The Montgomery Block in 1862
|Location||628 Montgomery Street, San Francisco|
The Montgomery Block was San Francisco's first fireproof and earthquake resistant building, which came to be known as a Bohemian centre from the late 19th to the middle of the 20th century. It was located at 628 Montgomery Street, on the south-east corner of its intersection with Washington Street, today the location of the Transamerica Pyramid.
The four-story building was erected in 1853 by Henry Wager Halleck, later general in chief of the Union Army in the Civil War, in the "Barbary Coast" red-light district. As locals endearingly refer to it, the Monkey Block was for a hundred years headquarters for many outstanding lawyers, financiers, writers, actors, and artists. Its tenants included artists and writers of all kind and it also hosted many illustrious visitors, among them Jack London, George Sterling, Lola Montez, Lotta Crabtree, Gelett Burgess, Maynard Dixon, Frank Norris, Ambrose Bierce, Bret Harte, the Booths and Mark Twain. The site of Montgomery Block is now registered as a California Historical Landmark.
Structure and safety
The four-stories Montgomery Block was the tallest building west of the Mississippi River when it was built in 1853. It was designed by architect G.P. Cummings. San Franciscans called it "Halleck's Folly" because it was built on a raft of redwood logs that had been bolted together in a deeply excavated basement on the edge of the bay (which was right at Montgomery St. at that time).
At a cost of US$3 million it was considered the engineering marvel of its time, the first major structure erected on the marshy sand bordering the east side of Montgomery Street at Washington Street. Rising from its deep basement, this block-square building boasted two inner courts, masonry walls more than two feet thick, salons, libraries and billiards parlors protected by heavy iron shutters at every window to prevent destruction from fire that ravaged so many American cities in the 19th century. The 'largest and safest' office building on the Coast originally attracted lawyers, engineers, judges, scientists, business and professional men.
The foundation, excavated by Chinese laborers, was built on top of a huge raft of layered redwood logs and a layer of 12 x12 ship's planking. Critics thought it would either sink in the tidal mudflat or be rafted away on a high tide. The building incorporated cement from England, glass from Belgium, France and Germany, iron fittings, beams, doors and balconies brought around the Horn from Philadelphia, and 1,747,800 bricks. It took 14 months to complete and was at first dubbed the "Washington Block."
In its earliest days, newly affluent "Silver Kings" of the Comstock Lode called the Montgomery Block home. Many of the earliest land disputes between Spanish and Mexican land grant holders and American squatters were resolved by lawyers and judges ensconced in the Montgomery Block. Numerous early California legislators and politicians worked out of the Montgomery Block.
James King of William (his father's first name), editor of the Daily Evening Bulletin, died in room 207 of the Montgomery Block on May 14, 1856 after being shot in the street out front by James P. Casey, a city supervisor who felt slighted by King's anti-corruption crusading journalism. Casey was lynched a few days after King's death by a reborn Vigilance committee.
In the 1860s Mark Twain met a San Francisco fireman named Tom Sawyer in the Montgomery Block sauna. It was home in 1911 to exiled Dr. Sun Yat-sen who, working with Wong Sam Ark, wrote the Chinese constitution that was later installed after the fall of the Qing Dynasty.
From the 1890s to the 1940s it was an important literary bohemian rendezvous possibly because the Montgomery Block provided office space for the San Francisco Argonaut, for which people like Bierce, Harte, Twain and others wrote. Artists filled its galleries and rented cheap studio space after the building became less exclusive in the latter part of the nineteenth century. In the basement, among the many hangouts, was one that went by the name of Coppa's.
One of the oldest masonry structures in San Francisco, the building escaped destruction in the 1906 earthquake and fire. A tenant named Oliver Perry Stidger, son of pioneers, stood his ground with a pistol and declared he would shoot any man in the demolition squad who came to blow up the building in order to halt the flames. He asked for thirty minutes and a small area of the downtown was saved from the fire.
Lawrence Ferlinghetti mentioned "the classic old Montgomery Block building, the most famous literary and artistic structure in the West" in his 1998 inaugural speech as Poet Laureate of San Francisco.
The Montgomery Block was demolished in 1959, even though a preservation movement had begun to emerge in San Francisco. It is remembered for its historic importance as a bohemian center of the city. The Montgomery Block was replaced by a parking lot and later, the Transamerica Pyramid.
- "Montgomery Block". Office of Historic Preservation, California State Parks. Retrieved 2012-10-14.
- Leah Caracappa: The Bohemians of San Francisco's 'Monkey Block' Poetrybay, Winter 2005 edition
- William Hjortsberg (1 April 2012). Jubilee Hitchhiker: The Life and Times of Richard Brautigan. Counterpoint LLC. ISBN 978-1-61902-045-0.
- Matthew Poole; Erika Lenkert (2 February 2010). Frommer's San Francisco 2010. John Wiley & Sons. p. 206. ISBN 978-0-470-59486-5.
- Jones, Idwal, Ark of Empire: San Francisco's Montgomery Block (New York: Ballantine Books, 1951 / Comstock ed, 1972, ISBN 978-0345028945)
- O'Brien, Robert, This Is San Francisco (New York: Whittlesey House, 1948; San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1994)
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