 'n 'n e  ?[5]  ?
Genitive Yes 'nes 'nes 'ner 'ner 'nes 'nes  ?  ?
No 'nes 'nes 'ner 'ner 'nes 'nes  ?  ?
Locative Yes nèès[6] nèès nèès nèès nèès nèès  ?  ?
No nèès nèès nèès nèès nèès nèès  ?  ?
Dative Yes 'nem 'nem 'ner 'ner 'nem 'nem  ?  ?
No 'nem 'nem 'ner 'ner 'nem 'nem  ?  ?
Accusative Yes 'nen 'n 'n 'n 'n e  ?  ?
No 'nen 'n 'n 'n 'n e  ?  ?

Umlaut[edit]

Verbs, nouns and adjectives use an umlaut. Standard umlauts are:

root umlaut example translation
a e bal bel ball
aa ae aaks aeks ax
ao äö aor äör vein
au/ou öj/ui oug öjg eye
ei èè ei èèjer egg
ó ö pót pöt pot
oo eu radio raedieu radio
oe uu oer uur hour
oea uue doeas duues box
ou/au öj/ui oug öjg eye

Nouns[edit]

Nouns are conjugated by quantity, size and grammatical case. There are several conjugations for those. Though most grammatical cases got out of use, nominative, locative and genitive still exist. Dative is still attested in De Vastelaoves Gezèt (±1900) but it already contained the accusative of which only a few fragments are found (±1830) Montfortian nouns have a so-called diminutive, uurke (from oer) means little hour. Nouns only possess a plural and not a dual (like the verb imperative and some personal pronouns) Plurals (and also diminutives) always use an umlaut where possible (see also Umlaut above) Also ablauts can occur, like blood → bloojer (blood → "bloods") blood is one of the few exceptions of nouns which don't use an umlaut. If blood was regular, the plural would be bleujer. Nouns are masculine, feminine or neutral.

There are over 20 different regular conjugations, but these are the six most used. Please note that only the nominative, genitive and locative are still in use today. Accusative and dative have been replaced by the nominative. Instead of the genitive also the preposition van could be used and the locative could be replaced by nao. The fifth conjugation uses tonality, singular is drag tone, plural is push tone. Also note the ablaut of the first conjugation at the dative singular and locative.

Nouns in the Montfortian Dialect
First Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative heim heimer blood bloojer tandj tenj las lester daag daag bal bel
Genitive heims heimer bloods bloojer tanjes tenj lasses lester daags daag(s) bals bel
Locative heives heiveser blodes blodeser tandjes tenjes lastes lesteser dages dages balles belleser
Dative heivem heimer blodem bloojer tandj tenj  ?  ? dagem dagem ballem  ?
Accusative heim heimern blood  ? tandj  ?  ?  ? dagen  ?  ?  ?
English home blood tooth burden day ball

The first conjugation group also contains "irregular" words like hoes → hoeze (house) and doef → doeve (dove)

Loanwords[edit]

Historically, Montfortian and most other Limburgish dialects have borrowed hundreds of words from French (during the First French Empire) These words nowadays have totally been adapted to the difficult noun (and verb) systems of Montfortian. Petiek (from French butique) means mess. It has totally been adapted to the system and now belongs to the first conjugation. It even has an ablaut at the locative, petiek (mess) → petieches (movement towards the mess)

Some modern day loanwords (especially those from English) might confuse people. Some people pronounce computer (singular) with drag tone and put it in the fifth group, while others use a push tone. Computer with push tone can therefor mean both one computer and more computers depending on the speaker. Overall speaking, English loanwords have a push tone and are put in the first or sixth conjugation group, depending on whether an umlaut is possible. Computer with a push tone in the singular will have the following diminutive: kómpjoêter → kómpjuueterke. Some speakers might even pronounce it as kepjoeater.

Diminutive[edit]

In general, diminutives are formed by adding -(s)ke to the root and using an umlaut where possible. tak → tekske, kaktös → kektöske, radio → raedieuke, radiator → raediaetörke, piano → piaeneuke. Words ending on j, t or d have -(j)e as suffix. blood → bleudje, plant → plentje, kantj → kentje. Plurals always take -s, tak → tekske → tekskes.

