Altare della Patria

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Altare della Patria
Piazza Venezia - Il Vittoriano.jpg
The Altare della Patria.
Altare della Patria is located in Rome
Altare della Patria
Location within Rome
Alternative names Monumento Nazionale a Vittorio Emanuele II
Il Vittoriano
General information
Type Monument
Location Rome, Italy
Coordinates 41°53′41″N 12°28′59″E / 41.894599°N 12.483092°E / 41.894599; 12.483092Coordinates: 41°53′41″N 12°28′59″E / 41.894599°N 12.483092°E / 41.894599; 12.483092
Construction started 1885
Completed 1925
Inaugurated 1911
Height 70 m (230 ft)
Design and construction
Architect Giuseppe Sacconi

The Altare della Patria (Altar of the Fatherland) also known as the Monumento Nazionale a Vittorio Emanuele II (National Monument to Victor Emmanuel II) or "Il Vittoriano" is a controversial[citation needed] monument built in honour of Victor Emmanuel, the first king of a unified Italy, located in Rome, Italy. It occupies a site between the Piazza Venezia and the Capitoline Hill.

The eclectic structure was designed by Giuseppe Sacconi in 1885; sculpture for it was parceled out to established sculptors all over Italy, such as Leonardo Bistolfi and Angelo Zanelli.[1] It was inaugurated in 1911 and completed in 1925.[2]

To date, the Vittoriano is the largest monument in white marble Botticino (Brescia) ever created, and features stairways, Corinthian columns, fountains, an equestrian sculpture of Victor Emmanuel and two statues of the goddess Victoria riding on quadrigas. The structure is 135 m (443 ft) wide and 70 m (230 ft) high. If the quadrigae and winged victories are included, the height is to 81 m (266 ft).[2] It has a total area of 17,000 square meters.

The base of the structure houses the museum of Italian Unification.[2][3] In 2007, a panoramic elevator was added to the structure, allowing visitors to ride up to the roof for 360 degree views of Rome.[4]

Unknown soldier[edit]

Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, under the statue of Italy, with the eternal flame on the right

The monument holds the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier with an eternal flame, built under the statue of Italy after World War I following an idea of General Giulio Douhet. The body of the unknown soldier was chosen on 26 October 1921 from among 11 unknown remains by Maria Bergamas, a woman from Gradisca d'Isonzo whose only child was killed during World War I. Her son's body was never recovered. The selected unknown was transferred from Aquileia, where the ceremony with Bergamas had taken place to Rome and buried in a state funeral on 4 November 1921.

Military Colours[edit]

The flags of disbanded units of the Italian Armed Forces, as well as the flags of ships stricken from the naval register of the Italian Navy are stored at the Vittoriano in the so-called Shrine of the Flags (Sacrario delle Bandiere). The oldest flag on display is the flag of the 19th-century frigate Giuseppe Garibaldi.

Controversy[edit]

The Quadriga dell'Unità on the summit

The monument, the largest structure in Rome, was controversial since its construction destroyed a large area of the Capitoline Hill with a Medieval neighbourhood for its sake.[5] The monument itself is often regarded as conspicuous,[5] pompous and too large.[3][6][7]

It has been described as being "chopped with terrible brutality into the immensely complicated fabric of the hill."[8] The structure is not designed in a "Roman" style, but is a mingling of Greek and Teutonic styles, with inspiration drawn from the German architect Leo von Klenze.[5]

It is clearly visible to most of the city of Rome despite being boxy in general shape and lacking a dome or a tower.[2] The monument is also glaringly white, built from "corpse-white marble" imported from Botticino in Brescia making it highly conspicuous amidst the generally brownish buildings surrounding it,[5] and its stacked, crowded nature has lent it several nicknames. Foreign people sometimes refer to the structure by a variety of nicknames, such as torta nuziale ("the wedding cake"), whereas Romans commonly call it "the typewriter", although zuppa Inglese (" English soup", a type of dessert)[9] and pisciatoio nazionale ("national urinal") are also used.[5] Despite all this criticism, the monument still attracts a large number of visitors. Italian President Carlo Azeglio Ciampi fostered the opening of the Vittoriano as a public forum and viewpoint over the City core. This new accessibility allowed visitors to become familiar with the landmark, enabling it to grow in popular, if not critical, reputation.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sandra Berresford, Italian Memorial Sculpture, 1820-1940: A Legacy of Love56.
  2. ^ a b c d Vidotto, Vittorio. The Invention of Two Capital Cities. Archaeology and Public Spaces in Athens and Rome (PDF). European Association for Urban History. Archived from the original on 2007-02-21. Retrieved 2007-02-26. 
  3. ^ a b d'Aquino, Niccolò (February 2001). "Capitals: Rome". Europe (403): 36–38. 
  4. ^ Vittoriano, su con l'ascensore da oggi le terrazze con vista
  5. ^ a b c d e Hughes, R (2012). Rome: A Cultural, Visual, and Personal History. Random House. pp. 372-4. ISBN 0375711686. 
  6. ^ Atkinson, David; Cosgrove, Denis (March 1998). "Urban Rhetoric and Embodied Identities: City, Nation, and Empire at the Vittorio Emanuele II Monument in Rome, 1870-1945". Annals of the Association of American Geographers 88 (1): 28–49. doi:10.1111/1467-8306.00083. 
  7. ^ Peter Davey (October 1996). "Outrage". The Architectural Review 200 (1196): 25. 
  8. ^ Davey, P (1996). "Outrage - the Vittorio Emanuele II monument in Rome". The Architectural Review. October, 1996. 
  9. ^ Steves, Rick (2009-02-04). "Here's what's new in Italy for 2009". The Seattle Times (Tribune Media Services). Retrieved 2009-02-05. 

External links[edit]