|This article relies too much on references to primary sources. (May 2012)|
Screenshot of a Student's My home page from the Mount Orange demo site moodle.org/demo
|Original author(s)||Martin Dougiamas|
|Stable release||2.8.1 / November 10, 2014|
|Type||Course management system|
Moodle was originally developed by Martin Dougiamas to help educators create online courses with a focus on interaction and collaborative construction of content, and is in continual evolution. The first version of Moodle was released on 20 August 2002.
Moodle has several features considered typical of an electronic educational technology (e-learning) platform, in addition to some original innovations like its filtering system. Moodle can be used in many types of environments such as in education, training and development, and business settings.
Some typical features of Moodle are:
- Assignment submission
- Discussion forum
- Files download
- Moodle instant messages
- Online calendar
- Online news and announcement (College and course level)
- Online quiz
Developers can extend Moodle's modular construction by creating plugins for specific new functionality. Moodle's infrastructure supports many types of plug-ins:
- activities (including word and math games)
- resource types
- question types (multiple choice, true and false, fill in the blank, etc.)
- data field types (for the database activity)
- graphical themes
- authentication methods (can require username and password accessibility)
- enrollment methods
- content filters
Many freely available third-party Moodle plugins make use of this infrastructure.
Moodle users can use PHP to write and contribute new modules. Moodle's development has been assisted by the work of open source programmers. This has contributed towards its rapid development and rapid bug fixes.
The SCORM standards define e-learning systems and make them interoperable. Moodle is SCORM 1.2 compliant, and passes all the tests in the ADL Conformance test suite 1.2.7 for SCORM 1.2. SCORM 2004 is not supported in Moodle, yet Rustici Software have a Moodle plugin which can turn any Moodle site into a fully compliant SCORM 2004 LMS. AICC objects are supported in Moodle 2.1 and later versions. Tin Can API activities can be launched from a Moodle course via a plugin 
Users can download and install Moodle on a Web server, such as Apache HTTP Server, and a number of database management systems, such as PostgreSQL, are supported. Pre-built combinations of Moodle with a Web server and database are available for Microsoft Windows and Macintosh. Other automated installation approaches exist, such as installing a Debian package, deploying a ready-to-use TurnKey Moodle appliance, using the Bitnami installer, or using a "one-click install" service such as Installatron.
Some free Moodle hosting providers allow educators to create Moodle-based online classes without installation or server knowledge. Certified Moodle Partners provide other Moodle services, including hosting, training, customisation and content development. This network of providers support development of the Moodle project through royalties. 
Data goes in a single database. Moodle version 1.6 could use MySQL or PostgreSQL. Version 1.7, released November 2006, makes full use of database abstraction so that installers can choose one from many types of database servers such as Oracle and Microsoft SQL Server.
Electronic e-learning systems can have many dimensions of interoperability. Moodle's interoperability features include:
- authentication, using LDAP, Shibboleth, or various other standard methods (e.g. IMAP)
- enrollment, using IMS Enterprise among other standard methods, or by direct interaction with an external database
- quizzes and quiz questions, allowing import/export in a number of formats: GIFT (moodle's own format), IMS QTI, XML and XHTML (NB although export works very well, import is currently not complete). Moodle provides various types of questions: calculated, description, essay, matching, embedded answers, multiple choice, short answer, numerical, random short answer matching, true/false.
- resources, using IMS Content Packaging, SCORM, AICC (CBT), LAMS
- integration with other Content Management Systems such as Drupal, Joomla or Postnuke (via third-party extensions)
- syndication, using RSS or Atom newsfeeds; external newsfeeds can be displayed in a course, and forums, blogs, and other features can be made available to others as newsfeeds.
Moodle also has import features for use with other specific systems, such as importing quizzes or entire courses from Blackboard or WebCT. However, these import tools are not perfect. As of February 2010[update], Moodle will not import Blackboard courses, apparently due to changes in php code-releases. Some available utilities help convert Blackboard courses to a Moodle-friendly format.