Sometimes only the diminutive has survived, while the root got out of use. The original form can then be reconstructed. For example, the word bruuedje (little bread) does not have a root anymore. The word used for bread is wèk (which also has its own diminutive wèkske) If you'll reverse bruuedje to its root you'll get *broead(j). Modern Montfortian does actually still have the word broead but its meaning has shifted from normal bread to bread specifically from rye made in Limburg (or Brabant)

Numerals[edit]

Montfortian uses a decimal numeral system, without octal traces like many other European languages. There are only a few vigesimal traces left.

Numerals
Modern Archaic Modern Archaic Modern Archaic
cardinal ordinal cardinal ordinal cardinal ordinal cardinal ordinal cardinal ordinal cardinal ordinal
nól nólste 0 geine geinste tieën tieëndje 10 teen teendje doezjendj doezjendjste 1000 doezjend doezjendste
ein ieëste 1 ein ieëste èlf èlfdje 11 èlf èlfdje hóngerdj hóngerdjste 100 hóngrèt hóngrètste
twieë twieëdje 2 twei tweidsdje twèlf twèlfdje 12 twèlf twèlfdje twintjig twintjigste 20 twintj twinsjdje
drie dèrdje 3 dree dördje dèrtieën dèrtieëndje 13 dörteen dörteendje dèrtig dèrtigste 30 halftweitwintj halftweitwinsjdje
veer veerdje 4 veer veerdje veertieën veertieëndje 14 veerteen veerteendje veertig[7] veertigste 40 tweitwintj tweitwinsjdje
vief viefdje 5 vief viefdje vieftieën vieftieëndje 15 viefteen viefteendje vieftig[8] vieftigste 50 halfdreetwintj halfdreetwinsjdje
zès zèsdje 6 zès zèsdje zèstieën zèstieëndje 16 zèsteen zèsteendje zèstig[9] zèstigste 60 dreetwintj dreetwinsjdje
zeve zevendje 7 zönnef zönnefdje zevetieën zevetieëndje 17 zönnef-èn-teen zönnef-èn-teendje zevetig[10] zevetigste 70 halfveertwintj halfveertwinsjdje
ach achste 8 ach achste achtieën achtieëndje 18 ach-èn-halftwintj ach-èn-halftwinsjdje achtig[11] achtigste 80 veertwintj veertwinsjdje
nege negendje 9 neuge neugendje negetieën negetieëndje 19 neuge-n-èn-halftwintj neuge-n-èn-halftwinsjdje neugetig[12] neugetigste 90 halfvieftwintj halfvieftwinsjdje

The cardinal numerals from 21 to 99 (apart from the tens) are constructed in a regular way, by adding -èn- (and) and the name of the appropriate multiple of ten to the name of the units position. (As in German, the last written digit is actually pronounced first):

  • 28 ach-èn-twintjig (literally "eight and twenty")
  • 83 drie-èn-achtig
  • 99 nege-n-èn-neugetig (-n is added for the sound)

100 is hóngerdj, 200 twieëhóngerdj, 300 driehóngerdj and so on.

Numerals between 101 and 999 are constructed as follows:

  • 112 hóngerdj-èn-twèlf
  • 698 zèshóngerdj-èn-ach-èn-neugetig ("six hundred and eight and ninety")

The same system used for naming the hundreds applies to the higher base numbers that are powers of ten. Limburgish dialects always use the long scale system, like Dutch.

  • 1 000 doezjendj
  • 1 000 000 miljoen
  • 1 000 000 000 miljardj
  • 1 000 000 000 000 biljoen
  • 1 000 000 000 000 000 biljardj

Unlike Dutch, the cardinal numerals of numbers greater than 1000 are not grouped in "multiples of 1000". This would be unnecessary because -èn- (and) is always added. 117 000 000 is written and pronounced as hóngerdjènzevetiëenmiljoen, without glottal stop. When hóngerdj-èn-zevetiëenmiljoen is written and pronounced, it means 100 + 17 000 00 which is 17 000 100, though normally 17 000 100 would be pronounced as zevetieënmiljoen-èn-hóngerdj.

1 2 348 117 401 067
2 tweeduizend driehonderdachtenveertig honderdzeventien miljoen vierhonderdeenduizend zevenenzestig
3 twieëdoezjendj-èn-driehóngerdj-èn-ach-èn-veertig hóngerdjènzevetiëenmiljoen-èn-veerhóngerdjèneindoezjendj-èn-zeve-n-èn-zèstig
1: Number, 2: Dutch, 3: Montfortian

Verbs[edit]

Many verbs are formed using compounds, like mit (with) + gaon (to go) = mitgaon (to join) Because most compounded verbs use irregular verbs in its compound, a large number of verbs is irregular. Because of the t-deletion it's very difficult to find a regular conjugation of the verbs. The following examples of the third person singular could all be seen as regular conjugations: hae kaltj (he talks, from kalle) hae sprèk (he speaks, from spraeke) hae wèt (he knows, from weite) hae löp (he walks, from loupe) hae veltj (he falls, from valle) hae mót (he has to/should have to, from mótte) and hae kaok (he cooks, from kaoke) Apart from this, many verbs are strong (vaje - veej - gevaje, to fold, bakke - beek - gebakke, to bake, weite - wus - geweite/gewus, to know and loupe - leep - geloupe, to walk) or totally irregular like höbbe (to have, hae haet) zeen (to be, hae is) zeen (to see, hae zuutj) gaon (to go, hae geitj) and so on.

Some conjugations might have another conjugation when the word order is changed. That's why both SV (subject - verb) and VS (verb - subject) are shown below. At least seven regular conjugations exist.

One of the strangest things of the verbs is the ènkelzief (inclusive) It is a compound of a root and -em (kalle → kallem) It is often been said that -em derives from dem (him) kallem means dare to talk and is used the same way as the imperative. Doe (thou) can be used then to put pressure on the person. For example:

  • Ópstankem èn kallem-doe!
    • (You!) Dare to stand up and dare to talk! (ópstankem → ópstaon)

First conjugation[edit]

This is the second largest group. All regular weak umlautless verb roots ending on j, l, n, r, t and w (without t-deletion)

kalle, to talk, to chat
First conjugation
Present SV Past SV Present VS Past VS Subjunctive SV[13] Subjunctive VS[14]
First person singular ich kal ich kaldje kal ich kaldje-n ich ich kalle kalle-n ich
Second person singular doe kals doe kaldjes kals se kaldjes se doe kalle kaller-doe
Third person singular dae kaltj dae kaldje kaltj'r kaldje d'r dae kalle kaller-dae
First person plural weer kalle weer kaldje kaltj v'r kaldje v'r weer kalle kalle v'r
Second person plural geer kaltj geer kaldje kaltj g'r kaldje g'r geer kalle kalletj g'r
Third person plural die kalle die kaldje kalle die kaldje die die kalle kaller-die
Other: Infinitive Gerund Present particle Past particle Adjective Adverb
Conjugation: (tö) kalle 't kalle n kallendj gekaldj gekaldj(e/e-n/er/es) gekaldj(elik)
Other: Noun Imperative singular impolite Imperative singular polite Imperative dual Imperative plural Ènkelzief
Conjugation: 't gekal n kal! kaltj! kal(le)tj! kaltj! kallem

Second conjugation[edit]

This is a small group. All regular strong umlaut-having verb roots ending on -aeV.

braeke, to break
Second conjugation
Present SV Past SV Present VS Past VS Subjunctive SV[15] Subjunctive VS[16]
First person singular ich braek ich braak[17] braek ich braak ich ich braeke braeke-n ich
Second person singular doe brèks doe braaks brèks se braaks se doe braeke braeker-doe
Third person singular dae brèk dae braak brèk t'r braak t'r dae braeke braeker-dae
First person plural weer braeke weer brake bröktj v'r brake v'r weer braeke braeke v'r
Second person plural geer brèk(tj) geer braak brèk(tj) g'r braak g'r geer braeke braeketj g'r
Third person plural die braeke die brake braeke die brake die die braeke braeker-die
Other: Infinitive Gerund Present particle Past particle Adjective Adverb
Conjugation: (tö) braeke 't braeke n braekendj gebraoke gebraoke(-n/r/s) gebraoke(lik)
Other: Noun Imperative singular impolite Imperative singular polite Imperative dual Imperative plural Ènkelzief
Conjugation: 't gebraek n braek! brèktj! braektj! brèktj! brèkkem

Third conjugation[edit]