In March 2012 Blackboard acquired two companies based on Moodle's software including Baltimore-based Moodlerooms Inc. and NetSpot of Adelaide, Australia.. The Red Hat site, Opensource.com, reports that Moodle will always be an open source project, with clear delineation between Blackboard and Moodle
Martin Dougiamas, who has graduate degrees in computer science and education, wrote the first version of Moodle. Dougiamas started a Ph.D. to examine "the use of open source software to support a social constructionist epistemology of teaching and learning within Internet-based communities of reflective inquiry." Although how exactly social constructionism makes Moodle different from other eLearning platforms is difficult to show, it has been cited as an important factor by Moodle adopters. Other Moodle adopters, such as the Open University in the UK, have pointed out that Learning Management Systems can equally be seen as "relatively pedagogy-neutral".
The stated philosophy of Moodle includes a constructivist and social constructionist approach to education, emphasizing that learners (and not just teachers) can contribute to the educational experience. Using these pedagogical principles, Moodle provides a flexible environment for learning communities.
Origin of name
The acronym moodle stands for modular object-oriented dynamic learning environment. (In the early years the "m" stood for "Martin's", named after Martin Dougiamas, the original developer). As well as being an acronym, the name was chosen because of the dictionary definition of Moodle and to correspond to an available domain name.
"Moodle" is a trademark in many countries around the world registered to Martin Dougiamas. Only certified Moodle Partners may legally use the trademark to advertise any Moodle-related services such as hosting, customization, training and so on.
By 31 August 2011:
- Moodle had a user-base of 55,110 registered sites with 44,966,541 users in 4,763,446 courses in 214 countries and in more than 75 languages.
- The site with the most users, moodle.org, has 66 courses and 1,090,234 users. Following a £5 million investment in 2005, The Open University, UK is the second-largest Moodle deployment by user-base, with 714,310 users and 6,093 courses. A comprehensive list of the top ten Moodle sites (by courses and by users) is maintained at moodle.org.
By 31 August 2014:
- Moodle had a user-base of 88,070 registered sites with 76,675,352 users in 8,324,096 courses in 241 countries. 
Moodle has continued to evolve since 1999 (since 2001 with the current architecture). Major improvements in accessibility and display flexibility were developed in 1.5. The current version can be seen at the top of the table of releases, below. It has been translated into 82 different languages and is accessible in many countries worldwide.
Not having to pay license fees or to limit growth, an institution can add as many Moodle servers as needed. The Open University of the UK currently uses a Moodle installation for their 200,000 users.
It is often known for individual departments of institutions to use the unlimited feature, such as the maths department of the University of York.
The development of Moodle continues as a free software project supported by a team of programmers and an international user community, drawing upon contributions posted to the online Moodle Community website that encourages debate and invites criticism.
There are many vendors that host Moodle such as Remote-Learner and MoodleRooms—which was recently purchased by Blackboard. Because Moodle is an open source software, Moodle can be customized to fit academic needs for students, instructors and the Moodle administrators. Remote-Learner provides their flavor of Moodle called ELIS and MoodleRooms has their own flavor called joule.
|Support Model||Release notes|
|Old version, no longer supported: 1.0||20 August 2002||1.0.9||30 May 2003||EOL|
|Old version, no longer supported: 1.1||29 August 2003||1.1.1||11 September 2003||EOL|
|Old version, no longer supported: 1.2||20 March 2004||1.2.1||25 March 2004||EOL|
|Old version, no longer supported: 1.3||25 May 2004||1.3.5||9 September 2004||EOL|
|Old version, no longer supported: 1.4||31 August 2004||1.4.5||7 May 2005||EOL|
|Old version, no longer supported: 1.5||5 June 2005||1.5.4||21 May 2006||EOL||URL|
|Old version, no longer supported: 1.6||20 May 2006||1.6.9||28 January 2009||EOL||URL|
|Old version, no longer supported: 1.7||7 November 2006||1.7.7||28 January 2009||EOL||URL|
|Old version, no longer supported: 1.8||30 March 2007||1.8.14||3 December 2010||EOL||URL|
|Old version, no longer supported: 1.9||3 March 2008||1.9.19||9 July 2012||EOL (Maintained from March 2008 to June 2012. Third-party extended support until December 2013)||URL|
|Old version, no longer supported: 2.0||24 November 2010||2.0.10||9 July 2012||EOL (Maintained from November 2010 to June 2012)||URL|
|Old version, no longer supported: 2.1||1 June 2011||2.1.10||14 January 2013||EOL (Maintained from June 2011 to December 2012)||URL|
|Old version, no longer supported: 2.2||5 December 2011||2.2.11||8 July 2013||EOL (Maintained from December 2011 to June 2013)||URL|
|Old version, no longer supported: 2.3||25 June 2012||2.3.10||11 November 2013||EOL (Maintained from June 2012 to December 2013)||URL|
|Old version, no longer supported: 2.4||3 December 2012||2.4.7||11 November 2013||EOL (Maintained from December 2012 to June 2014)||URL|
|Old version, no longer supported: 2.5||14 May 2013||2.5.9||10 November 2014||EOL (Maintained from May 2013 to November 2014)||URL|
|Older version, yet still supported: 2.6||18 November 2013||2.6.6||10 November 2014||Active (Maintained from December 2013 to May 2015)||URL|
|Older version, yet still supported: 2.7||12 May 2014||2.7.3||10 November 2014||Active (Maintained from May 2014 to May 2017)||URL|
|Current stable version: 2.8||10 November 2014||2.8.0||10 November 2014||Active (Maintained from November 2014 to June 2016)||URL|
Since 2006 there has been an official certification available for teachers using Moodle. Initially called the Moodle Teacher Certificate (MTC), this was renamed in 2008 to the Moodle Course Creator Certificate (MCCC). MCCC is available only through Moodle Partners, and through Central Certification Services. Discussion is ongoing regarding an official Moodle Administrators Certificate.
MoodleMoot is the name given to the meetings held by the Moodle community. Such conferences take place regularly all over the world and are normally hosted by a university or other institution. They are typically supported by a Moodle Partner and some are preceded by a technical Unconference.
Moodle Conference Center has announcements of Annual Meetings and open MoodleMoots.
- Educational technology
- Student Information System
- Learning management system
- List of applications with iCalendar support
- Online learning community
- List of free and open-source software packages
- "Releases". Moodle. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- "Moodle License".
- "E-learning". http://www.cpce-polyu.edu.hk/itu/new/: Information Technology Unit (itu). Retrieved 2011-03-01. "Moodle is a well-known e-learning platform in tertiary institutions. Many universities and colleges use Moodle as the online learning system in their daily teaching and learning. Moodle is a free open source software it means developer can make modification based on their needs. CPCE decides to use Moodle as a e-learning platform for HKCC and SPEED from 2009/10 academic year onwards."
- "E-Learning Features". http://www.cpce-polyu.edu.hk/itu/new/: Information Technology Unit (itu). Retrieved 2011-03-01. "Moodle serves as an online e-learning platform to facilitate the communications between teachers and students. Some typical features provided by Moodle are listed below."
- "Modules and Plugins". Moodle.org.
- "About Moodle". Moodle.org Documentation.
- "SCORM Cloud Moodle Integration". scorm.com.
- "Launch externally Tin Can API activities from Moodle and track on any LRS.". Andrew Downes on Moodle.org Forums.
- "Moodle Downloads". Moodle.
- "Moodle Appliance". TurnKey Linux Virtual Appliance Library.
- "List of Moodle Partners". Moodle.
- "How do the Moodle Partners work?". Moodle.
- "Blackboard migration". moodle.org.
- "Blackboard makes Moodle acquisitions". bizjournals.com.
- "Moodle will always be an open source project". opensource.com.
- Weller, M. (2006). "VLE 2.0 and future directions in learning environments". Proceedings of the first LAMS Conference, Sydney.
- McMulli & Munroe (2004). "VMoodle at DCU".
- Sclater, Neil (2008). "A Large-scale Open Source eLearning Systems at the Open University". Educase.
- Moodle Philosophy
- "Open-Source Learning Management System". Moodlerooms.
- "Moodle definition". All Words.
- "The chicken or the egg". Moodle.org Lounge.
- Current Moodle Statistics
- Moodle Statistics
- Current Moodle Statistics
- Case study in Linux Pro magazine
- Marsden, Dan (2 April 2012). "Moodle 1.9 Long Term support". Moodle. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- MoodleMoot at moodle.org
- The Conference Center at moodle.org
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