This is a small group. All regular weak umlaut-having verb roots ending on -eiV.

zweite, to sweat
Third conjugation
Present SV Past SV Present VS Past VS Subjunctive SV[18] Subjunctive VS[19]
First person singular ich zweit ich zweitdje zweit ich zweitdje-n ich ich zweite zweite-n ich
Second person singular doe zwèts doe zweitdjes zwèts se zweitdjes se doe zweite zwètter-doe
Third person singular dae zwèt(j) dae zweitdje zwèt t'r, zwètj'r zweitdje d'r dae zweite zwètter-dae
First person plural weer zweite weer zweitdje zwètj v'r zweitdje v'r weer zweite zweite v'r
Second person plural geer zwèt(j) geer zweitdje zwèt(j) g'r zweitdje g'r geer zweite zwèttetj g'r
Third person plural die zweite die zweitdje zweite die zweitdje die die zweite zweiter-die
Other: Infinitive Gerund Present particle Past particle Adjective Adverb
Conjugation: (tö) zweite 't zweite n zweitendj gezweite gezwètj(e/e-n/er/es) gezwètj(elik)
Other: Noun Imperative singular impolite Imperative singular polite Imperative dual Imperative plural Ènkelzief
Conjugation: 't gezweit n zweit! zwètj! zweitj! zwètj! zweitem

Forth conjugation[edit]

This is the largest group. All regular weak umlautless verb roots ending on b, ch, d, f, g, k, p and s (with t-deletion)

kaoke, to cook
Forth conjugation
Present SV Past SV Present VS Past VS Subjunctive SV[20] Subjunctive VS[21]
First person singular ich kaok ich kaokdje kaok ich kaokdje-n ich ich kaoke kaoke-n ich
Second person singular doe kaoks doe kaokdjes kaoks se kaokdjes se doe kaoke kaoker-doe
Third person singular dae kaok dae kaokdje kaok t'r kaokdje d'r dae kaoke kaoker-dae
First person plural weer kaoke weer kaokdje kaoktj v'r kaokdje v'r weer kaoke kaoke v'r
Second person plural geer kaok(tj) geer kaokdje kaok(tj) g'r kaokdje g'r geer kaoke kaoketj g'r
Third person plural die kaoke die kaokdje kaoke die kaokdje die die kaoke kaoker-die
Other: Infinitive Gerund Present particle Past particle Adjective Adverb
Conjugation: (tö) kaoke 't kaoke n kaokendj gekaok(dj) gekaok(dje/dje-n/djer/djes) gekaok(djelik)
Other: Noun Imperative singular impolite Imperative singular polite Imperative dual Imperative plural Ènkelzief
Conjugation: 't gekaok n kaok! kaok(tj)! kaoketj! kaoktj! kaokem

Fifth conjugation[edit]

This is the third largest group. All regular weak umlaut-having verb roots ending on -ouV.

doupe,[22] to baptise
Fifth conjugation
Present SV Past SV Present VS Past VS Subjunctive SV[23] Subjunctive VS[24]
First person singular ich doup ich doupdje doup ich doupe-n ich ich doupe doupe-n ich
Second person singular doe döps[25] doe doupdjes döps se doupdjes se doe doupe douper-doe
Third person singular dae döp dae doupdje döp t'r doupdje d'r dae doupe douper-dae
First person plural weer doupe weer doupdje döptj v'r doupdje v'r weer doupe doupe v'r
Second person plural geer döp(tj) geer doupdje döp(tj) g'r doupdje g'r geer doupe doupetj g'r
Third person plural die doupe die doupdje doupe die doupdje die die doupe douper-die
Other: Infinitive Gerund Present particle Past particle Adjective Adverb
Conjugation: (tö) doupe 't doupe n doupendj gedoup gedoup(dje/dje-n/djer/djes) gedoup(djelik)
Other: Noun Imperative singular impolite Imperative singular polite Imperative dual Imperative plural Ènkelzief
Conjugation: 't gedoup n doup! doup(tj)! doupetj! douptj! doupem

Sixth conjugation[edit]

This is the fourth largest group. All regular weak umlaut-having verb roots ending on -aV. All regular weak umlaut-having verb roots ending on -aaV use -aeV instead of -eV.

bevalle,[26] to enjoy[27]
Forth conjugation
Present SV Past SV Present VS Past VS Subjunctive SV[28] Subjunctive VS[29]
First person singular ich beval ich bevaldje beval ich bevaldje-n ich ich bevalle bevalle-n ich
Second person singular doe bevels[30] doe bevaldjes bevels se bevaldjes se doe bevalle bevaller-doe
Third person singular dae beveltj dae bevaldje beveltj'r bevaldje d'r dae bevalle bevaller-dae
First person plural weer bevalle weer bevaldje beveltj v'r bevaldje v'r weer bevalle bevalle v'r
Second person plural geer bevaltj geer bevaldje bevaltj g'r bevaldje g'r geer bevalle bevalletj g'r
Third person plural die bevalle die bevaldje bevalle die bevaldje die die bevalle bevaller-die
Other: Infinitive Gerund Present particle Past particle Adjective Adverb
Conjugation: (tö) bevalle 't bevalle n bevallendj bevalle[31] bevalledj(e/e-n/er/es) bevallendj(elik)
Other: Noun Imperative singular impolite Imperative singular polite Imperative dual Imperative plural Ènkelzief
Conjugation: 't beval n beval! beval(tj)! bevelletj![32] bevaltj! bevallem

Seventh conjugation[edit]

The size of this group is unknown. It is often seen as a part of the first conjugation. All regular weak umlautless verb roots ending on -m.

keime, to comb (your hair)
Seventh conjugation
Present SV Past SV Present VS Past VS Subjunctive SV[33] Subjunctive VS[34]
First person singular ich keim ich keimdje[35] keim ich keimdje-n ich ich keime keime-n ich
Second person singular doe keims[36] doe keimdjes keims se keimdjes se doe keime keimer-doe
Third person singular dae keimp dae keimdje keimp t'r keimdje d'r dae keime keimer-dae
First person plural weer keime weer keimdje keimp v'r keimdje v'r weer keime keime v'r
Second person plural geer keimp geer keimdje keimp g'r keimdje g'r geer keime keimetj g'r
Third person plural die keime die keimdje keime die keimdje die die keime keimer-die
Other: Infinitive Gerund Present particle Past particle Adjective Adverb
Conjugation: (tö) keime 't keime n keimendj gekeimp gekeimp(dje/dje-n/djer/djes) gekeimp(djelik)
Other: Noun Imperative singular impolite Imperative singular polite Imperative dual Imperative plural Ènkelzief
Conjugation: 't gekeim n keim! keim(p)! keimetj![37] keimp! keimpem[38]

References[edit]

  1. ^ nl:Panninger Linie#Verloop
  2. ^ There are no prepositions in the nominative
  3. ^ In compounds, today → dizdaags
  4. ^ There are no prepositions in the nominative
  5. ^ Indefinite articles don't have plural
  6. ^ Archaic
  7. ^ Pronounced as feertig
  8. ^ Pronounced as fieftig
  9. ^ Pronounced as sèstig
  10. ^ Pronounced as sevetig
  11. ^ Some people might say tachtig
  12. ^ Some people might say negetig
  13. ^ Archaic
  14. ^ Archaic
  15. ^ Archaic
  16. ^ Archaic
  17. ^ braak could also be brook
  18. ^ Archaic
  19. ^ Archaic
  20. ^ Archaic
  21. ^ Archaic
  22. ^ Some people might use duipe.
  23. ^ Archaic
  24. ^ Archaic
  25. ^ doups and duips are also possible.
  26. ^ compund word from be- + valle (to fall)
  27. ^ the strong verb bevalle means to bear a child (bevalle - bevool - bevalle)
  28. ^ Archaic
  29. ^ Archaic
  30. ^ Some people might say bevèls.
  31. ^ for other verbs using this conjugation, the ge- prefix is still there, like for vallegevalle.
  32. ^ Irregullarity of the verb valle. The verb vakke (to order something in boxes) has vakketj!.
  33. ^ Archaic
  34. ^ Archaic
  35. ^ Could also be kèèm or keimpdje.
  36. ^ Some people might say kèms, kèmps or keimps.
  37. ^ In De Vastelaoves Gezèt 1905 kèèmetj is used, possibly an older form.
  38. ^ or keimem

Sources[edit]